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What is IT Coordinators?

Process Guideline for IT Coordinators

Cat: ICT
Pub: 2006

IT Coordinators Association


What is IT Coordinators?


Process Guideline for IT Coordinators ITCのプロセスガイドライン
Kanzo Kobayashi



Nov. 2006

  1. Introduction:
  2. Process & Project Management
    1. Five Processes of Proect Management (IPECC)
    2. IST-CQH-CRP Management:
  3. Major techniques related to the five processes:
  4. Communication:
    1. Essence of Communication activities
    2. Activity Phase of IT coordinators:
    3. Behavioral science:
    4. Johari Window:
    5. Principles of Leadership:
    6. Communication tool:
    7. 5 stages of Maslow's Law:
  5. Monitoring and control, & GLOSSARY:
  1. 序文:
  2. プロセス&プロジェクトマネジメント:
    1. IPECC:
    2. IST-CQH-CRP
  3. 5つのプロセスにおける主な技法:
  4. コミュニケーション:
    1. コミュニケーション活動:
    2. ITC の活動フェーズ:
    3. 行動科学:
    4. ジョハリの窓:
    5. リーダーシップの原則:
    6. コミュニケーションツール:
    7. マズローの5段階:
  5. モニタリング&コントロール、用語集:
  • This is an essence of guideline compiled for IT Coordinators as a basic concept to learn.
  • The IT Coordinators Qualification System was established in 2001, getting recommendation of Industrial Structural Council for METI. It is aimed to promote IT-based management style for corporations in Japan.
  • The essence of this guideline covers the knowledge architecture necessary for bridging IT and management know-how from the viewpoint of autonomous and neutral consultancy to support IT management of corporations.
  • As of Sept. 2006, there are almost qualified 7,000 IT Coordinators in Japan; 75% are in-house ITCs, and 25% are independent ITCs.
  • これはITコーディネータが、基本概念として学ぶべきガイドラインのまとめである。
  • ITコーディネータ制度は、2001年に経済産業省の産業構造審議会の答申を得て、企業にとってITを活用した経営の在り方を推進するために設けられた。
  • このガイドラインの本質は、ITと経営の橋渡しのために必要な知識体系をまとめて理解し、自律的かつ中立性なコンサルタントを通じて、企業のIT経営を支援することにある。
  • 2006年9月現在で、全国でITCは約7,000名であり、内、75%は企業内ITC、残り25%は独立系のITCである。

>Top 0. Preface:

  • Most of the important concepts of these topics came from US. It is more suitable to understancd these concepts in English rather than in Japanese which might not be correct in traslation.
  • It would be helpful to make English version of total explanation of the Process Guideline for ITC, because we can partiialy find corresponding original expression.

0. 序:

  • このトピックの重要な概念はほとんど米国から来ている。これらの概念は、必ずしも正確でない日本語訳ではなく英語で理解するのが望ましい。
  • ITCのプロセスガイドラインの全体が早く英語表記されることが正確な理解のためには役に立つはずである。部分的には相当する原本の表記を見つけることができるからである。

>Top 1. Process & Project Management:

  • What is 'Process'?:
    A series of actions or functions bringing about a certain object or result.
  • What is 'Project'?:
    • A planned undertaking or action requiring a certain product or service, usually have a start and an end.
    • A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. (Wiki)
    • A temporary activity characterized by having a start date, specific objectives and constraints, established responsibilities, a budget, a schedule, and a completion date. (DIR)
  • Process & Project Management:
    To leverage the most suitable knowledge, technique, tool or methodology to fulfil the requirement or expectation of the principal or other stakeholders of the concerned project.
  • Quintessence:
    To take optimal balance between the followings:
    • scope, schedule, cost and quality
    • preferred requirement and different expectations among stakeholders.
    • explicit requirement and implicit expectation.
  • PMBOK=A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: first published in 1996, and the latest PMBOK Ver.3 published in 2004.
    • PMBOK is unique to project management such as critical path and WBS (Work Breakdown Structure).
    • PMBOK configures the standard knowledge system beyond the industrial project management, aiming to establish common concept of project management & process.
    • PMBOK is basically not a performance basis to perform project management.
    • Base of ISO-10006
  • PMBOK recognized 5 basic process groups (IPECC) and 9 knowledge areas typical of almost all projects:
    1. Initiating
    2. Planning
    3. Executing
    4. Controlling
    5. Closing
  • Processes overlap and interact throughout a project or phase:
    1. Inputs (documents, plans, designs)
    2. Tools & Techniques (mechanisms)
    3. Outputs (document, products)
  • 9 knowledge areas: (ISTCQHCRP)
    1. Project Integration Management
    2. Project Scope Management
    3. Project Time Management
    4. Project Cost Management
    5. Project Quality Management
    6. Project Human Resource Management
    7. Project Communications Management
    8. Project Risk Management
    9. Project Procurement Management
  • Each knowledge area contains some or all the project management processes: (PSSSCC)
    1. Procurement Planning
    2. Solicitation Planning
    3. Solicitation
    4. Source Selection
    5. Contract Administration
    6. Contract Closeout
  • PMI (Project Management Institute) developed PMBOK, and offers two levels of certification.
    • CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management): is designed for project team members and entry level of project managers.
    • PMP (Project Management Professional): must satisfy continuing certification requirements. There are over 50,000 PMPs in 175 countries (as of 2006)

1. プロセス&プロジェクトマネジメント:

  • プロセスの定義:
  • プロジェクトの定義:
    • 独自の成果物またはサービスを創出するための有期活動
    • 開始日、特定の目的および制約、確立した責任、予算、予定、完了日を持つ一時的な行動
  • プロセス&プロジェクトマネジメント:
  • 真髄:
    • 作業範囲、スケジュール、コストおよび品質間
    • ステークホルダー間の優先要求事項と異なる期待
    • 明示的な要求事項と暗黙の期待値
  • PMBOK: A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: 1996年3月出版。2004年にはPMBOK第三版出版
    • PMBOKは、クリティカルパスやWBS (最適なマネジメントレベルまで分解) などからなるプロジェクトマネジメント手法である。
    • PMBOKは、プロジェクトマネジメントの業界を超えた標準知識体系を定めて、プロジェクトマネジメントプロセスの共通概念、用語を設定する。
    • PMBOKは元来プロジェクトマネジメント業務を行う上の業務遂行基準ではない。
    • ISO-10006のベースである。
  • PMBOKが規定するプロジェクトマネジメントの5つのプロセスと9つの知識分野:
    1. 立ち上げ
    2. 計画
    3. 実行
    4. コントロール
    5. 完了
  • プロセスはプロジェクトフェーズを通じて重複し関わり合う。
    1. 入力:文書・計画・設計
    2. ツール・技術:
    3. 出力 (成果物):文書、製品
  • プロジェクトを実行するための9つのマネジメント計画:
    1. 統合マネジメント
    2. 範囲マネジメント
    3. 進捗マネジメント
    4. コストマネジメント
    5. 品質マネジメント
    6. 人材マネジメント
    7. コミュニケーションマネジメント
    8. リスクマネジメント
    9. 調達マネジメント
  • プロジェクト調達マネジメントは以下のプロセスを含む。
    1. 調達計画
    2. 引合計画
    3. 引合
    4. 発注先決定
    5. 契約管理
    6. 契約の完了
  • PMI はPMBOKを制定
    • CAPM: プロジェクトメンバおよび初級管理者用
    • PMP: PMP資格。175ヶ国に5万人以上
  • >Top Five Processes of Proect Management (IPECC):

Initial Process To acknowlege start; and to commit excecution of each phase. 立ち上げのプロセス 各フェーズの開始の認識、その活動を遂行することのコミットメント
Planning Process To consider and maintain frame to satisfy organizational needs of each phase. 計画のプロセス 各フェーズ毎に組織のニーズを満たすフレームを考慮維持する
Excecution Process To coorddinate human & manegement resources to excecute the plan. 実行のプロセス 計画実行のための人材や経営資源を組み合わせる。
  1) promotion of process excecution, 2) description of scope of works, 3) maintainance of quality standard, 4) development of team skills
Control Process To monitor the progress of each phase, and amend if necessary. コントロールのプロセス 各フェーズの進捗成果を測定し、修正を行う
  1) control of total change, 2) control of scope change, 3) control of schedule change, 4) control of quality, 5) control of output, 6) control of risk control & monitoring 7) provision of timely information for stakeholders.
Completion Process To make accept and proceed completion of each phase. 完了のプロセス 各フェーズの受入・完了手続きを行う
  • >Top IST-CQH-CRP Management:

Corporate Strategy IT Strategy IT Reources Procurement IT Introduction IT Service Utilization
経営戦略 IT戦略策定 IT資源導入 IT導入 ITサービス活用
Project Integration Management 統合    
Project Scope Management 範囲    
Project Time Managment 進捗 各フェーズをタイムリーに完了するプロセス
    活動の定義 主要な活動を定義する。
    活動の一貫性 個々の活動の関連性を定義し、文書化する。
    活動期間の見積 個々の活動を完結するのに必要な作業時間を見積もる。
    スケジュール開発 活動間のつながり、活動期間、必要な資源を分析し、スケジュールを決定する。
    スケジュール変更管理 スケジュールの変更をコントロールする。
Project Cost Management コスト 各フェースを予算に見合うように実施するプロセス
    リソース計画 プロジェクト活動に必要な資源 (人設備材料)を明確にする。
    コスト見積 必要な資源のコストを見極める。
    コスト予算策定 見積もった全体コストを個々の予算に配分する。
    コスト変更管理 プロジェクト予算の変更をコントロールする。
Project Quality Managment 品質    
Project Human Resource Management 人材    
Project CommunicationManagement コミュニケーション
  • プロジェクトに関する情報をタイムリーかつ適切に作成、収集、提供、蓄積、廃棄するプロセス
  • 6 principles: 1) Relation process, 2) Timeliness, 3) Clarification of needs、4) Fact, 5) Preciseness, 6) Use of lates communication tools.
    コミュニケーション計画 ステイクホルダーの情報ニーズを明らかにする。誰がいつ、何の情報をどのように提供するか明らかにする。
    情報提供 タイミング良くステイクホルダーに必要な情報を提供する
    成果報告 活動成果に関する情報報告、特に、状況報告、進捗度測定、スケジュール予測の情報を収集し提供する。
    完了管理 各フェーズの完了を公式に確認するための情報を収集配布する。
Project Risk Manaegment リスク    
Project Procurement Management 調達    
  • >Top
  • Project Management by ITC requires to control and pursue priority and QCT (Quality, Cost, Time) to fulfill different needs of stakeholders as follows:
  • Integration Management:
    1. Make and document consistent plan of the project, referring other major projects.
    2. Perform each activity of the project.
    3. Control and document various changes and adjustments.
  • Scope Management:
    1. Decide and declare start of the project.
    2. Delineate the direction and document scope of the project.
    3. Classify into manageable components of output of the project.
    4. Document the agreed scope of the project.
    5. Control changes of scope of the project.
  • Time Management:
    1. Define the project activity to perform the result or output.
    2. Define and document relevance of each activity.
    3. Estimate start and period for each activity.
    4. Make total time schedule, considering relevance, resource, and period.
    5. Record the changes by reschedule.
  • Cost Management:
    1. Plan how much resources needed (human, facility, equipment, material)
    2. Estimate budget of each resource.
    3. Decide and distribute the budget to each activity level.
    4. Control the changes by cost variation.
  • Quality Management:
    1. Define the target of quality is needed.
    2. Estimate the total project to fulfill the target quality.
    3. QC (Quality Control) of output of the project, and make clear causes of the improper output.
  • Human Resources Management:
    1. Plan and document the function, responsibility, and reporting rule and route, then allocate human resources.
    2. Secure necessary human resources.
    3. Train human resources for upskilling.
  • Communication Management:
    1. Clarify who, when and how to inform each stakeholder.
    2. Furnish the information timely to each stakeholder.
    3. Collect and provide necessary information of the project regarding status-quo, progress report, etc.
    4. Report officially about completion of the project.
  • Risk Management:
    1. Plan the method of risk management.
    2. Clarify and document of possible risk which may affect or threaten the project.
    3. Risk assessment: analyze each risk in order.
    4. Estimate probability and impact by each risk.
    5. Plan to avoid or mitigate the risk.
    6. Monitor & control of the risk.
  • Procurement Management:
    1. Plan the scope and policy of procurement.
    2. Make RFP.
    3. Get quotations from vendors.
    4. Analyze the quotations and decide the vendor.
    5. Contract Management: make and control the contract.
    6. Acceptance Inspection: insect and check the performance and settle the payment.
  • ITCによるプロジェクト管理は、ステイクホルダー毎に異なる優先順位やQCTを評価しながら実行する。
  • 統合マネジメント:
    1. 他の主要プロジェクトを参照しながら、一貫性のあるプロジェクト計画を立案し文書化する。
    2. プロジェクトを実施遂行する。
    3. 様々な変更の統制・超世知を図り記録する。
  • 範囲マネジメント:
    1. プロジェクトの開始を決めて宣言する。
    2. プロジェクトの方向性を定め、範囲を記録する。
    3. プロジェクトの成果物を管理しやすいように詳細分類する。
    4. 合意したプロジェクトの範囲を記録する。
    5. プロジェクトの範囲の変更を管理する。
  • 進捗マネジメント:
    1. プロジェクトの活動を定義し、成果物を生成する。
    2. 各活動の関連性を定義し文書化する。
    3. 各活動の開始と期間を見積もる。
    4. 関連性、資源、期間を勘案し全体スケジュールを策定する。
    5. スケジュール変更管理
  • コストマネジメント:
    1. 各活動に必要な資源(人・設備・機材・資材) を計画する。
    2. 各資源の予算を見積もる。
    3. 各活動の予算を策定し配分する。
    4. コスト変更管理:実行予算を管理する。
  • 品質マネジメント:
    1. どの品質基準が適切か決める。
    2. 各目標の品質基準を満たすためにプロジェクト全体を評価する。
    3. プロジェクトの成果物のモニターし、基準未達成の場合の原因究明を行う。、
  • 人材マネジメント:
    1. 役割、責任権限、報告のルールとルートを計画し文書化する。また人材の配置を決める。
    2. 必要な人材を確保する。
    3. 人材のスキル向上のための訓練を実施する。
  • コミュニケーションマネジメント:
    1. ステイクホルダー毎に誰がいつどのように報告するのか明示する。
    2. 各ステイクホルダーにタイムリーに必要な情報を収集して提供する。
    3. プロジェクトの完了を正式に報告する。
  • リスクマネジメント:
    1. リスク管理を方法を計画する。
    2. プロジェクトに影響・脅威を与え得るリスクを明確にし文書化する。
    3. リスクアセスメント:リスクを分析し影響度を順序づける。
    4. リスク発生の可能性と影響度を産出する。
    5. リスク対応計画:リスクを回避あるいは低減化を図る。
    6. リスクのモニタ&コントロール
  • 調達マネジメント:
    1. 調達の範囲と方針を策定する。
    2. 提案依頼書を策定する。
    3. ベンダーからの引き合いを要請する。
    4. 引き合いを比較しベンダーを決定する。
    5. 契約管理:契約を作成し管理する。
    6. 検収:達成状況を検査し、支払を実施する。

>Top 2. Major techniques related to the five processes (5つのプロセスにおける主な技法):

Process Process of related knowledge Tools & Techniques Output 関連知識のプロセス
Start Decision tree Project charter 開始

Plan of scope
Definition of scope

  SOW description 範囲の計画
Definition of activity WBS WBS list 活動の定義

A series of activities
Estimate of activity period
Development of schedule

Gantt chart
Logic network with time base

Schedule list 活動の一連性
Risk management plan FTA Risk management plan リスク管理計画
Resource plan
Cost estimate
Cost budget

Resource, Column diagram
Control baseline


Resource plan
Budget plan
Plan of project development Kick-off meeting Project plan プロジェクト開発計画
Quality plan ISO9000 Quality plan 品質計画
Organization plan
Procurement of members
Organization theory
Organization plan 組織計画
Communication plan EVMS Communication plan コミュニケーション計画
Clarification of risks & assessment
Calculation of risks
Measure to risks

PERT, Simulation analysis
Monte Carlo simulation
Decision tree
Flowchart analysis
Risk plan リスクの明確化と評価
Procurement plan Standard format Procurement plan 調達計画
Executing Project performance plan Kick-off meeting Project plan プロジェクト実行計画
Definition of scope WBS SOW description 範囲の確定
Warranty of quality ISO9000 Quality plan 品質保証
Team development Team training Organization plan チーム開発
Provision of information DDT Communication plan 情報提供
Controling Control of total changes   Change control description 全体の変更計画
Control of scope changes   SOW control list 範囲の変更管理
Control of schedule change ANOVA, Trend analysis, EVMS Schedule list スケジュール変更管理
Control of cost change Future prospects Budget plan コスト変更管理
Quality control QC 7 tools Quality plan 品質管理
Output report Follow-up meeting, ITIL Progress control report 成果報告
Monitoring & control of risks PERT, Simulation analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, Decision tree, Flow chart analysis Risk plan,
Risk control report
Closing Completion report Review meeting Completion report, Output, Lessons 完了報告
  • PDM = Precedence diagram method
    • FS: finish-to-start, SF: start-to-finish
    • SS: start-to-start, FF: Finish-to-finish
  • (or AON = Active On Node)
  • CPM = Corporate Performance Management
  • ADM = Arrow Diagram Method
  • PERT= Program Evaluation & Review Technique
  • GERT= Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique
  • FTA= Fault Tree Analysis
  • RAM= Responsibility Assignment Matrix
  • RACI chart = Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform
  • EVMS = Earned Value Management System
  • DDT = Dialogue Decision Process
  • ANOVA = Analysis of Variance
  • ITIL = Information Technology Infrastrucutre Library
  • QC 7 tools:
    • 1) Pareto chart,
    • 2) Fishbone diagram
    • 3) Histogram,
    • 4) Graph,
    • 5) Check sheet,
    • 6) Scattered diagram,
    • 7) Stratification
  • QC New 7 tools:
    • 1) Affinity diagram (KJ method),
    • 2) Association diagram,
    • 3) Tree diagram,
    • 4) Process Decision Program Chart,
    • 5) Matrix diagram,
    • 6) Matrix data analysis method,
    • 7) Arrow diagram

>Top 3. Communication:

  • Definition:
    • "Communication": The exchange of thought, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. (AHD)
    • Communication is a process of negociation.
    • As a framework:
      PRAM= Planning, Relation, Agreement, Maintenance.
    • As an interaction: DDP = Dialogue Decision Process
    • Subject is always an individual. Thus 'communication skills' are needed.
  • Meta-frame "PRAM":
    1. Total Planning:
      • Clarification of object or target
      • Preunderstanding of the other party's object or target
      • Confirmation of non-understanding items
      • Planning how to attain the disagreement
      • Acceleration of understanding how to adjust mutual disagreemnt
      • Solution process how to attain agreement
    2. Relation Planning:
      • Planning how to keep relationship according to closeness.
      • Formation of trust
      • Development of personal relationship
    3. Agreement:
      • Confirmation of the other party's object or target
      • Preunderstanding of the other party's non-understanding.
    4. Maintenance of relation:
      • Review and feedback
      • Maintenance of relation

3. コミュニケーション:

  • 定義:
    • コミュニケーションとは、交渉・折衝のプロセス
    • フレームワークとしてのPRAM (Planning, Relation, Agreement, Maintenance)
    • 相互作用としてのDDP (Dialogue Decision Process)
    • コミュニケーションの主体は個人プロセス。従って、コミュニケーション・スキルが必要となる。
  • メタフレーム「PRAM」
    1. 全体のプラニング:
      • 目的目標の明確化
      • 相手の目的目標の予期予測
      • 事前理解内容・未理解内容の予測検討
      • 事前合意領域・不一致領域の予測検討
      • 未理解内容の理解促進策の検討
      • 不一致領域を調和させる解決策の検討
    2. リレーションの計画と形成:
      • 親密度の段階に応じたリレーション計画
      • 信頼感の形成計画
      • 個人的関係の発展計画
    3. アグリーメント:
      • 相手の目的目標の確認
      • 事前理解・未理解内容の確認
      • 事前合意・不一致領域の確認
      • 未理解内容促進計画の立案と合意
      • 不一致領域の調整するための対話プロセスの立案と合意
      • その他の相違点の共同解決プロセス立案と合意
    4. 関係の維持:
      • 見直しとフィードバック
      • 関係維持

>Top Essence of communication activities:

Importnat consideration
Relation process
  • To establish human relationship, coommnunication has follwoing four basic processes:
    1. Planning of communcation
    2. Formation of relation
    3. Development of consensus-builidng
    4. Maintenance of relation
  • Building of human relation
  • Dialogue and discussion
  • Clear expression
  • Active listening
  • Observation
  • Mental model
  • 人間関係の構築
  • 対話と討論
  • 明確な表現
  • 積極的な傾聴
  • 観察
  • メンタル・モデル
Timeliness & approprateness
  • Information should be timely conveyed and surely confirmed.
  • Size of organization
  • System of organization
  • Structure of organization
  • Climate and style of organization
  • Maturity of Organaization management
  • Function of stakeholders of the project
  • Role & function of members of the project
  • Communication technique among the memebers
  • 組織の規模
  • 組織のシステム
  • 組織構造
  • 組織風土とスタイル
  • 組織管理の性重度
  • ステイクホルダの機能
  • プロジェクトメンバの役割機能
  • メンバ間のコミュニケーション技術
Clarificaton of needs
  • Clarification of communincation needs of stakeholders of the project
  • Clarification of communcation & expectation of stakeholers of each phase
  • Clarification of requirement of managing stakeholders
  • 各フェーズのステイクホルダー管理要件の明確化
Respect of facts
  • Information shared among the members shodl be based on objective facts.
  • Scale, system and structure, climate and style, and maturity level of organization
  • 情報
  • Elimination of ambiguity
  • Feedback of understanding of contents of information received.
  • Means & format of information
  • Analytical method & feedback of theinformation
  • Clarification of problem-solving
  • Consideration of official or unofficial type of communcations
Optimized communication technique
  • Use of optimized toool to communication most effectively
  • Description, verbal, audit, speech
  • Communication among ITCs
  • Communication with outside
  • Official report, official meeting
  • Unofficial memo, Adhoc conversation
  • Vertical communication
  • Horizontal communication


  • >Top Activity Phase of IT coordinators:

  • Phased of Project Management Output
    Corporate Strategy Corporate Strategy Planning Report
    Process Improvement Plan
    IT Strategy IT Strategy Planning Report
    IT Strategy Execution Report
    IT Resources procurement REI (Request for Expression of Interest), RFP
    IT Introduction Plan

    IT Introduction

    Monitoring of Q/C/T of the project
    IT Service utilization:

    Monitoring of operation

  • >Top Behavioral science:

Researcher Research Contents
Frederic W. Taylor, 1900s Scientific management The best way to increase output was to improve the methods used by workers. The main focus of a leader should be on the needs of the organization, not the needs of the individual worker.
Elton Mayo, 1930s Hawthorne studies, plant of Western Electric Efficiency experts had long tried to find the ideal mix of physical condition, working hours, and working methods that would stimulate workers to produce at maximum capacity.
Abraham Maslow, 1954 Theory of motivation He proposed a theory of motivation according to which workers' behavior is determined by a wide variety of needs. Motivation starts when an individual experiences a need; the individual then formulates a goal, which, upon achievement, will satisfy the needs. He identified these needs and arranged them in a hierarchy, positing that lower-level needs must be satisfied, before an individual begins to strive to satisfy needs at a higher level.
Douglas McGegor, Maslow's student, 1960 Theory X and Theory Y Theory X assumes that most people prefer to be directed; are not interested in assuming responsibility; and are motivated by money, fringe benefits, and the threat of punishment.
Theory Y assumes that people are not, by nature, lazy and unreliable; it suggest that people can be basically self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated.
Frederick Herzberg, 1959 Worker satisfaction & dissatisfactor sources He examined sources of worker satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He cited achievement, responsibility, advancement, and growth as job satisfiers - factors that motivate workers. He also proposed that other aspects of the job environment called job maintenance factors - company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary and benefits - contribute to the desired level of worker satisfaction, although these factors rarely motivate workers.
Chris Argyris, 1964 Immaturity-Maturity Theory He said that keeping workers immature is built into the very nature of formal organizations. These concepts of formal organizations lead to assumptions about human nature that are incompatible with the proper development of maturity in the human personality and the structure of formal organizations. He saw a definite incongruity between the needs of a mature personality and the structure of formal organizations.

>Top Johari Window:

  •   Known to self Not knwn to self
    Known to others ・Open
    Not known to others ・Hidden
    named after the first named of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham: It is an useful models describing the process of human interaction.
  • A four paned window divides personal awareness into four different types: open , hidden, blind, and unknown.
  • "Open windows": I know about myself, and you know about me. When I first meet a new person, the size of the opening window is not very large, since there has been little time to exchange information.
  • "Blind windows": You know about me, but I am unaware of. You may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. You may not say anything, since you may not want to embarrass me, etc. How can I learn more about myself? I may notice a slight hesitation on your part, and perhaps this may lead to a question.
  • "Hidden window": I know about myself, and you do not know. As we get to know about trust each other, I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. (Self-disclosure)
  • "Unknown window": Neither I know about myself, nor you know about me. For example, I may disclose a dream that I had, and we we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to either of us before the conversation took place. Being place in new situations often reveal new information not previously known to self or others.

>Top Principles of Leadership:

  1. Be technically proficient:
    As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your members' tasks.
  2. Take responsibility for your actions:
    Search for ways to guide your organization to hew heights. And when things go wrong, do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge.
  3. Make sound and timely decisions:
    Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
  4. Set the example:
    Be a good role model for you members. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see.
  5. Know your people and look out for their well-being:
    Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for you members.
  6. Keep your members informed:
    Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
  7. Develop a sense of responsibility in your members:
    Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their profession responsibilities.
  8. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished:
    Communication is the key to this responsibility.
  9. Train as a team:
    Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section a team; they are not really teams. They are just a group of people doing their jobs.
  10. Use the full capabilities of your organization:
    By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section to its fullest capabilities.

>Top Leadeship Framework:

  1. Be a professional; be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility.
  2. Be a professional who possess good character traits; honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination.
  3. Know the four factors of leadership - follower, leader, communication, situation.
  4. Know yourself; strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills.
  5. Know human nature; human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress.
  6. Know your job; be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks.
  7. Know your organization; where to go for help, it climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are.
  8. Do provide direction; goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning.
  9. Do implement; communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluation.
  10. Do motivate; develop moral and esprit in the organization, train, coach, counsel.

>Top Communication tools:

1. Analysis of project stakeholders: clarificaiton of information needs and those sources required by the stakeholders. 1. プロジェクト・ステイクホルダーの分析
2. Communication skills: various communication skills such as description, orality, audition, speechi, internal & external communication, official & unofficial communication, meeting, memorandum, report, etc. 2. コミュニケーション・スキル
3. Information sharing system: file sharing system, database, project management software, etc. 3. 情報共有システム
4. Information distribution system: hardcopy, shared database, fax, email, voice mail, video conference, etc. 4. 情報配信システム
5. Output review: interim report, progress meeting, 5. 成果レビュー
6. Variance analysis: analysis of variance of cost, schedule, scope, resource, quality, and risk. 6. 差異分析
7. Trend analysis: evaluation of the project after a certain period wheather it is getting better or worse. 7. 傾向分析
8. Earned value analysis: analysis of scope, cost, schedule of the project compared with the original budget. 8. EV分析
9. Information distribution tool and technique: reporting tools such as hardcopy, database, fax, email voice mail, video conference, etc. 9. 情報分散ツールと技術
10. Project report: various project reports 10. プロジェクト報告書
11. Project presentation presentation for reporting the project. 11. プロジェクト・プレゼンテーション

>Top Stages of Maslow's law: (マズローの欲求5段階)

Self-realization needs 自己実現の欲求 何事か成し遂げたい、自分自身を活かしたい、創造力
Esteem needs 自尊の欲求 他人から認められ賞賛され尊敬されたい、自信
Love & Belonging needs 親和の欲求 集団としての親密な関係
Safety needs 安定の欲求 身体的な危険、経済的不安、精神的安定
Physiological needs 生理的欲求 呼吸・飲食・睡眠・性欲・ホメオスタシス
  • For mutual understanding: 相互理解のコミュニケーション・ポイント:
Mutual understanding
Being assertive to clarify assertion or judgement, showing calm attitude. 言うことや判断をはっきりさせ、冷静な態度を示す。
Being logical to be systematic, not inconsistent, and clear-cut, conveying logical message to the other. 体系的で矛盾なく、論旨が明快でわかりやすく、論理的に相手に内容を伝える。
Win-win approach not one-sided win or lose, pursuing mutual satisfaction 一方が勝ち、他方が負ける形を避け、最終的にお互いが満足するように導く。
Interactive communication to understand the other'sopinion, and proceed discussion confirming it. 相手の考えを理解し、確認しながら、議論を進める。

>Top 4. Monitoring and control:

  • Monitor > Monition = A formal order from a bishop or an ecclesiastical court to reframe from a specified offense.

4. モニタリング&コントロール:

  • Monition: 特定の異教行為を正すための司教あるいは宗教裁判所からの召喚


Term Definition 定義
ATP Approval to Proceed; management approval that a project may go on to the next phase. 次のステップへの進行の承認
Audit Review of project to assess compliance with requirements, specifications, standards, procedures, instructions, contract requirements, etc.


Change control Process by which a change is proposed, evaluated, approved or rejected, scheduled. 提案、評価、承認・否認、予定によって行われる変更プロセス
CM Configuration management 構成管理
Commitment Commitments ar freely assumed, explicitly defined, and visible コミットメントは自由に決められ、明示的、かつ明白に定義される。
IV&V Independent Verification & Validation: performed by an organization that is technically, managerially and financially independent of the development organization 開発組織とは、技術的、管理的、財政的に独立した組織によって行われる認証・検証
Issue Any are of concern that presents an obstacle to achieving project objectives プロジェクトの目的を達成する上での障害となり得るいかなる問題・課題
Milestone Scheduled event used to measure progress in a project プロジェクトにおける進捗を測るための予定したイベント
Process Assets Database Organization collection of defined policies, processes, procedure, and templates. This may include structured collections of lessons. ポリシー、プロセス、手順、テンプレートの組織的収集。また教訓についての構造的な収集を含むこともある。
Project Management System of procedures, practices, technologies, and know-how that provides the planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling necessary to successfully manage a project. プロジェクトの監督に必要とする計画、組織、人員、指揮、管理するための手続、実施、技術、ノウハウのシステム
Risk The possibility of an act or event occurring that would have an adverse effect on an organization or an information system. Risk involves both the probability of failure and the possible consequences of a failure. 組織や情報システムに悪影響を与える行為や事象の可能性。リスクは失敗の確率および失敗の結果の可能性の両方を含む。
Risk Mitigation Actions taken to reduce the likelihood of a risk occurring as a problem, or to reduce the impact if it does occur. 問題発生となるリスクの可能性を減らし、またはもしそれが発生した場合の影響を減らす行動
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) A process by which an organization determines that software it produces and/or acquires satisfies the organization's technical and administrative performance requirements, relatively free from discrepancies, and meeting user needs. SQA must be part of an organization's culture to ensure all of its products and services are of the highest quality.


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The complete list of activities that need to be done for a project, used for estimation and scheduling the work. プロジェクトの見積や予定を決めるために実施しなければならない行動の全リスト
  • PGL (Process Guideline) is the essence of IT Coordinators.
  • But it is only the base of approach: proper application must be learned through lots of practice and edurance.
  • プロセスガイドライン (PGL)はITコーディネータの要諦である。
  • しかし、それは単なる基礎に過ぎない。適切な応用は多くの実践と忍耐を通して学ばねばならない。

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