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daikokuyakodayu

Daikokuya Kodayu (Дайкокуя Кодаю)

A Japanese castaway in 11 years in Russia (1782-92)

Cat: HIS
Pub: 2004
#: 1618b

Tsuneo Yamashita (山下恒夫)

16924u/18120r

Title

Daikokuya Kodayu

大黒屋光太夫

Index
  1. Introduction
  2. Daikokuya Kodayu: The crew list of Shinsho-maru:
  3. Shipwreck and adrift:
  4. Amchitoka Island:
  5. From Kamchask to Siberia:
  6. Nortalgic days in Irkutsk:
  7. St. Petersburg, Capital:
  8. Russian Black Ship and Ezo: The crew list of Ecaterina
  9. Negotiation of Russia and Japan under seclusion:
  10. Ise two castaways living in Edo:
  11. The envoy Rezanov came to Nagasaki:
  12. Postscript:
  1. 序文:
  2. 大黒屋光太夫: 神昌丸乗組員
  3. 遭難、そして漂流:
  4. アムチトカ島:
  5. カムチャッカからシベリアへ:
  6. イルクーツクでの望郷の日々:
  7. 帝都サンクトペテルブルグ:
  8. ロシアの黒船と蝦夷地:
  9. 鎖国下の日露交渉:
  10. 江戸暮らしとなった伊勢二漂民:
  11. 使節レザーノフの長崎来航:
  12. あとがき:
Epoch
; 白子出帆; 漂流開始; アトムチカ島到着; アトムチカ島出帆; ニジネカムチャツク着; オホーツク着; イルクーツク着; キリーリと知遇; ペテルブルグ着; エカテリーナ2世の謁見; 帰国許可; キリールとの別れ; 根室着;ペテルブルグ出発(復路); イルクーツク到着(復路); イルクーツク出発(復路); キリールとの永別; エカテリーナ号出帆; 根室半島近くへ到着; 日露交渉; 漂流民江戸に行く; 将軍家斉上覧; 北槎聞略出版;
Why
  • Role of Daikokuya Kodayu, and various contingency and strokes of luck as well as human networks he cultivated have paved the way for the relation between Russia and Japan since end of 18C.
  • 大黒屋光太夫の役割、様々な偶然性、幸運な出来事、彼が開拓した人間関係は、18世紀末からの日露関係の道を拓いた。
Chinese
Pīnyīn
>Top

0. Introduction:

  • In the latter of 18C, there was an unique Japanese, named Daikokuya Kodayu; who suffered castaway in the isolated Edo period, after a checkered life, came back Japan spending 11 years in Russia.
  • He became the first Japanese who made direct appeal to Ekaterina II to return home.
  • The first Russia-Japan diplomatic negotiation regarding return of the Japanese castaways.

0. 序文:

  • 18C後半、鎖国の江戸時代漂流民の大黒屋光太夫の数奇な人生。11年のロシア滞在の後、帰国を果たす。
  • 帰国をエカテリーナ2世に直訴した最初の日本人となった。
  • 漂流民引渡を廻る最初の日露交渉の立役者

>Top 1. Daikokuya Kodayu (1751-1828):

  • 1760-1786: the age of Tokugawa Ieharu (10th Shogunate)
    • 1767-1786: Tanuma period governed by Tanuma Okitsugu, councilor; adopting mercantilism from physiocracy.
    • Increase of foreign trade at Nagasaki, mass currency issue by debasement, causing inflation as well as economic boom in Edo. (Tanumanomics?)
    • Rise of wealthy merchants in Edo, countervailing merchants in Osaka-Kyoto
    • Rise of townsmen culture in Edo; kyoka and senryu (humorous poems), novelette about life, colored woodblock print, as well as medical, physical studies by Dutch language.
    • While, economic poverty was expanded in rural area, causing frequent peasants revolt.
    • Decadent life and venal politics prevailed in those days.
  • 1781 onward : Russians who usually wear reddish coat were called 'Aka-Ezo' (Reddish Hokkaido):
    • Moric Aladar Venyovszky: a Hungarian soldier, was exiled to Kamchatka Peninsula, revolted in 1771 and seized Russian warship to escape.
    • They aimed to go to Macao, one the way arriving to Shikoku and Amami-Ohshima to get water and firewood.
    • Kodayu said to his wife his departure for Edo, spending alone the new year in Edo, asking the new years greetings to the clients, etc.
    • Normal navigation days were usually three days from Shirako to Edo, but it would take about a week in the case of worst weather.
    • In addition it would take more time to collect the return cargo from Edo to Shirako, such goods as salted and dried sardines from Chiba, and soya beans and wheat for soybean paste (miso) and soy source (shoyu).
  • His hometown: Shirako-port in Ise Bay:
    • Consignors were mostly merchants in Matsuzaka; who had two factions; 1) cotton wholesaler (Oodenmacho group) and drapers of kimono fabric (Shirako group).
    • Kodayu belonged to Oodenmacho group; the main consignors of this voyage was wealthy merchant Hasegawa in Matsuzaka, handling official rice of Kishu Domain.
  • 1782.12.9 around 07:00:
    • Kodayu left his home at Minami-wakamatu village, aiming Shirako port of Kishu Domain located about 4 km south.
    • The loading works were almost finished; now the ship of Sinsho-maru was ready to sail for Edo.
    • Estimated return would be by the end of January, or early February of the next year.
  • Personality of Kodayu:
    • Kodayu was a son-in-law; his late father was a cousin of his biological father, and his wife was heir of the house, but had no children.
    • Kodayu was then 32, and about 173 cm, taller than the average of the age.
    • In 1764, when Kodayu was 14 years old, he began to work at a trader shop of cotton cloth owned by his mother's relatives in Edo.
  • Return his hometown:
    • In 1778, when Kodayu became 28 years old, he returned his home town, becoming heir of Kameya Shirobei, changing his name the same Kameya Shirobei.
    • Soon afterwards, Kodayu was appointed an accountant of the ship. He was a man of ability, and within two years he was appointed as the captain of the clan when he became 30 years old, changing his name as Daikokuya Kodayu.

1. 大黒屋光太夫 (1751- 1828):

  • 1760-1786: 明和・安永〜天明6年; 徳川家治、老中田沼意次:
    重農主義から重商主義へ
  • купец: merchang; <купить,
  • унести: take away, carry away
  • корабль: ship, vessel
  • проведение: carriage, passage
  • плавание: swim, navigation, voyage <плавать: swim, sail
  • достигать: obtain, attain
  • суша: land, earth
  • район: region, area
  • высадиться: hit the beach <садиць: ta a seat, all aboard
  • Камчатск: Kamchatsk
  • Охотск: Okhotsk
  • сначала: at first
  • 神昌丸;千石船(大型廻船)
  • 白子港;紀州藩領
  • 南若松村;故郷
  • 紀州藩蔵米250石
  • 1782. 12.9 07:00.天明2年;
  • 順調なら白子〜江戸3日
  • 帰郷は来年1〜2月
  • 上り荷の集荷
    • 房州産干鰯
    • 関東産大豆・麦
  • 光太夫は婿養子、妻は跡取り娘、子はなし
  • 当時の光太夫32歳 173cm、やや肥満だが俊敏、船頭としての貫禄あり、もの柔らかな物腰
  • 故郷妻(妾)あり 6km
  • 光太夫の母・妙伯、母の実家は藤堂藩領玉垣村の清五郎家で酒造業
  • 生家は同じ村の亀屋四郎治家
  • 光太夫の幼名は"兵蔵"
  • 光太夫は末っ子。上の姉は国、次姉いの、兄は次兵衛、
  • 先代は父方の従弟
  • 次姉いのの嫁ぎ先、小平治は沖船頭で大黒屋彦太夫(義兄)
  • 兄の次兵衛の奉公先は、米問屋白子屋清右衛門の江戸出店。
  • 1764 光太夫の江戸での奉公先は、母方の木綿商の出店
  • 回船の賄職(会計担当); 光太夫は亀屋四郎兵衛に。30歳で船頭
>Top Crew list: Age as of 1782; mostly selected by Sangoro, expert sailor. 神昌丸の乗組員
# Name Name (Japanese) Age Function Fate

1

Daikokuya Kodayu 大黒屋光太夫 32; married 沖船頭 (Captain)

■learned Krill character
■could return Japan

2 Sangoro 三五郎 65; married 親仁 (Chief sailor) 1783.8.9 died by scurvy at Amchitka
3 Jirobei 次郎兵衛; 勢州桑名 ?; 楫取 (Chief navigator) 1783.8.20 died by scurvy at Amchitka
4 Koichi 小市 36; married 賄(Chief accountant)

× poor in learning Russian
■could return Japan;
■1793.4.2 died at Neruro, Hokkaido

5 Kyuemon 九右衛門 55; married 水主 (Sailor)

× poor in learning Russian
1791.1.13 died in Irkutsk.

6 Isohachi 磯八 42; married 水主 (Sailor) 1783. 7.15 died by scurvy, the first victim
7 Shozo 庄蔵 31 水主 (Sailor) 1789; cut his right foot because of frostbite
8 Seishichi 清七 29 水主 (Sailor) 1783.12.17 died by accident? at Amchitka
9 Tozo 藤蔵 24 水主 (Sailor) 1787.5.6 died by scurvy
10 Shinzo 新蔵 24 水主 (Sailor)

talent in learning Russian
1790; married Russian widow

11 Tosuke 藤助 23 水主 (Sailor) 1784 died by desease at Amchitka
12 Isokichi 磯吉; 三五郎の次男 19 水主 (Sailor)

talent in learning Russian
■could return Japan

13 Chojiro 長次郎; 志州小浜 ? 増水主 (Foregin sailor) 1783.12.20 died by scurvy at Amchitka
14 Kantaro 勘太郎; 志州小浜 ? 増水主 (Foregin sailor) 1787.4.11 died by scurvy
15 Yasugoro 安五郎; 豆州子浦 ? 増水主 (Foregin sailor) 1783.10.16 died by scurvy at Amchitka
16 Yosomatsu 与惣松 15 炊 (Probationary sailor)

talent in learning Russian
1787.4.5 died by scurvy

17 Sakujiro 作次郎 ? 上乗 (Consinor's agent) 1783.10.23 died by scurvy at Amchitka
+ Cat of Kodayu Cat   Pet 1787: given to Mr. & Mrs. Orelenkov

>Top 2. Shipwreck and adrift:

  • 1782.12.13: 10:00 am: the sail of destiny
    • >Top Sailed Shirako for Edo with 17 crew + 1 cat. Cloudy with strong wind.
    • Cargo:
      • 250 koku of Rice of Kishu Domain.
      • 50 koku of roofing tile of Kishu Domain.
      • Firewood
      • 400 koku of Cotton cloth of Hasegawa, consignor.
      • Miscellaneous goods (medicine, paper, wooden wool, etc.)
      • 2 rolls of Tatami mat of Hikone Domain.
      • 1 set of hina-doll of Mrs. Toda of Oogaki, lord.:
      • Money:
        • 120 ryo of gold coin
        • 20 pieces of gold and several silver granule
        • 5 bags of copper coin
  • Risk factor: Treacherous sea for sailing in Enshunada area:
    • Enshunada (in Shizuoka prefecture) has long shallow coastline, where was considered most dangerous place for Japanese ships, particularly strong northwestern wind in winter season.
    • On 1982. 12. 14, Shinsho-maru resailed from Obama port around noon, after it lied at anchor avoiding strong wind since the last day.
    • Strong NW wind would be rather following wind to Edo. But the weather was exacerbated toward the evening.
  • Big damage:
    • A gust of wind blew off the sail of Shinsho-maru.
    • >Top Next moment, a huge wave broke the rudder and the outside stern. The ship became drifting southeastward in the storm. (Drifting started)
      • It was a typical tragedy caused by low pressure in winter season, and the damage of vulnerable rudder and outside stern of Japanese ship.
    • The next urgency is to cut down the main mast (25m long), otherwise overthrow of the ship could be unavoidable.
      • Loss of the mast means loss of the sailing force; which makes impossible to return home by ourselves.
    • Crisis of overturn could be avoided; all crew and the cat began to eat with a feeling of relief.
      • Drifting Shinsho-maru might be observed by other vessel. It was said the owner recognized distress of the ship in February of the next year, estimating their damage should be about 630 ryo in total.
  • Weak points of Japanese ships:
    • Rudder and outside stern. A Japanese ship has bigger rudder, which can be lift up in entering shallow ports.
    • Dredging was rarely done in Japan.
    • Japanese ships are considered to be easier in operation, but are relatively weak against windstorm.
    • The outside stern covers the big rudder for easier operation of the rudder, but are rather weak in structure.

2. 遭難、そして漂流

  • 白子港出帆: 1782年(天明2)
    神昌丸;弁才船 (千石船):
    • 船長 27m (90尺)
    • 一本帆柱 25m

bensaisen

  • 1782. 12. 13: 運命の船出
  • 若松浦港;元禄時代は700石廻船7艘
  •  黒屋は屋号:
    • 彦太夫・光太夫・銀駄有あり
  • 神昌丸の乗組員計17名:
    • 本来は船頭が一切の手配
    • 三五郎 は若松浦一の古強者
    • 他の乗組員は三五郎の人脈
    • 結束が固い
  • 乗組員の役割
    • 沖船頭:船長光太夫32
    • 船方三役:
      • 親仁三五郎65
      • ベテラン: 水夫頭
      • 楫取次郎兵衛・桑名廻船より: 航海士長
      • 賄小市36・几帳面: 事務長
>Top

3. Amchitka Island:

  • Eight-month drifting in the northern Pacific ocean:
    • The ship has magnet by which they can know the direction, but has no means to know the location.
    • The logbook continued the same description everyday.
    • The ship carries enough rice with sufficient firewood and water; but since February of the next year, water and firewood are getting scarce. But the rainfall survived the crew, oddly enough after praying for the rain.
    • Since May, the fear of scurvy expanded among the crew.
    • Around 10 July, Sangoro, sailor found drifting of sea weed near the stern.
      >Top At the night on 1783. 7.15, the first victim occurred; Isohachi, sailor died of serious diarrhea. His corpse was thrown in the sea after two days.
    • At the dawn on 1783. 7.20, Koichi found an island; later known, which was 'Amchitka island' (68km long and 3-6km wide) of Aleutian Islands. (This island became US territory since Alaska Purchase in 1867, now is an uninhabited island and was used as the test site of nuclear bomb in 1960-70s.)
  • >Top 1783.7.20 landed on Amchitka Island:
    • The island looked rocky isolated island, having no higher mountain, and no trees. Enormous amount of birds were flying.
    • Shinsho-maru approached west coast of southern end of the island.
    • Sangoro, the oldest crew insisted to stay in the cabin; but Kodayu ordered Isokichi, his son, to shoulder Sangoro.
    • It was exceptionally fine weather. A barge is 11.5m long, which succeeded to carry the crew to the island. Healthy five crew went back and forth to bring most of the cargo to the island.
    • Ten or more local natives appeared with bobbed hair, short moustache, reddish brown face, bare foot, wore feather decorated clothe, having long stick (Eskimo-Aleut). They showed no attitude of fighting. They willingly accepted a cloth that the crew gestured to give as a gift.
  • Russians appeared:
    • The five crew followed the natives to clime up a hill, where two big men standing with gun. Later the crew recognized that these big white men were 11 Russian, hunting group sent to this island to collect fur seal and sea otter.
    • Russian might have watched Shisho-maru anchoring at this island and behavior of the crew.
    • Kodayu prepared to meet the white men, presuming that they would be Aka-Ezo (Russians), not Dutch. Once the crew landed on Russia, he is determined to find reality of this country.
    • Kodayu made the crew prepare rice balls for the Russians, who smacked their lips for the taste. Kodayu's cat was rubbed its cheek by the Russians.
    • Actually the Russians are instructed from their tops in Moscow to exert themselves to protect Japanese, if they encountered castaways of Japanese.
    • The supply route of necessary materials is urged to develop such huge area of Siberia; if they could supply those from the trade with Japan, not the transport from western part of Ural mountains, the supply route would be drastically shortened. The protective attitude of the Russians reflected such practical background.
    • Education school for Russian-Japanese language:
      • Prior to Kodayu's arrival, there were four case of castaways of Japanese since Peter I, the great (1672-1723).
      • 1729: Gonza and Souza of Satsuma vessel arrived at the Kamchatka Peninsula. Both are taken to Petersburg and met with Empress Anna, and are instructed to become teachers of education school without returning Japan.
      • 1754: Japanese Language School was opened at Irkutsk; survived Japanese became teachers, now there were no such survivals.
      • The chief of Russians at Amchitka island, Nevijimov, knew such background, and thought the castaways of Japanese seemed lucky for him.
  • Kodayu's stance:
    • He put up with something from pride to counter the Russians.
      • Next morning, Shinsho-maru anchored offshore was disappeared by the attack of gale last night; he and his crew collected the residues of the ship, wood materials, nails, anchors, etc.
      • The light boat was safe, which was pulled up to shore.
      • The total number of survived crew was 16 out of 17. The collected most of valuable goods from the ship and stored his temporary house.
    • Nevijimov seemed to misunderstand that Kodayu was a rich big merchant not a hired chief captain.
      • His pretending of a rich merchant continued all the period staying in Russia; which could bring various luck including getting valuable assistance and audience with the Empress.
  • Learning Russian and so forth:
    • One day, Isokichi asked by a Russian, "Эта чего?." He understood this is a question, saying "Eto chowa?"
    • The crew could increase Russian terms using this questionnaire. They could communicate a little bit.
    • Kodayu had kept logbook as the captain's role, but recognized the calendar has the limit within this year. He determined to use Russian calendar (Julian calender which is about one month earlier than Japanese lunar calender and 11 days delayed from Gregorian calendar)
    • >Top By the end of 1783, the survived crew became ten members.
      • 8.9 Sangoro; 8. 20 Jirobei; 10.16 Yasugoro; 10.23 Sakujiro, 12.17 Seishiti; 12.20 Chojiro all died of scurvy.
  • Harsh extort:
    • The norm of collection of furs (fur taxes) are payable; to Emperor, to Sponsor Jugarev, and to the hunting group each one third.
    • The norm necessarily imposed harsh exploitation, any kind of violence such as torture, rape, or sometimes murder; which eventually caused rebellion of local Aleut natives.
    • But it was destined lives of the crew were dependent to the Russian; the crew has no choice to be neutral to the rebellion.
      • Later such massacres of Aleut natives were revealed and the three criminals including Nevijimov were jailed.
    • >Top 1984: During these troubles, Tokichi died by disease.
  • 1785 summer, escape from Amchika island:
    • Three-post ship appeared offshore to receive Russians (and the crew), but unfortunately is failed to approach the island due to gale from the north.
    • 24 survived crew was successfully landed. All Russians and Japanese cooperated to collect useful residue of the wrecked ship.
    • Particularly discouragement of the Russians (hunter group and survived crew) was so serious that, they became apparently spiritless as long as one year.
      • Russians, mostly cossack people, frequently debated in a circle how to escape from the island.
  • 1787 winter, the conclusion is to make a big escaping ship by themselves.
    • The Japanese crew thought their collection of residues of the wrecked ship would be useful to build a new ship.
  • 1787 spring, started to make a new ship; then was successfully built in about three months.
    • Japanese worked hard using sculling boat in collecting driftwood, which was used as charcoal to make nails and fixtures for building a new ship.
    • Also there was a Russian blacksmith in the member, who could remake necessary fixtures.
    • The size of newly built ship was about one third of the original, about 600 koku in Japanese measurement.
  • 1787.7.18: after 4 years and 1 month living in the Amchitka island.
    • They could sail from the island by Russian-Japanese jointly made ship named 'Kirill Alexandronevesky; the crew was 25 Russians of Nevijimove, etc., and 9 Japanese of Kodayu, etc. and his cat.
    • >Top They aimed and arrived at Nijine-Kamchatzk (Usti-Kamchatsk; Усть-Камчатск); on the way the collected two other Russians from Brijinie island.

3. アムチトカ島:

  • 太平洋漂流8ヵ月
  • 1783. 7.15: 磯八激しい下痢で死亡
  • アリューシャン列島:
    アムチトカ島 (長さ24km、幅8km)
    樹木なく岩山はばかり
    おびただしい鳥の群れ
  • Amchitka Island of fog and gale:
    • Остров Амчитка

  • 1783.7.20:
    神昌丸、アトムチカ島南端の西海岸
    に漂着
    • 伝馬船 (11.5m)にて上陸
  • エスキモー:
    10名以上アレウト原住民現る
  • ロシア人(赤蝦夷)現れる
    • ロシア人狩猟団 (ラッコ・アザラシ)
    • リーダー: ネヴィージモフ
    • 日本人漂流民に対する保護の姿勢
    • シベリア開発のため日本との交易を希望
    • そのための日本語教育
    • 1754年
      イルクーツクに日本語学校設置
      日本人漂流民を教師に
  • 光太夫の姿勢:
    • 神昌丸、烈風で破壊
    • 親船の残存物回収
    • 船材・船釘
    • 四爪碇も回収
    • 伝馬船は陸揚げして無事
    • ネヴィージモフは光太夫を裕福な商人と思い込む
      • ロシア滞在中遠来の賓客の扱い
  • ロシア語学習:
    • 言始め "Эта чго?"
    • この質問により単語が増加
    • コミュニケーションの活発化
    • 航海日誌の継続
      • 1784からはロシア暦
      • ユリウス暦:
        和暦より1ヵ月早い
        グレゴリー暦より11日遅れ
    • 残存者 10/17名に
      • 8.9: 三五郎
      • 8.20: 次郎兵衛
      • 10.16: 安五郎
      • 10.23: 作次郎
      • 12.17: 静七
      • 12.20: 長次郎死亡

 

  • 毛皮税強制
    • 皇帝への献上、主人への上納、狩猟団取り分: 各1/3
    • アウレト人への強制労働・暴行
    • アウレト人婦女子への陵辱
    • 補給船が現れないことでの物資食料の不足
  • 1984: 藤吉病気で死亡
  • ロシアの迎え船(三本帆柱)の接岸失敗による大破
    • 乗組員24名の救助
    • 大船の残骸(船板・金具)引き揚げ
    • ロシア人の落胆大: 1年ほどは茫然自失の状態

  • 1784 冬:
    • ロシア人の多くはコサック出身
      逃亡農民の不屈の精神
    • 相談の結果大船新造を決定
  • 1787 春:
    • 日本人も精力的に働く
    • 神昌丸の船材・船釘も役立つ
    • 流木・炭集めなどに伝馬船が活躍
    • 新造船は3ヵ月で完成: 大きさは元の大船の1/3で、600石程度
    • 船中の食料: 魚の干物・用水を用意
  • 1987.7.18:
    • アムチトカ島4年1ヵ月後に新造船で脱出
    • 乗員:
      • ロシア人25人; 途中ブリジニエ島で+2名収容
      • 日本人9人+ネコ1匹
    • 新造船の名前:
      • Kirill Alexandrovsky号
    • カムチャッカ半島東岸の
      ニジネカムチャーツクを目指す
>Top

4. From Kamchatsk to Siberia:

  • 1987.8.23: to Nijine-Kamchatsk
    • The ship Kirill Alexandronevskii arrived at Usti-Kamchatsk, 20km from which there was a major city Nijine-Kamchatsk.
    • Konon D. Orleankov, security commander, was waiting to receive the mission.
    • The commander said to Kodayu, etc., "from now on you will be protected under Ekaterina II, including living allowance."
    • Kodayu lived at Orleankov's house, and other eight crews lived at staff's house.
      • In Russia, the captain and senior officers of a ship belongs to the upper class.
  • Nijine-Kamchatsk:
    • At Nijine-Kamchatsk, first Russian style life; bread, cheese, and milk
    • Two decisive decisions were made:
      • Orleankov, the commander, treated Kodayu as a family member, who taught him that his desire of returning Japan could be realized only by submitting his petition to the Empress. Orleankov prepared the draft of the petition in Russian for Kodayu, and advised him to submit it to the Governor-General of Irkutsk.
      • Intelligent Mr. & Mrs. Orleankov admire the Empress who had a relationship with such as Voltaire and Diderot, French enlightenment philosophers.
      • The Empress banned the notorious fur tax in the Krill islands.
      • Kodayu presented his cat to Orelenkov who has no children.
    • 1787 end August: Barterlemy de Lesseps (uncle of Ferdinand de Lesseps):
      • He was a Russian interpreter of La Pêrouse Pacific Survey Mission of France. He wrote about the Japanese castaways in his book, Journal historique de voyage in 1790, in which, "The crew had special feeling of attachment and respect with Kodayu. He also showed his attachment as much as they did to him, and he always paid attention if they had any frustrating matters. He had a strong accent and spoke very frankly Russian very fast, so sometimes Lesseps could not understand. He was an excellent observer with curiosity in everything and kept detailed diary about what happened."
    • Starvation in winter:
      • Foods in Kamchatsk mostly depended on the ship delivery from Okhotsk which decreased due to continued bad weather and marine accidents.
      • Since the new year, distribution of wheat had stopped. The other eight crew ate beef which they had refused, and even food of dog sled.
      • >Top Other three crew, died by scurvy;
        • 1987. 4.5: Yosomatsu; 4.11 Kantaro; 5.11 Tozo; all were buries outside of the church.
      • 1787 May; when the Kamchatsk river was defrosted, crowds of herring came up, and several weeks later crowds of salmon came up. The survived five crew caught these fish and ate full of satisfaction.
  • 1788.6.15: Leave for Irkutsk
    • All survived six Japanese crew dispatched for Irkutsk, being accompanied by Mr. & Mrs. Xotokevich, just married, who are returning Irkutsk after his assignment at Nijine-Kamchatsk.
      • The first target was Tigili (Тигиль), from where there is a ship bound for Okhotsk (Охóтск).
      • 8.1; From Tigili to Okhotsk, rode on a rather small old ship (about 400 koku); there were several hundred passengers in a ship, causing soon scarcity of food, in addtion to spending more days due to mis-handling of ship in dense fog.
      • >Top 8.30; fortunately the ship could arrived Okhotsk at the mouth of Okhotsk river.
      • At Okhotsk, Ivan G. Kotv, commander welcomed the crew, and the local government granted as the travel fee; 30 silver coins to Kodayu, and 25 to the remained 5 crews. The journey from Okhotsk to Yakutsk is going on horses on land course in wilderness to Yakutsk (Якутск) . There would be no lodge in between. They must camp in the field.
      • Using the allowances, all the crew bought clothes, cap, grove, boots which are made of leather for camping in frozen field.
    • In Okhtsk, the crew first saw prostitutes of port town. Isokichi comments about Russian ladies, saying, "their white skin characteristic of cold country looks very beautiful particularly in the case of fine and clear skin with light make-up. Their dress and garment are also more attractive than those of Japanese."
  • 1788.9.12: Okhotsk to Vasilii:
    • All six crew left Okhotsk for Irkutsk as a member of Royal warrant 500-horses convoy; Dr. Viryuchikov who introduced vaccination method to Russia for the first time.
    • Vasilii (Василий) sergeant was the leader of the convoy.
    • The first target was Yakutsk, a city riverside of Lena River. There accompanied two interpreter of Yakut (Sakha) language.
    • The travel continued about two months; the Japanese recognized the difficulty having the rest in a tent in frozen field.
    • Food was dried cake of wheat, which became soft, and ate it with sugar.
    • Exhausted horses were abandoned there; the number of horses were constantly decreasing.
  • 1788.11.9: Vasilli to Yakutsk:
    • Before arriving Yakutsk, the convoy suspended its journey, waiting frozening Len river.
    • Shozo hurt his leg by frostbite during the journey.
    • The convoy arrived at Yakutsk, which has 4-500 houses.
    • Kozlev Ugrein, governor of Yakutsk government gave the same amount of silver coins to the Japanese as the travel preparation.
    • It was surprising that the crew first heard that there were days without rising the sun (polar night); also the coldness there was beyond their imagination.
  • 1788.12.13: Yakutsk to Irkutsk:
    • The Royal warrant four-horse-sleigh left Yakutsk for Irkutsk. Each two Japanese crew rode on different sleigh. Uninhibited vast frozen tundra continues as far as the eye can reach. Eating and sleeping were always in the sleigh.
    • Ths departure was postponed for a while, because the temperature incredibly cold; about below minus 40C.
    • Shozo's foot got seriously frosbite, which became worse during the trip. Isokichi claimed the same sleigh with Shozo and changed his sleigh separately to avoid unbearable smell of his rotten wound.
    • On the way to Kirensk, the new year's day came. Officer in irensk advised Shozo to stay for curing his foot, but Shozo entreated to go to Irktsk together.
    • Carrying injured Shozo in agony to Irkutsk became hard trip for the other five crew.

4. カムチャツカからシベリアへ:

  • castaway; пария
  • island; остров
  • peninsula; нолуостров
  • half; половина
  • wheat; пшеница
  • herring; цельдь
  • salmon; лосось
  • Irkutsk; Иркутск;
    1898 Siberia railway
    came up to this city, and
    extended up to Vladivostok in 1904
  • Tigili; Тигиль
  • Okhotsk; Охóтск
  • Yakutsk; Якутск
  • Lena river; Лена река
  • Kirensk; Киренск
  • 1787.8.23
    • 新造船ウスチカムチャーツクに到着
    • 20km川を遡るとニジネカムチャーツクがあった。
    • 船着き場には警備司令官オルレアンコフ少佐が出迎え
    • 日本人漂流者に対する期待大
    • これよりロシア帝国の庇護下に入ると告げる
    • 光太夫一人オルレアンコフの政庁・自邸に引き取り、他は下宿へ
      • ロシアでは船長は上流階級
    • 同地の家数は50-60軒
    • 初めてロシア正教会の鐘の音を聞く
    • 初めてパン・牛乳・チーズを食べる
    • オルレアンコフ少佐の厚情: 女帝への嘆願によって帰国の道が開けることを示唆。
    • 啓蒙君主エカテリーナ2世:
      先住民への懐柔策: 毛皮税の中止等
    • オルレアンコフ少佐夫妻にかわいがっていたネコを贈呈
  • 1787.8下旬:
    • フランス太平洋探検隊がペトロハバロフスクへ寄港
    • ロシア語通訳Barterlemy de Lessepsと面会。その旅行日記に光太夫の印象を記録。
      • ... 彼はあらゆることに好奇心を持つ優れた観察者のようである。起こったすべてを正確に記した日記をつけている。
      • 聞き取るには十分なロシア語を話す
  • 1787 年末:
    • 深刻な飢餓に襲われる。
    • 年明けには、政庁からの小麦の配給が停止される
    • 光太夫以外の8名は飢餓地獄
    • 壊血病が蔓延
    • 犠牲者: 1788.4.5 与惣松; 4.11 勘太郎; 5.6 藤蔵死去; 正教徒でないので、垣の外に埋葬。僧侶もなし。
    • 1988.5には、カムチャッカ川の解凍と共にニシン・サケの群れが来る。
  • 1788.6.15: イルクーツクへ出発:
    • 新婚のホトケーヴィッチ夫妻に同行して光太夫ら6人はニジネカムチャーツクをイルクーツクに向けて出発
    • 最初の目的地チギーリは山越えの西海岸の町。オホーツク行きの船が出る。
    • その船は400石ほどの老朽船。乗客は数百人もいて飢餓状態。かつ濃霧のため操船を誤ったがやっとのことでオホーツクに到着
    • オホーツクでは司令官イワン・コッフ少佐が港に出迎え。
    • 今後の路銀として光太夫に銀30枚、他5人に銀25枚支給された。
    • オホーツクの港町は一行は初めてロシアの遊女を見た。"寒国ゆえ、婦人は別して色白くして甚だ美なり。"
  • 1788.9.12:
    • 漂流民6名は、帝室御用の500頭の輸送隊で出発した。
    • その中にはロシアに初めて種痘を紹介したビリュチコフ夫妻も同行。
    • 輸送隊の指揮官はワシーリイ軍曹。
    • 野営連続する旅程は2ヵ月に及んだ。
    • 小麦のかき餅を熱湯でほぐし砂糖をつけて食べた。
    • 途中で馬が何千と死んでいるのを見た。
    • 庄蔵の凍傷は旅の途中で一層悪化して、ひどい臭気を放った。
    • キレンスクまでの途中で、新年を迎え等。キレンスクの役人は庄蔵に留まって治療するように忠告したが、庄蔵は懇願してイルクーツクまで同行することを選んだ。
    • もだえ苦しむ庄蔵を連れてのイルクーツクまでの旅は他の5人にとっても苦悩に満ちたものだった。

>Top

5. Nostalgic days in Irkutsk:

  • >Top 1789.2.9:
    • All survived six crew completed the trip running 2,386 km and arrived at Irkutsk.
    • Irkutsk is the biggest city in Siberia; Russian Empires' eastern policy had been promoted based on this core city, establishing major street between St. Petersburg, and having important architectures such as Russian Orthodox Churches.
    • Japanese crew were surprised to observe dignified facility of European civilization; Kodayu commented the scale of prosperity and number of rich men of this city having about 3,000 houses.
  • Submit of requirement:
    • Kodayu, etc. met with Alekseev, Governor, and submitted his requirement. The governor responded his understanding the situation and told to give 5 copper coin each day per person.
      • Later the payment increase double upon the request of Kodayu. The governor's attitude was generally indifferent or cold treatment.
    • The governor had no other options than to make them teachers of Japanese language at the Japanese school.
      • But Kodayu's requirement is to return Japan and requires to get approval form the Empress without having intention of neither naturalization nor becoming Japanese teachers.
    • The Japanese language school was on the verge of closing; only Dolgorukov who learn Japanese from Kyusuke of Taga-maru castaway, taught several Russian boys there.
    • 1789: Shozo's frostbite got worse. But after the operation of cutting his foot under the knee, Shozo was saved from death. His foot was attached wooden artificial limb, and could walk on crutches. Kodayu was surprised Russian medial level which is much higher than Japan. Shozo began to work at a charity hospital.
  • Orphans of Taga-maru castaway:
    • 1789 spring, orphans of Taga-maru castaway suddenly came to the Japanese crew. They are orphans of Kyukichi, Sannosuke and Shinbei, all were Nanbu Domain. Their name were Trapeznikov 38-39 who has his mother and junior sister, and Tatarinov.
    • One day three men came home. One man said he is an orphan of Shinbei, castaway of Taga-maru.; Japanese castaways were invited dinner at his home.
    • Dovrov, another orphan of Shinbei of Nambu Domain died in Irkutsk; Kodayu accepted to serve as the chief mourner. his wife showed her affection by giving the last kiss to late Dovrov.
  • Reply to the return home petition:
    • 1789.8; Billi, Governor-General of Irkutsk called Kodayu, and told the reply of the petition, saying to give up returning home and to require to work in Russia.
    • Kodayu reiterated his petition of returning home, but which mean to give up to receive the payment from the local government (10 copper coins per head, which become 300 per month per head)
    • The five Japanese crew discussed how to live here for the moment without receiving the subsidy from the government. They determined to work here, or daily employment like blacksmith, copper work, dyer, etc.
  • Baptism of Shozo:
    • 1789 winter, Kodayu heard that one-legged Shozo was baptized in Russian Orthodox and was naturalized in Russia. Kodayu understood this would be unavoidable. Shozo got Russian name as Feodor Stepanovich Shitonikov
    • The destiny of 10 Taga-maru castaways were shocking to Kodayu; he worries about the same destiny might occur in the crew, but he didn't disclose the destiny to other Japanese crew.
    • A glimmer of hope was to appeal directly Ekaterina II, the Empress of Russia.
  • >Top Kirill Gustavovich Laksman
    • 1790.1; Chichifei Hotokevich, with whom the Japanese crew departed at Okhotsk appeared. Kodayu explained the situation why he and other crew were still staying in Irkutsk.
    • He introduced Kirill Laksman to Kodayu, who was a naturalist and the member of St. Petersburg Science Academy, also knew high ranked persons in the capital.
    • Immediately, Hokenovich brought Kodayu to the house of Laksman, who was 53 years old. Kodayu was introduced as a rare visitor from Japan and was most welcomed by Laksman.
    • Kodayu showed the copy of petition submitted to the Governor-General. Kirill promised Kodayu to do his best to realize his return to Japan, and prepared a new petition, where Kirill added the crew's return would open the way to a new trade relationship with Russia and Japan.
    • 1790.2.3; a new order from the Govenor-General arrived at Kodayu, saying to list up the merit of naturalization, status and accommodation considering assistance of Laksman.
      • But Kodayu replied politely to the order, appreciating the kind consideration, however the permission of returning Japan would be unchanged our desire than becoming officer or trader in this country.
      • Knowing the reply from the Governor-General, Kirill immediately prepared the next petition, emphasizing return of the crew is indispensable for Russian to explore a trade relationship with Japan. Kodayu submitted this second petition to the Governor-General four days later, but the petition was neglected and even the monthly benefits were terminated.
      • It was obvious that the Governor-General intended to press the crews to accept the order by cutting off the benefits.
    • Actually the crew had no serious difficulty in everyday life; including Kodayu's story and performance of Shakuhachi (Japanese bamboo flute) won people's sympathy and reward, in addition to cooperation of Kirill. The daily works of other crew got somehow a prospect.
      • As Kodayu's reputation rose in Irkutsk, local merchants and furriers began to hope the importance of trade with Japan. Gregory I. Sherehov, and others, wealthy merchants proposed to provide funds needed to dispatch a ship to Japan.
      • Kirill Laksman saw through the intention of the Governor-General of Irkutsk that they are using Kodayu as an interpreter of the ship to negotiate with Japan, thereafter making Kodayu to be naturalized to Russia and becoming teacher of the Japanese School. Kirill prohibited Kodayu not to have any contact with the merchant group.
      • The relationship of Kirill and Kodayu is getting deeper; Kodayu was treated just like his family member. Kodayu lost his father when he was at eight, so Kodayu felt comfortable at his warm and big home.
      • Ekaterina Iwanovina, wife of Kirill was a wise woman, operating a glassware factory in the suburbs. She looked like the step-mother for Kodayu.
      • As the family of Kirill, Gustav, the eldest son in now north Siberia as a superintendent, Adam, the second son in Kamchatsk as a chief guard, the third son died prematurely, In the home there were Avanashy the fourth son, Martin the fifth son, and Maria daughter living together. In addition a couple of younger brother of Kirill and their two daughters Anna and Elisabeth lived together. These two nieces were attached to Kodayu.
      • Kirill keeps friend with Swedith Peter Thunberg, who is also well-known botanist, had worked as a doctor in Nagasaki having interest in Japan. When Kodayu heard the carrier of Thunberg, he felt some kind of fate from the previous life.
  • Marriage of Shinzo:
    • 1790; Kodayu heard Shinzo married Marianna Mihevina, a Russian widow. Shinzo himself changed his name to Nicholas Petriovich Korutoigin. Other crew members fell some mixed feelings about the marriage. But Isokichi felt it would be better for Shinzo to be happier with the woman in this country.
      • One day Kodayu sang a song in high spirit, "Dear my wife having black eyes, black eyebrow, and black hair. ...♫" Kyuemon said, if wife with black hair is so good, it is natural for Shinzo who loved a Russian woman. All crew laughed over the dinner.
  • Koichi and Isokichi:
    • 1790 summer; Koichi and Isokichi moved to the house of Matvey Gregorievich, founder; they determined to work as live-in workers.
    • In the house, there were two sons and two daughters (Marimiyana and Marfa). Matvey appreciated Isokichi who worked very hard, and suggested to be a son-in-law by marrying either of sisters.
    • Isokichi (27) still retained the hope of returning Japan, so he firmly rejected such proposal.
    • Matovey gave Isokichi Russian name; Isokichi Matovevich. Marfa (16) was getting beautiful, and the two began to have each affections. Koichi advised Isokichi should be harden himself if he desired to return to Japan.
  • 1791.1:
    • When Kodayu met with Kirill on the new year day, Kirill said to Kodayu that it is strange such a delay of reply. The petition might be neglected on the way and could not attained to the Empress. There was no way other than appeal it directly to the Empress. Kodayu felt that the idea was teary with joy.
    • The other three crew was sick probably due to typhoid fever. Kodayu instructed Shinzo to deliver the plant samples together with them to the capital, but he also happened to be sick.
    • >Top 1791.1.13 Kyuemon died. Before his death he asked Kodayu to permit being baptized Russian Orthodox in order to be buried within the church.

5. イルクーツクでの望郷の日々:

  • Иркутск
  • Алексеев
  • мороз; frost
    • мороженое; icecream
    • отморойенное; frostbite
  • прабославный; orthodox
  • церковь; church
  • Кирилл Густавович Лаксман
  • Фёдор Степанович Ситников
  • Григопьевич
  • Маримияна
  • Марфа
  • 1789.2.9:
    • 2,486 kmにも及ぶシベリア大雪原を日本人漂流民6人は走破してイルクーツクへ到着
    • イルクーツクはロシア帝国の当方政策の拠点。町にはロシア正教会の尖塔が林立。
    • 漂流民たちは欧州文明の偉容に驚嘆。
    • 光太夫曰く、商工備わらざるものなし。人家三千余。
  • 嘆願書提出:
    • 光太夫はアレセーセニエフに面談。各人に各人1日に銅銭5枚支給するとのことだったが、それでは食費がやっとなので、後に光太夫が乞うと倍額にしてくれた。総督府の態度は概して冷淡だった。
    • 総督府としては、日本人漂流民は旧法通り、ロシアに帰化して日本語教師となる以外の処遇は念頭になかった。
    • 光太夫の嘆願は一途な日本への帰国であり、帰化することも日本語教師になる意思も否定した。
    • 1789: 庄蔵の凍傷は悪化した。足を膝から下を切断すると平癒した。その下には木の義足が付けられ、やがて松葉杖で歩けるようになった。光太夫はロシアの医術が日本より数段上であることを実感した。庄蔵はその後も施療院で養われた。
  • 多賀丸漂流民の遺子と面談:
    • 南部藩の多賀丸漂流民の遺子である3人のロシア人が突如来訪。その一人は新兵衛の倅ドフローフといい、彼の家に招待してくれた。
    • 後にこのドブローフが死去した時、光太夫は喪主を務めた。
  • 帰国嘆願書への返答:
    • 1789.8、イルクーツク総督であるビーリより呼び出しがあり、帝都からの申渡し状の伝達があった。それには、帰国は諦め、この国に仕官せよという結論であった。支給金は1日銅銭10枚 (月300枚)とのこと。
    • 光太夫は即座に帰国の願いを何度も訴え、申渡しには従えない旨を伝えた。
    • 5人の漂流民は、政府の援助なしでこれからどうやって生きていくのか相談した結果、この地で働くことにした。鍛冶・銅細工・紺屋など日雇い稼ぎをすることにした。
  • 庄蔵の洗礼:
    • 1789冬、光太夫は片足不具となった庄蔵がロシア正教会の洗礼を受け、ロシアに帰化したことを聞き、やむを得ないことだと思った。
    • また10名の多賀丸漂流民は10名あり、全員が異境の土と化した運命との情報は衝撃だった。それ以前にも大阪廻船や薩摩廻船の漂民がいたとのこと。誰一人として帰国できなかった。光太夫はこの運命を他の仲間には語らなかった。
    • 僅かな希望はエカテリーナ2世の慈悲にすがるのみだった。
  • キリール・ラックスマン:
    • 1790.1; 日本人漂流民がオホーツクで別れたホトケノビッチが現れた。光太夫は自分達がなぜまだイルクーツクに留まっているのか説明した。
    • 彼は博物学者でペテルブルグ科学アカデミー会員であるキリール・ラックスマンを、首都での高官にも知り合いがいるとして、光太夫を紹介した。
    • ホトケノビッチは、すぐに光太夫をキリールに引き合わせた。彼は53歳で、日本からの珍客を歓迎してくれた。
    • 光太夫は、総督府へ提出した帰国嘆願書のコピーを見せた。キリールは、希望が叶うよう尽力することを約束してくれた。キリルは、新たな嘆願書を用意し、漂流民の帰国が新たに日本との交易の道を切り開くとの創案を追加した。
    • 1790.2.3, 総督から新たな命令書が届き、キリールの支援を考慮したのか、帰化した場合の待遇や住居など好条件を示していた。
    • 光太夫は命令書に対し、仕官する意図はなく、日本への帰国を念願している旨丁重に断った。
    • 総督府の回答を知ると、キリールはすぐに次の嘆願書を作成し、漂流民の帰国は、ロシアにとって日本との交易を切り開く上で不可欠であることを強調した。総督府への嘆願書第二弾は後日届けたが、それは無視され、かつ月々の給付金も打ち切られた。
    • 総統府は給付金を打ち切ることで漂流民が命令を受け入れるよう圧力をかけていることは明白であった。
  • 実際には、漂流民の日常生活には困らなかった。キリ−ルの協力を得て、光太夫の物語や尺八の演奏などに人々の同情や礼金が集まった。他の漂流民たちは出稼ぎ仕事でなんとか収入を得ていた。
    • イルクーツクでの光太夫の評判が高まり、富裕な商人や毛皮商たちは日本との交易の重要性を望み始めた。グレゴリイ・シェレホフなど豪商は日本への船舶派遣の費用負担の用意があることを提案した。
    • キリールは、総督府が光太夫を日本との交渉の通訳として利用し、その後日本語学校の教師とする意図であることを見抜いた。キリールは光太夫に豪商団との接触を禁じた。
    • キリールと光太夫の関係は一層深まった。光太夫は彼の家族の一員のように扱われた。光太夫は8歳の時に父を亡くしているので、彼の暖かい大家族は快適だった。
    • キリールの妻であるエカテリーナ・イワノビーナは、賢夫人で、郊外にガラス器の工場を経営していた。光太夫にとっては義理の母のようだった。
    • キリールの家族は長男グスタフはヤクートの監督官でシベリア北部に赴任中。次男のアダムはカムチャッカでの守備隊長、三男は夭折し、家には四男のアファナーシイと五男のマーティン、娘のマリアがいた。他にキリールの弟夫婦とその長女アンナと次女エリザヴェータがいた。この2人の名は光太夫に懐いた。
    • キリールはスウェーデン人植物学者のペーテル・ツュンベリーと親しかった。彼は長崎のオランダ商館付医師の経歴があり日本に親しかった。光太夫はツュンベリーの経歴を聞いた時、前世からの宿縁を感じた。
  • 新蔵の結婚:
    • 1790; 新蔵はロシア人未亡人のマリアンナ・ミヘエヴィナと結婚したことを聞いた。新蔵は名前をニコライ・ペトロビッチ・コロトイギンに改名した。他の漂流民はこの結婚に複雑な気持ちだったが、磯吉は新蔵がその女とこの国で幸せになればよいのではと思った。
      • ある日光太夫は上機嫌で歌った。"黒い瞳、黒い眉、黒い髪の妻恋しや" と。九右衛門は新蔵がロシア女を愛したことは無理もないと言った。皆の夕べの団欒は笑いに包まれた。
  • 小市と磯吉:
    • 1790.夏: 小市と磯吉は、鋳物師マトベイ・グリゴーリエビッチの家に引っ越した。住み込みで働くようになった。
    • 家には、息子2人と娘2人(姉マリミヤーナと妹マルファ)がいた。マトベイは磯吉が働き者なので気に入り、どちらかの娘と結婚するように勧めた。
    • 磯吉(27)はまだ日本に帰る希望を持っており、この提案は固く断った。
    • マトベイは磯吉にロシア名をつけて、イソキチ・マトベービッチと呼んだ。マリファ(16)は綺麗になり、二人は好意を抱いた。小市は磯吉に、もし日本に帰国したいなら心を鬼にしろと言った。
  • 1791.1:
    • 光太夫は、年が明けてキリールに会うと、キリールは嘆願書の返事がこれほど遅れるのはおかしい、途中で止まって国王まで届いていないのではないか、直訴するしかないと言った。光太夫は涙が出るほど嬉しかった。
    • 他の仲間はチフスにかかっていた。新蔵には首都まで植物標本を運ぶように指示したが、彼もまた病気だった。
    • 1791.1.13 九右衛門が死んだ。彼は光太夫に教会に埋葬してもらうためにロシア正教会の洗礼を受けたいと依頼しており、その通りになった。

>Top

6. St. Petersburg, Capital

  • 1791.1.15, the next of Kyuemon's funeral, Kirill Laksman and Kodayu, accompanied Afanasy, fourth son, left Irkutsk for St. Petersburg by eight-horse sleigh.
    • Kirill advised Kodayu to bring almost all goods of Japan, such as official costume of captain, potable shrine of Ise, picture of Amitabha Tathagata, gold oval coins and copper coins, and bamboo flute (Shakuhachi), etc.
    • Also instructed Shinzo to bring things of Kirill by later convoy, if he was recovered.
    • St. Petersburg, started construction from 1703 by Peter I (1682-1725), and became the capital of Russian Empire in 1712 from Moscow, as the Westernization policy.
    • Ekaterina II made coup d'état against incapable Peter III; and became the Emperor of Russia (1762-1796) as enlightened despotism.
      • During her reign, it is said journalism and intelligentsia were born in Russia for the first time.
      • Also she expanded western territory by partition of Poland, and victory against Turkey (controlled the Black Sea) ; then she was 62 years old.
  • >Top 1791. 2.19:
    • Kirill and Kodayu, etc. arrived at St. Petersburg after 35 days running 5,823 km at full speed by 8-hourse-sleigh every day and night. (ran about 200 km per day); just one night stay at Moscow.
    • The newly built capital city was built in marvelous stone architecture in order line with magnificent palaces, churches, and office buildings, and many ships from abroad come and go ; then the population of St. Petersburg was about 200,000.
    • Kirill and Kodayu stayed at an official guest house. After three days they visited Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko, the Grand Chancellor, and submitted a petition of returning Japan. Kirill also submitted additional document describing history of all 12 Japanese crew how they suffered hardship until then.
    • Bezborodko, together with Alexander Romanovich Vorontsov, Minister of Commerce, were key entourage functioned as chief architect of Ekaterina II foreign policy.
  • 1791.2.22:
    • Unfortunately after returned his lodgings, Kirill developed a high fever; the sick was serious, which might be in danger of death. The court sent doctors to take care of Kirill every day, and his brothers of himself and his wife living in St. Petersburg eagerly cared him. Kodayu usually attended at the bedside and devoted Kirill day and night.
    • Kirill could recover gradually which takes about three months. Mutual reliability between Kirill and Kodayu deepened during this period, like a real family.
  • Around these times, Grigori Aleksandrovich Ptyomkin, military leader and Russian hero , statesman, and favorite of Ekaterina II returned from Crimea of Russo-Turkish War (1787-1792). It was rumored that losing affection of the Empress and being exhausted at the continued war, Duke Ptyomkin came to the capital to bid final farewell to the Empress.
  • 1791.5.1:
    • Ekaterina II shifted to Tsarskoy Selo (Tsar's Village) where the detached palace (Ekateriana Palace) located 6 km south of Summer Palace together with the family of the crown prince. It was usual event for her to move there until 1 September every year.
  • 1791.5.8:
    • Kirill and Kodayu followed the Empress and stayed at the house of Oship Bushi, chief of the palace, and Kirill's old friend. Oship's younger sister, Sofia was kind to Kodayu; a little later sang a sad song comforting him. Lyrics of the song impressed Kodayu, because it was similar to the fate of Kodayu himself
  • >Top Middle May 1791:
    • A letter suddenly came from Court Vorontsov addressed to Kirill, saying the Empress granted audience to Kodayu on May 28. Lecture was prepared a few days before how to behave and bow before the Empress.
  • 1791.5.28:
    • When Kirill and Kodayu entered in the palace, both Bezborodko and Vorontsov received them.
    • At the great hall on the second floor, there are many high officials and court ladies were waiting. Kodayu felt as if it were a dream, being dizzy and stood rooted on the spot. Court Vorontsov led Kodayu by the hand toward the front of the Empress. Kodayu recovered his courage. Kirill followed them.
    • The Empress was sitting on the throne in the center, wore white silk dress, looked a slightly plump rather small body, gazing Kodayu with a faint smile in an aura of grandeur. Kodayu could perform the manner properly as instructed.
    • The Empress referred the petition of Kodayu, saying who made draft. Kirill replied he wrote down correctly what Kodayu said.
    • The Empress uttered, "Бедняжка (poor thing)" Kodayu explained privations on the drifting sea and fate of the dead and remained crew in details. The Empress once said, "Ах, жалко (Oh, miserable)"; this was the word for mourning.
    • Finally, the Empress confirmed the intention of Kodayu; who reiterated his firm intention of returning Japan.
    • On the way back from the palace, Kodayu thought everything seemed a daydream and was stunned. Kirill smiled with joy and satisfied his attempt.
    • The Empress ordered urgent treatment of the petition.
  • Exceptional good treatment:
    • Kodayu received imperial callings several times. Japan in seclusion policy might impress the Empress a mysterious alien country. When he was asked about Japanese religion, he explained it with showing portable shrine and the picture of Amitabha Tathagata.
    • Another day, when Kodayu appeared in costume of Japanese captain, the Empress ordered to draw a portrait of Kodayu in the costume.
    • Kodayu was also welcomed by the crown prince and his children. One day the crown prince invited Kodayu to ride on the eight-horse carriage together and brought him to his lodge.
    • The Empress's hospitality to Kodayu was exceptional. She might read the travelogue written by Barthelemy Lesseps.
    • The Empress seemed to consider an idea to open the trade relationship with Japan as a new foreign policy. Repeated hearings about Japan from Kodayu were the reference to the policy.
    • The Empress held two ideas; one is that of Kirill Laksman, another if that of rich merchants such as Shelenhov, who insist to retain the Japanese crew used as an interpreter or an Japanese teacher.
    • Kodayu felt a kind of frustration whenever being called by the Empress.
  • 1791.7: Encounter with Elisabeth, hetaera:
    • Name of Kodayu was well known in upper class in the capital. Kodayu was invited to various social circles.
    • One day Kodayu was introduced to meet Elisabeth, a hetaera in the capital near the palace. There was gorgeous party and dance until mid-night; Kodayu was fascinated to the atmosphere.
    • Before Kodayu knew it, an old lady introduced 36 beauties for Kodayu; Kodayu selected the most favorite one aged 18, but the old lady advised to add another capable beauty named Elisabeth (aged 24).
      • Next morning when he leaved, Elizabeth presented silk scarf, three pictures, and 3 silver coins to Kodayu.
      • After a while, Kodayu visited again the house, Elisabeth again welcomed Kodayu as the honored guest. Elisabeth again presented one gold coin and 10 printed handkerchiefs as well as the host and hostess of the house gave him 15 silver coins. Kodayu received such unrefusable presents from them.
      • Kirill was surprised to hear the story after Kodayu returned home, said smiling, "What a lucky guy Kodayu is! It would be good to make a living by such things, forgetting all other things."
  • 1791.9:
    • The court moved to the Winter Palace in the capital. Kirill and Kodayu also returned St. Petersburg.
    • Kodayu secretly began to contact with a minister of Dutch embassy as the second best plan, in preparation for being not allowed of returning by the Empress. The younger brother of Ekaterina, wife of Kirill was living in St. Petersburg, whose wife was a Dutch. Using this channel, Kodayu could meet with a Dutch minister, but his response seemed not cooperative. He suggested the Netherland might cooperate Kodayu's return, but it would be the most difficult and risky.
    • Kodayu asked the Dutch minister to deliver his letter to Japan. In the letter, Kodayu said, "The possibility of returning Japan would be as difficult as seeing a flower of Udonge" (a legendary rare flower to bloom once a 3000 years said in Buddhist.)
    • Kirill might recognized Kodayu's trying to approach Dutch route. It was annoying but he showed his patience understanding Kodayu's sentiment.
  • >Top 1791.9.29:
    • This day became the best day in Kodayu's life.
    • An instruction came to Krill to bring Kodayu to the house of Bezborodko, where Vorontsov, Minister of Commerce waited Kodayu with full smile on his face. Kodayu was informed the imperial edict of permitting return to Japan. The Empress selected the idea of Kirill. Both Kodayu and Kirill, whose eyes were wet with joy.
    • Prior to this date, as of 1791. 9.13., the Empress instructed Piri, Govenor-General of Irkutsk to return the Japanese castaways to Japan. But the Empress was prudent; making a mission to bring the Governor-General's letter and to sound Japanese response, rather than sending official mission with sovereign message. The imperial edict to the Governor-General was as follows:
      • To prepare a ship to Japan. The captain is a Russian.
      • An envoy is one of sons of Kirill Laksman; Kirill appointed the second son Adam.
      • The Japanese castaways was three; Kodayu, Koichi, and Isokichi.
      • The two Japanese castaway who converted Orthodox Christian (Shozo and Shinzo) would be the teachers of Japanese School in Irkutsk.
      • To make the first grade merchants to ride together in the ship, preparing future trade with Japan.
      • To prepare letter of the Governor-General of Irkutsk addressed to the Japanese government mentioning the detailed stories of the Japanese castaways, and the intention of Russian government hoping to have trade relationship with Japan.
      • The preamble states that the the priority is to send the Japanese castaways, and establishing trade relationship with Japan is secondary. (This shows lenience and benevolence of the Empress to Kodayu.)
    • British movement:
      • British minister of embassy (Charles Whitworth, minister) was trying another movement. There was a secret message addressed to British foreign minister Greenville, saying:
        • Kodayu stays Prof. Laksman, who is a friend of Prof. Peter S. Pallas, a biologist.
        • I thought it might be possible to make Kodayu return to Japan via UK, and I tried this method.
        • But Kodayu is strictly watched by the Russian government, and it would be almost impossible to have direct contact with him.
  • 1791.10.5:
    • Duke Gregory A. Pochomkin (52), hero & lover of Ekaterina II died on the way to Crimea.
      • When Ekaterina II heard this obituary, she wept over his death several days.
    • When Kodayu heard this rumor, he felt a sense of affinity with Ekateria II rather a court-noble. Kodayu bought pictures of Pochomkin to bring them back to Japan.
  • 1791.10.20:
    • The Empress called Kirill and Kodayu to the Winter Palace near southern riverside of Neva.
    • Kodayu wrote not too much about the palace, which was magnificent full of jeweled rooms such as decorated with malachite.
    • The Empress seem gloomy at the throne. Kodayu stated his hearty appreciation of being able to return to Japan.
    • The Empress said to Kodayu smiling, "Return safely to Japan." and giving Kodayu a beautiful jewelry tobacco box as a memorial of separation. This opportunity became the last moment when Kodayu met with the Empress.
  • After getting permit of returning to Japan:
    • Kodayu became very busy from the following day.
    • Kodayu went sight-seeings in various places such as Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Kunstkamra, Petropavlovskaya Krepost, Peter the Great Mausoleum, Grand Peterhof Palace, theaters.
    • Kodayu now became the No.1 guest in St. Petersburg. High officials, scholars, rich merchants rushed invitations of Kodayu who could have scarcely taken dinner at home.
    • Once day, Kodayu visited the Royal Military Academy invited by Fjodor Angarit, principal, where he was asked to check Japanese dictionary, which was compiled by the Taga-maru castaways. The accent of some Japanese were Nambu dialects, which Kodayu pointed and revised them spending six days in total.
  • 1791.11.8:
    • Count Vorontsov called Kirill and Kodayu to come to his office; he gave them official gift of Russian Empire; a gold medal to Kodayu as the supreme award in addition to a golden watch made in France, and 150 gold coins; hereinafter who is called 'Господин Кодаю' (Gentleman Kodayu). Also silver medals were awarded to Koichi and Isokichi in addition to 50 gold coins each. The same amount of coins was given to Shinzo and Shozo.
    • To Kirill, who had supported Kodayu, was awarded a diamond ring and 10,000 silver coins.
    • Various other gifts were given to Kodayu from high-ranked officials, including a fox skin overcoat, etc.
      • There were unique presents such as microscope, glassware, copperplate engraving, clothes, etc.
      • All people celebrated Kodayu's return to Japan. Kodayu was impressed beautiful sentiment of the Russians.
      • Finally, he visited the lady's house near the Palace. Elisabeth, the favorite beauty, gave her parting gift of hosiery socks and medicines for travel.
      • Kodayu wanted to bring 50 strings musical instrument to Japan which was surely a piano. But Kirill opposed it might be broken and useless during the trip.
  • >Top 1791.11.26: the day of returning.
    • Kirill and Kodayu prepared for the long journey at the house of Ivan Stromanov, which is his younger brother's house of his wife.
    • They dispatched St. Petersburg at the midnight by two sets of 12-horse sleigh and other three sets of sleigh for cargo. Shinzo and a Russian captain of Shinzo's friend accompanied.
    • After all, Kodayu stayed in St. Petersburg for nine months, which were the days of tension; but now it seemed the days of dream passed so swiftly.
  • 1791.11.29: arrived Moscow:
    • The journey coming to St. Petersburg was a forced march, but returning to Irktsk was a kind of sightseeing trip.
    • They arrived at Moscow on November 29, visiting points of interest spending 12 days.
  • 1791.12.14: arrived Nizhny Novgorod:
    • They arrived at Nizhny Novgorod (literally means Lower Newtown), 400 km east of Moscow, near Volga and Oka rivers. They stayed there for 6 days.
  • >Top 1792. 1.23 midnight:
    • They arrived at Laksman's house in Irkutsk, where Kodayu stayed. Shinzo returned to the house of Caster Matvey.
    • 1.24: Kodayu visited with his gold medal the office of Piri, the Governor-General, who invited dinner with Kodayu, saying to stay in Irktsk, and giving 300 silver coins as the reserve for preparations of return. The Governor-General prepared accommodation, where Kodayu and Koichi decided to stay. Isokichi stayed at different lodge, where Shozo joined to stay for a while until the returning day.
    • Koichi and Isokichi visited Caster Matvey's house expressing thanks and farewell. Malfa, daughter handed a small wooden box to Isokichi, where there was a tuft of her sorrel hair and silver ring she always wore.
    • Mid March, Kodayu visited glassware factory which Kirill operated, 6-7 km in the mountain area. 21 craftsmen were working there.
    • 5.10; Kodayu met Johann Sievers, pharmacist, a friend of Kirill. He wanted to draw a portrait of Kodayu in Japanese costume. At the bottom margin of the portrait, there was a signature, writing, "Kodayu, my friend, Japanese captain is now leaving for Japan."
    • Then mountains of gift was delivered to Kodayu. Senior daughter Maria gave his three turkeys, Kodayu gave her his cherished official costume of Japanese captain.
  • >Top 1792.5.20: The day of departure of Irkutsk:
    • Kodayu, Krill, and whose fifth son Martin rode on the former horse carriage, and Ekaterina, wife of Kirill and Hotokevich rode the latter carriage. The next stop Bukin was the place of their farewell. Shinzo also followed riding on a horse.
    • Koichi and Isokichi followed them by subsequent carriage.
    • Early morning of this day, Kodayu made Shozo the last farewell. He didn't tell the leaving date to Shozo beforehand. Kodayu thought the farewell should be only once. Shozo threw himself down in tears.
    • The farewell with Shinzo was also sorrowful. He was waiting at Bukin Station, but after the farewell he continued to follow Kodayu's carriage further 2-3 km. Kodayu got off the carriage and said farewell again to Shinzo. Shinzo bursted to cry on Kodayu's shoulder.
    • From Kachugu, the next station from Bukin, to Yakutsk, the ship journey continued, which seem a paradise compared with the winter sleigh journey last time. But the summer travel was annoyed by the attack of mosquito and housefly.

6. 帝都サンクト・ペテルブルグ:

  • Санкт-Петербург
    • Ленинградская область
  • Екатерина II Алексеевна (1762-1796)
  • окружение: environment
  • Кирилл
  • Афанасий
  • Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)
  • Екатерина Романовна Дашкова (1744-1810)
  • журналистика; jounalism
  • интеллигенция; intelligentsia;
  • Александр Андреевич Безбородко; Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko
  • Александр Романович Воронцов; Alexander Romanovich Vorontsov
  • Царское Село, Tsarskoye Selo
  • Григорий Александрович Потёмкин (1739-1791), Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin
  • Крым; Crimea
  • Царское Село; Екатерининский дворец; Летний дворец
  • бедняжка: poor little soul
  • жалкий: pitiful, pathetic
  • религия
  • Елизавета; Elisabeth
  • гетера; hetaera, <гетеро-
  • Григорий Александрович Потёмкин (1739-1791)
  • АлександроьНевская лавра
  • Кунсткамера
  • Петропавловская крепость
  • Пётр Великий
  • Петергоф
  • Нижний Новгород; NizhnyNovgorod
  • 1791.1.15:
    • 九右衛門の葬儀の翌朝、キリールと光太夫は、四男アファナシーを伴い、8頭立ての馬橇で帝都目指してイルクーツクを出発した。
    • キリールの指示で、謁見に備え、日本からの持ち物を持参した。船頭の正装一式、伊勢神宮の宮居、阿弥陀如来の画像、小判や銀銭、尺八などを積み込んだ。
    • 新蔵は、病気回復次第、キリールの品物を後続にて運送した。
    • サンクト・ペテルブルグはピョートル1世が、バルト海への進出の拠点として建設。1712年に遷都。
    • エカテリーナ2世は33歳の時、夫ピョートル3世から帝位を奪って皇帝となる。開明的な政策を実施し、啓蒙君主としての名声を得た。ポーランド分割で西方領土、トルコ戦争で黒海を支配下に治める。この年62歳。
  • 1791.2.19:
    • キリールと光太夫は、途中モスクワに一泊しただけ5,823 kmの行程を35日間ひた走り、2.19にペテルブルグへ到着した。
    • 新帝都は、荘厳な宮殿と寺院と官庁が建ち並ぶ石の街で、当時の人口は20人程度。
    • キリールと光太夫は、官舎で旅装を解いた。3日後、(ヴォロンツォフ商務長官と並んで) 側近のベズボロトコ秘書官を訪問し、改めて帰国嘆願状を提出し、キリールは別途日本人漂流民の辛酸をなめた経緯の詳細の書類を提出した。
    • その晩からキリールは急に高熱で病臥となり、一時は死の危険すらあった。宮廷が派遣した官医も毎日往診し、帝都に住むキリールの弟や妻の兄も熱心に見舞ってくれた。光太夫は連日枕元で熱心に看護した。
    • キリールは一命を取り留め快方に向かったが、病床を離れるまで3ヵ月を要した。この間キリールと光太夫の信頼関係は増し、真の親子のようになった。
  • この頃、ロシア随一の英雄であるグリコーリイ・ポチョムキン公爵がクリミアの戦場から帝都に帰還した。第二次露土戦争が勝利の内に終末を迎えようとしていた。女帝の寵は去り、長い戦場暮らしは心身を病み、女帝に最後の別れを告げに来たのだと噂があった。
  • 1791.5.1:
    • エカテリーナ2世は、冬宮から6kmほど南に位置するツァールスコエ・セローの夏の離宮(エカテリーナ宮殿) に、皇太子パーヴェル一家を伴い、移った。
  • 1791.5.2:
    • キリールと光太夫は、女帝の後を追って、キリールの友人でもあった夏の離宮の御苑長オーシプ・ブシの屋敷を仮の宿にして、嘆願活動を再会した。
  • 1791.5中旬:
    • ヴォロンツォフ伯爵より書面がキリール宛に届き、来る5月28日に女帝の謁見が許可されたとのとの。その数日前に、謁見時の作法を演習するとのこと。
  • 1791.5.28:
    • キリールと光太夫が宮殿に入ると、ベズボロトコ、ヴォロンツォフ両高官が出迎えた。
    • 2階の大広間には大勢の高官や女官が待機していた。光太夫は夢心地になり、身がすくんだ。ヴォロンツォフ伯爵が光太夫の手を引き、玉座まで導いた。その後にキリールが従った。
    • 女帝は正面の玉座には、純白の絹の衣装に包まれた小太りの小柄な姿があった。目には静かな微笑をたたえ、引きずり込まれるような色気を憶えた。光太夫は拝礼の儀式を無事すますことができた。
    • 女帝は光太夫の嘆願書を参照しながら、誰がこれを書いたのか問いた。キリールは自分が光太夫の言った通り書きましたと回答した。
    • 女帝は"ベドニャースカ" (可哀想に)と宣う。光太夫は海上での漂流の辛苦、死んだ者・生き延びた者の運命を詳しく述べた。女帝は再び"オー、ジャウコ" (憐れむべし)と宣う。これは死者を悼む言葉なり。
    • 最後に、女帝は光太夫の意思を確認した。光太夫は帰国への強い思いを伝えた。
    • 女帝は、嘆願書の至急の調査を命じた。
  • 破格の厚遇:
    • 光太夫は女帝のお召しをたびたび受けた。鎖国の日本は、神秘的な異界の地に見えたのであろう。日本の宗教について問われた時、彼は宮居や阿弥陀如来の絵を見せて説明した。
    • 別の日には、光太夫は船頭の正装姿で臨むと、女帝はこの姿のまま肖像を描くことを部下に命じた。
    • 女帝の光太夫に対する待遇は例外であった。彼女はおそらくバルテルミー・レセップスの書いた旅行日記を読んでいた。
    • 女帝は新たな外交政策として日本との交易を検討していた。光太夫へのお召しが幾度にも及んだのはそのためであった。
    • 女帝は2つの案を持っていた。1つはキリールの案、もう一つはシェレンホフら豪商の上申書であり、それは日本人漂流民を帰化させ、場合によっては通訳に使うという案だった。
    • 光太夫は、女帝のお召しの度毎に、帰国の許可が出るのか気がかりであった。
  • 1791.7: 遊女エリザベータとの出会い:
    • 光太夫の名は帝都上流階級の間で有名になった。光太夫は様々な交際の輪に招待された。
    • ある日、光太夫は、帝都近くの遊女エリザベータと出会うことになった。深夜までの豪華の舞踏と酒宴であった。光太夫はその雰囲気に圧倒された。
    • いつの間にか、老嫗が光太夫に34人もの美女を紹介した。光太夫は最も気に入った18歳の遊女を選んだが、労嫗は、別のエリザベータ(24歳)を推薦した。
      • 翌朝去り際に、エリザベータは絹の襟巻と三枚の絵と銀貨3つを添えて光太夫に贈った。
      • しばらくして光太夫がその館を再び訪れた際、エリザベータは光太夫を賓客として迎えてくれた。エリザベータはまた金貨1枚と更紗のハンカチ10枚を、また主人夫婦は銀貨15枚を贈った。光太夫は断れず、受け取った。
      • キリルはこの話を光太夫から聞いて驚き、"さても光太夫は果報者かな。今万事を捨てて遊女にもらうことを生業とせよ"とあきれ顔で笑った。
  • 1791.9:
    • 宮廷は帝都の冬宮へ移動した。キリールと光太夫もまたペテルスブルグに戻った。
    • 光太夫はすぐ秘密裏に、女帝から帰国の許可が得られない場合の腹案としてオランダ公使への接近を図った。キリールの妻のエカテリーナの弟がペテルブルグに住んでおり、彼の妻はオランダ人だった。この人脈で光太夫はオランダ公使を会うことができた。しかし彼の反応は協力的ではなかった。オランダは光太夫の帰国に協力するかもしれないが、それは大変困難で危険を伴うことであると示唆した。
    • 光太夫はオランダ公使に彼の日本への手紙を託した。"日本への帰国はうどんげの花の御座候" (3000年に一度咲くという伝説の花)
    • キリールは光太夫がオランダルートを探していることは気づいていたのだろう。それは苦々しいことだが光太夫の心情を理解して目をつぶっていた。
  • 1791.9.29:
    • この日は、光太夫にとって人生最良の日となった。
    • 出頭命令があり、光太夫はキリールに伴われて、ベズボロトコ邸に赴く。そこにはヴォロンツォフ商務長官が満面の笑みで出迎えた。光太夫は、日本人漂流民の帰国許可の勅令に接した。女帝はキリールの案を採用したのだ。光太夫とキリールは喜びで目を潤ませた。
    • これより先、1791. 9.13付で、女帝はイルクーツク総督ピーリに慎重な勅令を下していた。今回は、国書持参の正規の使節派遣を見送り、イルクーツク総督の書簡を持って日本側の反応を打診する方策を選ぶこととした。その勅令の趣旨は以下であった。
      • オホーツクにおいて航海用船舶1艘と乗務員を準備し、船長はロシア人とする。
      • 日本人送還の使節はキリール・ラクスマンの息子の一人(実際には次男アダム)
      • 日本人漂流民3名(光太夫・小市・磯吉)
      • ロシア正教に帰依した2人(庄蔵・新蔵)はイルクーツク日本語学校の教師とする。
      • イルクーツクの商人代表を同乗させ、今後の日本との交易に備える。
      • 日本人漂流民送還に至る経営を詳述したイルクーツク総督による日本政府宛書簡を用意する。その書簡において、日本との通商樹立を望むロシア政府の意向を伝える。
      • あくまでの日本人送還を主とし、通商関係樹立を従とする。(女帝の光太夫に対する温情)
    • 英国の動き:
      • 帝都駐在英国公使チャールス・ウィットワースは、光太夫との接触を試みた。しかしロシア側も警戒心を抱いたので、英国公使はなすすべがなかった。英国外相グレンヴィルに宛てた機密文書によれば、
        • 光太夫は、パラス教授の友人であるラクスマン教授の家に滞在している。
        • 英国経由で故国に帰るよう彼を説得することは不可能ではなく、信頼できる人物を通じて働きかけようとした。
        • しかし、彼は厳重に監視されているので、直接接触することは困難である。
  • 1791.10.5:
    • 英雄でありエカテリーナ2世の愛人でもあったグレゴリー・ポチョムキン公爵 (52) がクリミアへ向かう途中で死去した。
      • エカテリーナ2世はこの訃報を聞くと、数日間泣き崩れたという。
    • 光太夫はこの噂を聞いた時、雲上人と思っていたエカテリーナ2世が急に身近に感じた。光太夫はポチョムキンの肖像画を買い求め日本に持ち帰ることにした。
  • 1791.10.20:
    • 女帝からのお召しがあり、キリールと光太夫をネヴァ河南岸に建つ冬宮へ伺候した。それは孔雀石で飾られた孔雀の間など、贅を尽くした宮殿であった。
    • 女帝は玉座で心なしか沈んだ表情に見えた。光太夫は帰国が実現する至福を一途にお礼申し上げた。
    • "恙なく帰国せよ"そう言うと女帝はほほ笑まれた。光太夫の手には宝石箱のゆな美しい嗅ぎ煙草入れがあった。それは別離の記念の品だった。これが光太夫にとって最後の面会だった。
  • 日本への帰国の許可が出た後:
    • 光太夫は翌日から非常に忙しい日々となった。
    • アレクサンドル・根不スキー大修道院、クンストカーメラ博物館、ペトロパヴォロフスク要塞とピョートル大帝廟、ペテルゴフの夏の宮殿など名所巡り、芝居見物などに出来方。
    • 光太夫は今や帝都一の賓客となった。政府高官・学者・豪商たちからの招待が殺到した。自分の宿舎での食事を取ることがめったにない位であった。
    • ある日、光太夫は貴族士官学校校長のフョードル・アンガリトからの養成があり、日本の衣装を持参して学校に出向いた。そこでは多賀丸漂流民による日本語辞典があった。一部の日本語は南部訛りであり、光太夫はそれを指摘し、6日間通ってそれらを訂正した。
  • 1791.11.8:
    • ヴォロンツォフ公爵から官邸への呼び出しがあった。ロシア定刻から日本人漂流民に対する公式の拝領品が授与された。光太夫には最高の褒賞である金メダル、他にフランス製の金の懐中時計と金貨150枚。以後、"ガスパジン光太夫"(Gentleman光太夫)と呼ばれるようになった。小市と磯吉には銀メダル、他に金貨50枚。新蔵と庄蔵にも同額の金貨が下付された。
    • キリールには、光太夫を保護してきた功績として、ダイヤモンドの指輪と銀貨10000枚が与えられた。
    • 狐のコート等様々な餞別の品が高官から贈られた。
      • ユニークなプレゼントとしては、顕微鏡、ガラス器、銅版画、布地など
      • 全ての人々が光太夫の帰国を祝ってくれた。光太夫はロシア人の美しい心情に打たれた。
      • 光太夫は遊女エリザベータとの最後の名残を惜しんだ。美貌の遊女の餞別は、メリヤスの靴下と旅行用の薬だった。
      • 光太夫は50絃の琴(ピアノ)を持ち帰りたかったが、キリールがそれは旅の途中で壊れてしまい役立たなくなると反対した。
  • 1791.11.26:
    • キリールと光太夫は、妻の弟イワン・ストロマノフの家で旅装を整えた。
    • 12頭立ての馬橇2台、荷物用馬橇3台を連ねて、深夜0時にペテルブルグを出発した。新蔵と新蔵のロシア人の友人が同行した。
    • 結局、光太夫はペテルブルグに9ヵ月滞在したが、いつも緊張の日々だった。それが今やもう夢の間に過ぎたような気がした。
  • 1791.11.29: モスクワ着
    • ペテルスブルグへの往路は先を急いだ強行軍だったが、イルクーツクへの復路は、遊覧旅行となった。
    • 11.29にはモスクワに到着し、そこに12日間滞在し名所巡りに費やした。
  • 1791.12.14: ノヴゴロド着
    • モスクワから400km東方にあるニージニイ・ノヴゴロドに到着。6日間を過ごす。
  • 1792.1.23真夜中:
    • イルクーツクのキリール邸に到着し、光太夫はそこに泊まった。新蔵は鋳物師マトヴェイ宅へ戻った。
    • 翌 1.24:光太夫は金メダルをかけて、ビーリ総督を訪問した。総督は豪華な食事を振る舞ってくれた。そして帰国までイルクーツクに留まり、帰国準備金として銀貨300枚を支給してくれた。光太夫には住居の提供があり、光太夫と小市はそこに泊まったが、磯吉は別の宿を借りて、帰国までの日を庄蔵と一緒に暮らすことにした。
    • 小市と磯吉は、鋳物師マトヴェイの家に行き、お礼と別れを告げに行った。娘のマルファは磯吉に木製の小箱を手渡した。そこには彼女の栗色の髪一房と銀の指輪が入っていた。指輪はいつもマルファがはめていたものだった。
    • 5月中旬、光太夫は、5-6km山奥にあるキリールの経営するガラス器の工場を訪問した。そこには21人の細工師が働いていた。
    • 5.10: 光太夫は、キリールの友人であるヨハン・ジーファースとあった。彼は日本の船長の和服姿での肖像画を取りたいという。絵の下の余白には、"我が友、日本の船長、光太夫は再び日本へ旅立つ"と付記した。
    • それから山のような餞別が光太夫の下に届けられた。姉のマリアからは七面鳥3羽を渡してくれたので、光太夫は大切にしていた船頭の正装一式を贈り物とした。
  • 1792.5.20 イルクーツク出発の日
    • 光太夫、キリール、5男のマーティンは先頭の馬車に、エケチェリーナ夫人とホトケビッチは後続の馬車に乗った。次の場所ブキンが最後の別れの場所だった。新蔵は、馬に乗って後に従った。
    • 小市と磯吉はその後の馬車で出発する手筈だった。
    • この日の早朝、光太夫は庄蔵に最後の別れを告げに行った。彼は庄蔵には出発日を予め知らせていなかった。光太夫としては、愁嘆は一度きりにしたかったのだ。庄蔵は泣き崩れてしまった。
    • 新蔵との別離も悲痛なものだった。彼はブキン駅逓で待っていた。別れた後も、彼は光太夫の馬車を2-3kmも追いかけてきた。光太夫は馬車を降りて再度の別れを新蔵に言った。新蔵は声を上げて泣き出した。
    • ブキンの次の駅のカチューグからヤクーツクまでは、船旅となる。冬の橇での旅に比べれば極楽のようだった。しかし夏の旅は蚊とアブの来襲に悩まされた。

 

  • Корабль Екатерина; Ship Ekaterina

Ekaterina Ship

  • 光太夫と磯吉

Kodayu-Isokichi

  • クナシリ島/(クナシリ水道)/エトロフ島
  • 国後水道 (Пролив Екатериня, 22kmの海峡・水深484m

>Top

7. Russian Black Ship and Ezo:

  • >Top 1792.8.21:
    • Kirill Laksman was leaving Okhotsk for Irkutsk; this would be the last farewell with Kirill.
    • Kirill asked Kodayu to deliver his letters; 1) Katsuragawa Hoshuu and Nakagawa Junan, both were disciples of Carl Peter Thunberg. Kodayu knew they were involved in translating of Dutch medical book into Japanese by Sugita Genpaku.
    • Ivan Norin whom Kodayu had known at Chigiri was transferred to Okhotsk. Kodayu taught Shakuhachi (Japanese wooden flute) how to play. Finally, Kodayu donated his shakuhachi to him.
  • >Top 1792.9.13:
    • Ekaterina ship sailed Okhotsk for Ezo (=Hokkaido) of Japan
    • At the port, many Russians saw Kodayu off. Ekaterina ship slowly sailed open ocean.
    • Due to the delay of sailing, they all worried about frozen the sea. But Rovtsov Captain bulled through his original plan.
    • The ship caught the sight of Iturup Island, passing through Kunashir strait (Ekaterina strait).
  • >Top 1792.10.7:
    • Ekaterina ship slowly arrived at Nemuro Bay.
    • The Japanese castaways could not recognize where they had arrived.
    • During the past decade, there was a big change of Japan. The age of Matsudaira Sadanobu began after the age of Tanuma.
    • Dutch in Nagasaki had taught Japanese that Russia was a dangerous country. But on the contrary Russia protected Japanese castaways and return them to Japan spending enormous budget. If these behaviors were reported to Edo, the Japanese government would have taken favorable response to Russia.
    • Matsudaira Sadanobu instructed the Matsumae Domain to avoid collision with the Ekaterina ship, keeping amicable attitude.
      • He has decided to take an prudent decision; that is to allow one ship of Russian mission to come to Nagasaki to contact Japan.
      • Around the end of 1792, Sadanobu recognized the personality of Kodayu who could meet with the Empress, and instructed the negotiator of Matsumae Domain to give safety assurance to Kodayu.
  • >Top 1793. 4. 2; At last Koichi died of scurvy.
  • 1792.10.7: The Russian ship anchored:
  • Parasan coast north of Nemuro Peninsula where the Russian ship anchored was unknown to the cabinet members (councilors). First, Sadanobu thought that the Russian selected such a remote place to avoid expelling from Japan.
    • Then Sadanobu hurried to blockage the information leak, prohibiting all ship going to Ezo from the next year (1793); but this blockage was useless, because the coming of Russial ship was widely rumored.
    • Adam, Envoy, tried to submit a letter addressed to the load of Ezo, Matsumae Michihiro, saying.
      • We came from Russia bringing the Japanese castaway here on behalf of Irkutsk General-Governor based of the Empress edict.
      • We would overwinder here due to winter is approaching.
      • Next spring we will move to one of your major port, and will do our mission.
    • Kumagai Ryutaro of Matsumae Domain agreed to make temporary lodge for overwinter; Russians started to construct it, made made it in about a month.
      • Matsumae Michihiro, formar Lord (removed by recent Ainu's rebellion), thought emergency situation of advent of the Russian ship could be an opportunity to recovery his status.
      • Sent his subordinate Matsumae Yazo to deliver the letter of Adam Laksman to Edo, together with the letter of Michihiro; Yazo arrived Edo on 10.19 (11 days later)
      • Michihiro's policy is to watch and confine the Russians in the area of Nemuro as well as to support and attend them, until getting instruction from Edo.
    • Yunosuke, son of Michihiro, who arrived Edo after the express messenger was authorized to succeed Matsumae Domain. (Originally Sadanobu considered to transfer Matsumae Domain from Ezo)
      • The counter measures against the Russian ship was discussed in the cabinet.
      • The discussion was almost useless, because there are nobody who could understand correctly the document of Adam Laksman, chief delegation written in Russian language, except for the poor translation of Tugolkov.
      • Sadanobu mostly worried the situation that the Russian ship entered Edo Bay, which was known defenceless. Sadanobu judged it was better to negotiate with them in Ezo.

7. ロシアの黒船と蝦夷地:

  • Курильские острова
  • о. Кунашир; Kunashir;<black, weed island, Aynu itak
  • о. Итуруп; Iturup; <promontory, Aynu itak
    • Кырильск
  • о. Уруп
  • пролив Екатерины
  • пр. Фриза
  • 1792.8.21:
    • キリール・ラックスマンはオホーツクからイルクーツクは戻る。これがキリールとの永別となった。
    • キリールは光太夫に彼の手紙を託した。1) 蘭方医師の桂川甫周と中川淳庵宛のもので、両人ともカール・ツュンベリーの弟子とのこと。光太夫は彼らが過ぎた杉田玄白の解体新書の翻訳仲間であった。
    • 光太夫がチギリでの知己だったイワン・ノリンがオホーツクで転任してきた。光太夫は彼に日本の尺八を伝授した。最後には別れの記念にと彼に尺八を贈った。
  • 1792.9.13:
    • エカテリーナ号は日本の蝦夷へ向けて出帆した。
    • 港には多くのロシア人が光太夫を見送った。エカテリーナ号はゆっくりと外洋に向かって出港していった。
    • 出帆が遅れたため海の凍結が心配された。しかしロフツォフ船長は強引に当初の計画を貫いた。
    • 船はエトロフ島影を捉えて国後水道(エカテリーナ海峡)を通過した。
  • 1792.10.7:
    • エカテリーナ号はゆっくりと根室湾に入港した。
    • 日本の漂流民たちもどこに到着したのか分からなかった。
    • この十年の間に日本は大きく変化した。田沼時代は去り、松平定信の時代に移っていた。
    • 長崎のオランダ人はロシアが危険な国であると日本人に教えていた。しかし逆に、ロシアは日本人漂流民を保護し、莫大な予算を使って彼らを日本へ送還した。これらの行動が江戸に報告されれば、日本政府はロシアに対し好意的になるであろう。
    • 松平定信は、松前藩がエカテリーナ号と衝突を起こさず友好的な態度を取るように指示した。
      • 彼は慎重な決定を行った。ロシア使節の1隻のみを長崎で受入て、日本と接触する。
      • 1792年頃には、定信は光太夫が女帝の謁見を受けたことを認識しており、交渉相手の松前藩に対して、光太夫の安心感を与えるよう指示した。
  • 1793. 4.2: ついに小市が壊血病のため死去した。
  • 1792.10.7: ロシア船来航:
    • 10.7 (和暦では9.3)ロシア船が来航したのは根室半島の北のバラサン海岸。定信はロシア船が打ち払い令を避けるためにそのような僻地を選んだのかと疑った。
      • 定信はまず情報統制を引き、翌年(1793)よりすべての廻船の蝦夷への寄港を停止した。しかしこの統制は役立たなかった。ロシア船来航は噂が広まっていたからである。
      • アダム使節は、まず蝦夷地領主である松前道広に書簡を提出しようとした。その文面は
        • ロシア女帝陛下勅命による使節として、日本人漂流民を送還するために来航した。
        • 冬も近づいているので、まず当地で越冬したい。
        • 来春、帰国の主要な港に赴き、任務を果たす所存である。
      • 松前藩熊谷隆太郎は越冬の仮宿舎建設を許可した。ロシア人達は早速、仮住居の建設にとりかかり1ヵ月で完成させた。
        • 松前道広、前領主(アイヌの騒乱で解任)はロシア船来航という緊急事態は、地位回復の機会と見なした。
        • 部下の松前弥蔵を使者としてアダム・ラクスマン使節の書簡と自身の書状を持たせて江戸に早駆させ、10.19には江戸に到着した。(11日後)
        • 道広の方針は、公儀からの下命があるまで、ロシア人達を根室地域で監視・留め置き、同時に便宜・優待に努めるというものだった。
      • 道広の息子勇之介は急使の江戸到着後になって、松前藩の継承が許可された。(当初、定信は松前藩の蝦夷改易を検討していた。)
        • ロシア船への対策が幕閣で議論された。
        • 議論はほとんど役立たなかった。誰もロシア語で書かれたアダム・ラクスマンを、不十分なツゴルコフの訳文以外に、正確に理解できなかったからである。
        • 定信はロシア船が江戸湾に入港する事態だけは避けたかった。その無防備が知られてしまうからである。定信は蝦夷で交渉する方がむしろ良いと考えた。

>Top Crew List of Ekaterina:      
# Name Age Function Fate

1

Adam Kirillovich Laksman 28 使節 (Envoy)

■Second son of Kirill Laksman

2 Vashilii Fiyodrovich Rovtsuov 56 船長 (Captain)  
3 Vasilii Ivanovich Oreisov   航海士 (Navigator)  
4 Filip Ekimovich Mukhopulyov   航海士 (Navigator)

 

5 Egol Ivanovich Tugolkov 34 通訳 (Interpreter)


6 Ivan Filipovich Trapezunikov 36 測量士 (Surveyor)  
7 Chikhon Sapojinikov   水夫長 (Chief Sailor) experience in Ezo; Ainu language
8 Semyon Koshelyov   料理長 (Chief Cook)  
13 5 other sailors   水夫 (Sailor)  
  within above ond sailor named Makhotin   水夫 (Sailor) ■died at Nemuro by curvy
15 2 carpenters   大工 (Carpenter)

 

16 1 blacksmith   鍛冶 (Blacksmith)  
17 1 apprentice doctor   医師 (Doctor)

 

18 1 gunner   砲兵 (Gunner)  
21 3 soldiers   兵士 (Soldier)  
22 Domitorii Yakovirevichi Shabarin   水先人 (Pilot)  
25 Uras Nikiforovich Vavikov & 2 staff   商人 (Merchant) Assistant manager of Sherkhov
26 Ivan Grigorievich Pornomotinui   商人 (Merchant)  
27 Vashier Ivanovich Koff   少年 (Boy) Son of Okhotsk Governor-General
28 Aleksei Vashilievich Rovtsov   少年 (Boy) Adoptive Son of Captain; Inuit
29 Japanese Castaway (Kodayu)   大黒屋光太夫 光太夫・小市・磯吉
30 Japanese Castaway (Koichi)   小市 died at Nemuro
31 Japanese Castaway (Isokichi)   (北浜)磯吉 had surname after return
>Top

8. Negotiation of Russia and Japan under seclusion:

  • 1792.10.19 (Kansei 4th year):
  • the express messenger of Matsumae Domain arrived at Edo, Capital of Japan, and informed the arrival of Russian Black Ship to Ezo.
  • Then the cabinet of Tokugawa Shogunate (one-man cabinet of Matsudaira Sadanobu) was composed of:
    1. Chief Councilor: Matsudaira Sadanobu (Lord of Ohshu Shirakawa)
    2. Councilor: Matsudaira Nobuaki (Lord of Mikawa Yoshida)
    3. Councilor: Matsudaira Norisada (Lord of Mikawa Nishio)
    4. Councilor: Honda Tadakazu (Lord of Iwaki Izumi)
    5. Councilor: Toda Ujinori (Lord of Mino Oogaki)
    6. Councilor: Torii Tadaoki (Lord of Shimofusa Mibu)
  • Matsudaira Sadanobu's policy regarding the Russian ship, which was scrupulous and prudent:
    • Immediately appointed two negotiators (Metsuke, literally censor), rather than Kanjo-bugyo, the magistrate office supervising Nagasaki bugyo, as a kind of wartime regime.
    • Coming of foreign ships to Japan is considered as 'forthcoming national crisis,' trying to avoid armed clash with foreign ships.
      • On the other hand, the seclusion policy had been a tradition doctrine of Tokugawa Shogunate, which means Japan could not receive the official foreign document.
      • The key was how to persuade Russians to understand and agree such Japanese traditional policy. The Japanese negotiators were named literally 'Persuader.'
    • Secondly, the treatment of acceptance of Japanese castaways. Sadanobu thought that Japan should appreciated Russian consideration of returning Japanese castaways. The idea Sadanobu thought was to permit the entrance of one Russian ship into Nagasaki.
    • 1792.11:
      Organization of the Japanese negotiation team at Matsumae on behalf of Sadanobu:
      1. Superintendent: Hotta Masaatsu, Wakadoshiyhori, secretary
      2. Chief Negotiator: Ishikawa Tadafusa, Metsuke, censor; later promoted to Kanjo-bugyo, magistrate office supervising Nagasaki
      3. Deputy Negotiator: Murakami Yoshiaya, Metsuke, censor; later promoted to Machi-bugyo, city governor.
      4. Liaison with Matsumae Domain: Nakagawa Kanzaburo, censor
  • 1792.11;
    • Sadanobu was relieved to hear the port in Nemuro, where the Russian ship anchored became frozen until next spring; thus the ship could not go out.
    • In late November, Matsuda Juuemon, undersecretary and Inoue Tatsunosuke, assistant undersecretary left Edo for Ezo.
    • In these days, a big storm raged Matsumae area, causing around 200 shipwreck, and short of supply of rice.
  • 1792.12:
    • Murata Hyozaemon and Oota Hikobei were appointed as receptionists of the Russian delegation. They delayed to come to Matsumae due to heavy snowfall, arriving in February 1793.
  • 1793.1.23:
    • Ishikawa Tadafusa and Murakami Yoshiaya, negotiators were also delayed, arriving Matsumae.
    • Sadanobu instructed the negotiators the importance of receiving Kodayu, who should be treated as a VIP having met with the Empress of Russia.
  • 1793.3.13:
    • The Japanese negotiators preliminarily checked the place of negotiation; deciding the a villa of Matsumae Domain, renaming the place 'Hama-yashiki' (Seashore villa).
    • They remade the house of Furuta Einojo as the accommodations for the Russians
  • 1793.3.10: the port of Nemuro was defrosted after long winter.
    • 3. 12: the first victim of Russian by scurvy, who was Makhotin, sailor, and there were 15 other persons suffering scurvy.
    • 3. 23: Suzuki Kumazo of Matsumae Domain died of disease.
    • 4. 2: Koichi died of scurvy at 47. Kodayu and Isokichi grieved for the death of comrade.
  • 1793.4:
    • Soldiers were collected 421 from Nanbu Domain, and 317 from Tsugaru Domain.
    • around 150 Ainu were collected as porters.
  • 1793.5.7:
    • Russian Ekaterina ship set sail from Nemuro, together with Japanese pilot. But Captain Rovtsov had bad temper, looking down the Japanese seaman.
    • There was a narrow strait named Goyomai between Nemuro Peninsula and Suisho Island, where there might be a risk of stranding.
    • Japanese pilot ship, Teishou-maru, has more controllability.
  • 1793.5.19:
    • After drifting around the strait, Russian Ekaterina could meet again with the Japanese pilot ship Teiyou-maru.
  • 1793.6.6:
    • Ekaterina again drifted and arrived at Shiriya cape and tried to go Egara. Three Japanese fish boats approached, which strongly advised Ekaterina to go to Hokodate instead of Egara due to the current situation.
  • 1793.6.9:
    • Ekaterina towed by many towboats entered into Hakodate. There were lots of onlookers watching the foreign ship.
  • <Preliminary negotiation>:
    • The first controversy: salutation and stance of envoy
      The attitude of Japanese negotiators were arrogant. After the Russian ship arrival at Nemuro, they required Russian to come and make salutations to the Japanese counterpart.
    • Adam Laksman clearly rejected such request, because they came to Japan to carry the Japanese castaways at the behest of Russian Emperor. Salutation should by done first from Japanese side. Murata Hyozaemon, receptionist, had no word to say against this.
    • The following day of burial of Koichi, Japanese receptionists came to the Russian lodge.
    • The second controversy: land route or sea route to Matsumae
      The receptionist insisted the Russian delegation to go to Matsumae from Nemuro by land route, while the Russians insisted to go by sea route. The discussion on this barren controversy continued about a month.
      • Actually, Nemuro was then like a penal colony. Russian ship is impossible to stay long here and the land route is too hard which was experienced by the negotiators themselves.
      • Both compromised that Japanese pilot ship guide the Russian ship to Etomo (now Muroran), then go to Matsumae on land route by major Russians accompanying Japanese castaways.
      • As Russians promised not to go Edo by the ship, and disclosed had the official document of the Governor-General addressed to the Japanese central government (Shogunate). Upon having delivered the document to the officer came from the central government, Russians were ready to hand over the Japanese castaways.
    • Anguish of Kodayu:
      • The attitude of oppressive Japanese officers made Kodayu feel sense of vanity, surprising the return of Japanese castaways causing such a big trouble; just like being about to war against foreign country.
      • Sensitive Kodayu recognized all these things caused by high barrier of Japanese isolation policy. Japanese castaways looked like a floating weed.
  • 1793.6.9: arrived at Hakodate:
    • After berthing of Ekaterina, many Japanese onlookers rushed to ride on the ship; Kodayu and Isokichi warned not to ride on the ship in Japanese. Japanese onlookers understood that two were able interpreters who could speak perfect Japanese.
    • At last the officials of Matsumae Domain arrived and dispersed the mobs away.
    • Kodayu and Isokichi surprised nosy onlookers; at the same time they confirmed this was a real Japan where we succeeded to return.
    • Adam Laksman required Kodayu to have a bath, because they were all suffered sea water on their body during eight-days drifting.
    • Around 14:00, Shiratori Shinjiro, local rich merchant welcomed at the barge, prepare a bath at his house, who invited all crew to gorgeous Japanese food there. Kodayu and Isokichi enjoyed the food for the first time in 11 years.
    • This was an accidental happening that Russian Ekaterina could enter Hakodate port.
    • In Ezo, there were three major ports; Hakodate, Matsumae, and Esashi, and roads connection these ports were well developed.
    • The two Japanese negotiators, Ishikawa Tadafusa and Murakami Yoshiaya stayed at Matsumae made proper decision, approving landing at Hakodate port and move to Matsumae from there. Concurrently required Ekaterina to shift to Egara, but which was nominal order. Actually they connived anchoring of Ekaterina at Hakodate.
    • 14 crew members were selected to go to Matsumae on land route, including Adam Laksman, Captain Rovtsov, Interpreter Tugorkov, and Kodayu and Isokichi, etc.
    • It was the peak of summer; Russians didn't whined at the coldness in Nemuro, but complained the heat in summer season. Isokichi explained Edo was much hotter than here.
  • 1793.6.20: Japan-Russia diplomatic negotiations (three times):
    • The Russian delegation proceeded to the villa of Furuta Einojo in a strict guard of Matsumae, Nanbu, and Tsugaru Domains jointly.
    • Kodayu and Isokichi were included riding on horses, but onlookers didn't recognize that they are Japanese castaways.
    • Kodayu was surprised the beauty of Matsumae town, which was called Little Kyoto in Ezo.
    • During Japan-Russia negotiation, the two Japanese were placed behind.
    • The instruction of Matsudaira Sadanobu, C0uncilor was quite strict and overbearing, saying:
      1. It is the Japanese traditional policy that foreign ships approaching Japanese territory should be expelled.
      2. Even if the ship approached Japan with the aim to deliver Japanese castaways, Japan should not allow the entrance to the Japanese ports except Nagasaki.
      3. However, a ship whose country who does not know such Japanese policy could be exceptional only once, considering the burden of carrying Japanese castaways.
  • >Top <The first negotiation>: the treatment of the official letter from Piri, Governor-General.
    • Now it started the diplomatic negotiation between Japan and Russia for the first time in history.
    • First, Russian side insisted that the official document should be duly delivered, but Japanese side insisted the reject of any official document.
    • Russian side made concession to Japan; that is, Russian side will deliver the speech in front of the Japanese delegation. Japanese delegation confirm it by their eyes, but will not receive it. Russian side will put back the document. Thereafter, the interpreter will read Japanese translation.
    • Adam thought the order of the Empress prioritized the due acceptance of returning of the Japanese castaways, and these processes could take good care of the castaways.
  • <The second negotiation>: Delivery of Japanese castaways:
    • Ishikawa Tadafusa, Japanese delegation, noticed that negotiation with foreign country should be done only at Nagasaki. From now on, Russians should go to Nagasaki and have a negotiation there; thus a permission of entering Nagasaki port is issued for Russian for the next time. In addition, we will send Goto Juujiro to the lodge of the Russian delegation to receive the Japanese castaways, appreciating of your taking care of them for such a long time.
    • Also Japanese delegation prepared farewell dinner party with the Russian delegation and the Japanese castaways.
      • At the party, Kodayu exchanged cups of sake with Adam Laksman; both were spending almost ten months since sailing Okhotsk port. Kodayu felt that Adam was just like his own son.
      • Isokichi thought he was missing Malfa, daughter of caster.
    • When Goto Juujiro came to receive the two castaways, Adam repeated again, "these Japanese castaways were treated as the important persons in Russia, therefore we do hope these should be treated carefully and valuably in Japan.
      • Thus official delivery of the castaways was done.
    • The next day, Ishikawa Tadafusa and Murakami Yoshiaya, both are censors, called Kodayu and Isokichi, saying the Japanese government was taking care of you, and no need of worrying.
      • Hearing such words, Kodayu and Isokichi felt relieved for the first time.
      • On the same day, gifts from Russian delegation came to the two Japanese counterpart, such as big mirror, pistol, thermometer, etc. together with two letters of Kirill addressed to Dutch scholars in Edo, which later Ishikawa Tadafusa received. Those were treated as private letters, not as official document.
  • <The third negotiation>: License of visit on Nagasaki port:
    • The third negotiation became amicable one.
      • First, Ishikawa Tadafusa gave thanks to Adam giving the gift, then handed the letter of permission entering Nagasaki port next time.
      • After these processes, Ishikawa said he hopes earliest return of the mission to Russia.
      • Then, the farewell party was prepared in the different room.
      • Ishikawa suggested the Russian delegation, saying "when Russia comes Nagasaki next time, the trade could be possible either Nagasaki or Ezo, subject to the negotiation at Nagasaki." This was the instruction Matsudaira Sadanobu that treatment of office document should be strict, but after issue of permission letter, suggest the future possibility to Russian delegation. Matsudaira Sadanobu might consider the trade be possible either in Ezo or Kunashir or Iturup.
  • >Top Japanese castaways' departure to Edo:
    • 1793.7.16 (8. 11 in Russian calendar) Ekaterina ship set sail from Hakodate, staying there 11 days. After passing the Kunashir strait, the sailing was smooth; they could arrive at Okhotsk on September 8 in Russian calendar (Aug. 15 in Japanese lunar calendar) in about one month.
    • 1793.7.16 on the same day, Kodayu and Isokichi left Matsumae for Edo. They carried large cargo from Russian souvenirs.
    • The departure of long queue of the castaways means the ending of a big event of visiting of Russian black ship and dawn of opening Japan as ending period of Japanese isolation.

8. 鎖国下の日露交渉:

  • 1792.10.7:
    松前藩の急使が江戸に到着し、ロシアの黒船の蝦夷地来航の報を伝えた。
  • 当時の幕閣は松平定信の独裁体制だった。
    1. 首座老中: 松平定信 (奥州白河藩主)
    2. 老中: 松平信明 (三河吉田藩主)
    3. 老中: 松平乗定 (三河西尾藩主)
    4. 老中: 本多忠籌 (磐城泉藩主)
    5. 老中: 戸田氏教 (美濃大垣藩主)
    6. 老中: 鳥居忠意 (下総壬生藩主)
  • 松平定信の検討は慎重を極めた。
    • 即座に、ロシア側との交渉に目付2名を起用した。本来は長崎奉行所を配下に持つ勘定奉行所が事に当たるはずだが、戦時体制の布陣として対応した。
    • ロシア船の来航は"国難来る"という対応であったが、兵端を開くような交渉の仕方は絶対に避けなければならなかった。
      • 一方で、鎖国政策は徳川幕府の国是であり、通信交易を求める国書の受理はできない。
      • この日本の国宝をロシア側に納得させる必要があり、日本の蝦夷地派遣の2目付には、宣諭使を名乗らせることになった。
    • 次に漂流民送還への対処である。日本人漂流者を保護し送還してくれたことに対し日本側は深謝し礼を失してはならない。苦心の策が、ロシア船一艘の長崎入港を許す信牌の授与だった。
    • 1792.11:
      定信配下のロシア側との松前の地での交渉団は以下。
      1. 江戸での総指揮: 若年寄堀田正敦
      2. 宣諭使正使: 目付石川忠房
        (後に勘定奉行)
      3. 宣諭使副使: 目付村上義礼
        (後に町奉行)
      4. 松前藩との連絡・江戸留守番訳: 目付中川勘三郎
  • 1792.11:
    • 定信は根室港の状況を聞き、ロシア船が氷に閉ざされ、来春までは身動きできないことに一安心した。
    • 11月末; 徒目付松田重右衛門は小人目付井上辰之助を伴い、江戸を出立し蝦夷に向かう。
    • この頃、松前地域に大嵐が吹き、200余艘の廻船と漁船が難破し米不足になる。
  • 1792.12:
    • 徒目付村田兵左衛門はロシア人の出迎え役として、小人目付太田彦兵衛を伴って江戸を出立。
    • 1793.2上旬: 兵左衛門と彦兵衛、松前に到着。
  • 1793.1.23:
    • 交渉役の石川忠房と村上義礼のこの日の江戸出立となった。
    • 定信の指示は、光太夫がロシア皇帝にも謁見した重要人物なのでその引取が重要であるとした。
  • 1793.3.13:
    • 日本の交渉団は、まず交渉場所を調査し、松前藩の"浜屋敷"とした。
    • ロシア人の宿泊先は、用人・吉田栄之丞の屋敷を改築した。
  • 1793.3.10: 根室港の氷は解凍
    • 3.12: ロシア側に最初の犠牲者・水夫マホーチンが壊血病で死亡。他に15名ほどが同じ病で苦しんでいた。
  • 1793.4:
    • 兵士が召集され、南部藩から421名、津軽藩から317名が参加。
    • アイヌ150人が荷役として徴収。
  • 1793.5.7:
    • ロシア船エカテリーナ号は、日本の水先案内と一緒に根室を出帆した。ロフツォフ船長は日本の水先案内人を見下しており、不機嫌だった。
    • 根室半島との間の珸瑶瑁水道は幅が狭く座礁の危険もあった。
    • 日本の水先案内の禎祥丸は操舵性に優れた弁才船だった。
  • 1793.5.19:
    • ロシア船エカテリーナ号は、海峡付近で漂流した後、再度水先案内の禎祥丸を会うことができた。
  • 1793.6.6:
    • エカテリーナ号は再度漂船し、下北半島東端の尻屋岬に漂着し、絵柄へ向かおうとした。3隻の日本漁船が近づき、海流の関係から、エカテリーナ号に絵柄ではなく箱館に向かうべきと忠告した。
  • 1793.6.9:
    • エカテリーナ号は多くの引き船に曳航され、箱館に無事入港した。この外国船を見ようと大勢の見物人が集まった。
  • <事前交渉>
    • 最初の論争: 挨拶・使節の姿勢
      日本側交渉団の姿勢は傲慢であった。ロシア船の根室到着後、ロシア側が日本側の相手の方にやってきて挨拶せよとのこと。
    • アダム・ラックスマンはこの要求を断固拒否。理由と彼らは日本人漂流民を送還するためにロシア皇帝の命により来航したのでである。挨拶はまず日本側からすべきではないか。出迎え役の村田兵左衛門はこれに対し一言もなかった。
    • 小市の埋葬の翌日、日本側迎え役はロシア人の宿舎にやってきた。
    • 次の論争: 松前へは陸路か海路か。
      迎え役はロシア代表団は根室から松前まで陸路で移動すべしとし、ロシア側は海路を主張した。この不毛の論争は約1ヵ月続いた。
      • 実際には根室は当時は流刑地のようであり、ロシア船がそこに長く留まることは不可能であった。また陸路は交渉人達自身があまりにも困難であることを体験していた。
      • 両者は、日本の水先案内人がロシア船を導いて絵鞆(室蘭)まで行き、そこから松前までロシア団の主要メンバーが日本人漂流民と共に陸路で移動する。
      • ロシア船は江戸へは運行しないことを約束する。まだ総督の公式文書は日本の中央政府(幕府)宛てであることも明かした。これらの書状を中央政府の役人に手渡した後、ロシア側は日本人漂流民を手渡す用意がある。
    • 光太夫の苦悩:
      • 日本側の役人の高圧的な態度は光太夫の心を暗くした。日本人漂流民の帰還がこれ程の大事を生じていることに驚いた。これでは今にも外国との戦争が始まる雲行きではないか。
      • 勘の良い光太夫は、全てが日本の鎖国体制という高い壁に起因している。日本人漂流民は漂う浮き草のようであった。
  • 1793.6.9: 箱館に到着:
    • エカテリーナ号の接岸後、多くの日本人見物人が船に殺到した。光太夫と磯吉は日本語で船には乗らないように警告した。日本の見物人はこの2人は完全な日本語を話す優秀な通訳であると思った。
    • 遂に松前藩の役人が到着し、見物人を排除した。
    • 光太夫と磯吉は騒々しい見物人を見て驚いた。同時にこれが実際の日本で、我々が帰還に成功したことを実感した。
    • アダム・ラックスマンは光太夫に入浴したいと告げた。彼らは8日間も海上に漂って海水を浴びていたからである。
    • 午後2時頃、白鳥新十郎という当地の豪商が艀で出迎え、自邸で入浴させるとのことだった。全乗組員には豪華な和食が振る舞われた。光太夫と磯吉にとっては11年ぶりの和食であった。
    • ロシア船エカテリーナ号の箱館入港は偶然の出来事だった。
    • 蝦夷には主要港として、箱館・松前・江差があり、これらの港を繋ぐ道路も整備されていた。
    • 日本側交渉団(宣諭使)である石川正房と村上義礼も適切な決定を行った。箱館港への入港を認め、そこからの松前に移動せよというものである。同時にロシア船の絵柄への回航も命じたがそれは名目上の命令であった。実際にはエカテリーナ号の箱館滞留を黙認した。
    • 14名が代表として松前に陸路向かった。。アダム・ラックスマン使節、ロフツォフ船長、ツゴルコフ通訳、それと光太夫と磯吉などであった。
    • それは夏の盛りであった。ロシア人は根室での寒さには弱音を吐かなかったが、夏期の暑さには閉口した。磯吉は江戸はここよりもっと暑いと説明した。
  • 1793.6.20: 三次に亘った日露外交交渉
    • ロシア代表団は、松前・南部・津軽藩合同の物々しい警備の中を古田栄之丞邸へ向かった。
    • 光太夫と磯吉は馬の乗っていたが、見物人は誰も彼らが日本人漂流民だとは気づかなかった。
    • 光太夫は松前の町の美しさに驚いた。それは蝦夷の京都と呼ばれていた。
    • 老中松平定信の指示は極めて厳格かつ威圧的であった。
      1. 日本の領海に近づく外国船は追い払うのが伝統的な国法である。
      2. 日本漂流民を送還する目的で日本に近づく船は、長崎以外の日本の港への入港させない。
      3. 但し、これらの日本の国法を知らない国の船は、日本人漂流民を送還する労を考慮して、一度に限り例外とする。
  • <第一回日露交渉> 公式書簡の取扱い扱い
    • 歴史上初の日露外交交渉の開始
    • 先ず、ロシア側は公式文書の正式受渡をするとの主張に対し、日本側はいかなる公的文書も拒否すると主張。
    • ロシア側は日本に譲歩した。即ち、ロシア側は日本人代表団の前で書簡の内容を演説する。日本代表団はそれを視線で確認するが、受領はしない。ロシア側は書簡を元へ治める。その後通訳は日本語訳を朗読する。
    • アダムは女帝の命令が日本人漂流民の帰国を受諾することを優先ことを考え、これらの手続きによって漂流民を大事にしてくれると思った。
  • <第二回日露交渉> 日本人漂流民受取の件
    • 日本側代表団の石川正房は外国との交渉は長崎でのみ行われるとした。今後、ロシアは長崎に出向きそこで交渉すべきである。従って次回のロシア船に対し長崎入港の許可を与える。更に、徒目付後藤重次郎がロシア側代表団の宿舎に行き、日本人漂流民を受取、長い間の彼らに対する世話を感謝する。
    • また日本側代表団はロシア側代表団および日本人漂流民と共に別れの小宴を用意した。
      • 宴では、光太夫はアダム・ラックスマンと乾杯した。オホーツク港を出帆して以来、すでに約10が月が経過していた。
      • 磯吉は鋳物師の娘マルファに再会したいと想い続けていた。
    • 後藤重次郎が2人の漂流民受取に来た際、アダムは再度繰り返した。"これらの日本人漂流民はロシアにおいて重要な人物として扱われた。それ故日本においても彼らを大事に扱われるよう切に願う。"
      • こうして漂流民の引渡は終了した。
    • 翌日、石川正房と村上義礼両目付が、光太夫と磯吉を召し出した。公儀もお前達のこと大切にする故、心配は無用である。
      • これらの言葉を聞き、光太夫と磯吉は初めて安堵した。
      • 同日、ロシア使節より日本の両宣諭使に対し贈り物が届いた。大鏡・ピストル・温度計などと共にキリールが江戸にいる蘭学者宛ての2通の手紙である。石川忠房はその手紙を受理している。公文書扱いにせず、私信として処理したのである。
  • <第三回日露交渉> 長崎への入港許可証
    • 第三回目の交渉は友好的な雰囲気であった。
      • まず石川忠房はアダムに贈り物のお礼をのべた。さらに長崎港寄港の許可書(信牌)を手渡した。
      • これらの手続きの後、石川は使節のロシアへの早期帰国を願うと言った。
      • その後、別れの宴が別室に用意された。
      • 石川は、ロシア側代表団に言った。"ロシアが次回長崎に来ることがあれば、長崎での交渉次第では、長崎か江戸で交易が可能になるであろう。" これは松平定信の指示で、公的書簡の取扱は厳格であるが、許可状を発行した後はロシア代表団の将来の可能性を示唆した。松平定信は交易は蝦夷・国後島または択捉島を考慮していたのかも知れない。
  • 日本の漂流民、江戸へ:
    • 1793.7.16 (露暦では8.11) エカテリーナ号は箱館に11泊して出帆した。クナシリ水道を通過してから航海は順調で、オホーツクには日暦8.15 (露暦9.8)にで到着した。(約1ヵ月)
    • 1793.7.16の同日、光太夫と磯吉は松前を離れて江戸に向かった。ロシアからの土産物も大量だった。
    • 漂流民の長い列の出発は、ロシアの黒船の来航という大事件の終了と日本の孤立時代の終わりとしての開国の夜明けを意味していた。

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9. Ise two castaways living in Edo:

  • 1793.7.23:
    • Matsudaira Sadanobu resigned the status of councilor. But the treatment of the two Japanese castaways was already decided, and the following councilor Toda Ujinori followed the policy.
    • Sadanobu gave opportunity Kodayu and Isokichi to have an audience with Shogun Ienari. This mean that the two castaways got the status of Hatamoto (direct retainer of the Shogun).
      • There is no other person in the history than these two who could talk with Emperor of Russia and Shogun of Japan.
  • 1793.8.17:
    • Kodayu and Isokichi arrived at Edo; both were inquired by Minamimachi-bugyo (governor) Ikeda Nagayoshi.
    • Both were suspected to be Christians. But both clearly denied it.
    • Both were confined in a closed and dark room, all windows were covered by plates; being spied always.
    • Several days later, both were investigated by Nakagawa Kanzaburo and Mamiya Morozaemon, both censors, and recorded by an intelligent Shinomoto Kyuujiro, about the life and everything in Russia.
    • Kodayu disclosed the wife and concubine at hometown. But there is no record whether Kodayu met with them.
  • >Top 1793. 9.18: the audience with Shogun
    • The two were sitting on chairs in the center of garden covered by white sands; both were in Russian official costume, and Kodayu wearing gold medal, Isokichi silver medal.
    • The note-takers and facilitators were Katsuragawa Hoshu, doctor of Dutch medicine, and Taki Motonori, doctor of Chinese medicine. There are many observers there, including former councilor Matsudaira Sadanobu.
    • Tokugawa Ienari, shogun, then 21 year old, was gazing behind the curtain.
    • Before Hoshu began to speak, Kodayu uttered he was acquainted with Katsuragawa Hoshu while in Russia. All attendants reverberated.
      • Hoshu made many questions, to which Kodayu replied instantly.
      • After an intermission, Kodayu and Ishokichi changer to different Russian cloths.
    • Then, Sadanobu made questions; "Why have resolved to return Japan though you got various favors from Russia? Have you mastered Russian language?"
      • Kodayu replied; it was true various favors were given by Russia, but no so much. I felt deep affection of mother and elder brother in my homeland, so I continued to urge Russia to return Japan. Regarding Russian language, I could understand a little bit of it.
      • Kodayu cautiously replied these, because there were rumors about the Japanese castaways being spies sent by Russia.
    • Sadanobu continued his question: "Is there anything instructed by the Russian government when you return home?"
      • Kodayu replied; Russian Governor-General (actually Roju) said, "Russia has trade relationship with almost all other foreign countries. But there is neither relationship nor communication with Japan. The timing of returning of ourselves to Japan would be a good opportunity to make new relationship with Japan."
      • Kodayu clearly stated in front of Shogun that Russia was trading with almost all foreign countries, but had neither trade nor communication with Japan; thus the Russian intention was to establish trade relationship with Japan.
    • Questions other than Sadanobu were commonplace, but there was one sensitive question; "Why you could observe the baptism of Russian Orthodox Church without becoming a Christian?"
      • Kodayu replied, "As castaways like us were treated exceptionally, we were allowed to visit and see anything."
      • Later Sadanobu called Hoshu, commenting that Kodayu is excellent in speech, who could be a good interpreter. Sadanobu was satisfied the meeting.
    • The audience with Shogun is unprecedented event. Hoshu recorded, it could be unusual even in the last millennium.
      • The audience was widely known in Edo people; Japanese castaways became men of the time.
      • After the audience, the coverage of windows were removed, and guard became normal.
  • Visitors of relatives:
    • Visitors were allowed. Hikohachi, son of his second sister, worked in Edo, and Seikichi, sailor, elder brother of Isokichi in hometown came, and heard the news of Shirako of his hometown.
      • According to their information, 1) Kodayu's mother and elder sister (& her husband) were dead. Only second sister was alive. As wife of Kodayu was dead, his family became extinct. Elder second brother living in Edo was also dead.
      • However, the family of Isokichi, Kiku his mother, elder brother, elder & younger sisters were all alive.
    • Before long, Katsuragawa Hoshu came, required by Sadanobu, to make a record book for Shogun. Several days later Hoshu accompanied Morishima Nakara, his younger brother and doctor of Dutch medicine, starting detailed hearings from Kodayu and Isokichi. Metsuke (Censor) and another observer came as the witness. The hearing was continued almost consecutive days; Kodayu and Isokich spent very busy days.
    • >Top Hoshu completed his work within this year, named "the hearing record from the Japanese castaways." (Hokusa Bunryaku)
      • Copy of the book was connived by the government, which was widely known.
      • By the end of October, 1793, the official record was almost complied, being named, "Hokusa Bunryaku" (literally means Summary of the hearing from Northern Raft).
        • In August, 1794, ten volume of books of full version completed including pictures and maps, and immediately submitted to Shogun Ienari.
      • Shinomoto Kyujiro compiled another four volume of books, named "Hokusa Imon" (literally means Different record of the Northern Raft) recording the investigation of the castaways.
      • These two records, "Hokusa Bunryaku," and "Hokusa Imon" became the first excellent books introducing Russia. Virtually, those are the fundamental textbook of study of Russia.
      • But the government treated these books as the forbidden books; the efforts of Kodayu and Isokichi became in vain.
  • 1794.6.11: Official treatment of the two castaways:
    • Councilor Toda Ujinori instructed Kanjobugyo (Governor) the decision as follows:
      1. 30 gold coins are given to each castaway, considering their unique and unchanged will of returning Japan after several difficulties.
      2. They should live in Edo, not allowing return their homeland. Monthly payment is 3 gold coins per month for Kodayu, and 2 gold coins fro Isokichi.
      3. They are allowed to marry, but not allowed to have other jobs.
      4. They should not talk any information of foreign countries to others without permission.
    • Edo Shogunate government intended to monopolize the information about Russia, considering to use as interpreters in the case of revisit of Russian ships.
    • Kodayu accepted these conditions though not satisfactory yet. But Isokichi, much younger than Kodayu, wanted to return a seaman, but a castaway was never allowed to be a seaman again.
  • 1794. 8:
    • Souvenirs of Kochi, who died at Nemuro, were transferred to his wife Ken in homeland Wakamatsu village. Kodayu and Isokichi was pleased to hear this.
  • 1794.11.11 (1795.1.1 Western calendar):
    • Scholar of Dutch, Ootsuki Gentaku arranged the Holland New Year Meeting, where Kodayu and Isokichi were invited; Kodayu demonstrated to write Russian characters, while Isokichi appeared in Russian consume.
    • Revisit of Russian ships to Nagasaki had not been realized ever since. Kodayu felt unhappy that the interest of trading with Russia was diluting.
  • Around 1796:
    • Kodayu took a wife in Edo, who was a daughter of Nakada in Mukojima near Sumida River; probably Kodayu 46 and his wife 27 years old, but had no child. Almost same time Kodayu had younger concubine named Maki around 20, betwen whom a son named Kamejiro was born in 1797, and a daugher was in 1803.
    • Around same time, Isokichi took a wife, but had no child.
    • Autumn 1796, Kodayu heard a rumor of the death of Ekaterina II via Dutch deputy chief in Nagasaki who eventually came to Edo.
  • 1797.8: Return home after two decades:
    • Ishikawa Tadafusa promoted to Kanjo-bugyo (Governor), who could be a sympathizer of Kodayu and Isokichi, who immediately brought a gift of celebration.
    • 1798; Isokichi applied a permit of returning to his hometown, written by Kodayu. His return was allowed from 12.1 to 1.14 of the next year. Isokichi (then 35) could meet with his mother Kiku, wife Ken and his friends.
    • 1802: Kodayu applied his return of permit to his hometown, after 20 years; the period was 4.22 to 6.3 when Kodayu became 52. His second senior sister Ino had died two years ago; only three relatives were alive; cousin Koheiji (Daikokuya Hikodayu), Shiroji, and another relative Kiemon.
    • After return to his hometown, he worshiped Ise-shrine, prayed requiem for the dead comrade. He also visited graves of the dead parents, senior sisters and the castaways after 20 years after the shipwreck, and talked about Shozo and Shinzo who were living happily in Russia. These visits had been long burden in the heart of Kodayu.

9. 江戸暮らしとなった伊勢二漂民:

  • 1793.7.23: 松平定信が老中を辞任。彼は慰留されるものと思っていたが、将軍が受理してしまたので、不本意な辞任となった。
  • しかし後任老中の戸田氏教は、伊勢の2漂流民の取扱は、定信の方針を継承した。
  • 定信の最大の配慮は、その経緯を将軍の前で説明する機会を与えたことである。これは2漂流民にとって"将軍お目見え資格"という身分を得たことを意味した。
  • 8.17: 2人は江戸に到着。同日キリシタンかどうかの吟味あり。彼らはそれを否定し吟味は終了。
  • その夜は、雉子橋近くの空屋に連れて来られた。すべての窓が板で封鎖され、昼でも暗く、警備も厳重だった。
    • 数日後、目付である中川勘三郎と間宮諸左衛門の取り調べが行われた。筆録者は篠本九次郎で学識のある九次郎は質疑にも加わった。吟味は漂流・漂着・漂泊などロシア体験の詳細が質された。
    • この吟味で、光太夫は故郷妻の一件も告白している。但し、光太夫がこの妻に再会した記録はない。おそらく故人となったか、または他家に嫁ぎ無縁の人となっていたのだろう。
  • 1793.9.18: 将軍家斉の上覧:
    • 小雨の日だった。江戸城内吹上上覧所の前の御白砂の中央に床几が2つ設けられていた。光太夫は金メダル、磯吉は銀メルをかけ、ロシアの正装姿で登場した。
    • 正面手前には、蘭法奥医師桂川甫周と漢法奥医師紀元徳が書記として座り、その両側には目付・中川勘三郎と矢部彦五郎が座っていた。その他にも多くの参加者がいた。正面の部屋には、前執権松平定信、側衆の加納久周と小野近義、その他の役人が座っていた。
    • 将軍家斉は、御簾の奥から2人の漂流民を眺めていた。
    • 甫周が口火を切ろうとした時、光太夫が甫周にむかってロシアでもお名前は存じていたと言い、満座が大きくどよめいた。
      • 甫周は多くの質問をしたが、光太夫は少しの淀みもなく答えた。
      • 休憩の後、光太夫と磯吉は別のロシア服に着替えていた。
    • その後、定信が質問した。"ロシアでは大変な恩義に預かりながら、なぜ日本に帰国したのか?ロシア語は憶えてきたか?"
      • 光太夫は答えた。恩義は受けましたが、大切に思う程ではありません。日本には母や兄がいるので、恩愛の情忘れがたく、身命を投げ打ち帰国を願いました。ロシア語は聞き取ることが少々できる程度です。
      • 当時、二漂流民に対しては、ロシアのスパイでとする噂が強くあった。光太夫はその疑念を絶妙の即答で晴らした。
    •  定信が更に問いた。"帰国するに当たって、何か申しつけられたことはないか?"
      • 光太夫、ロシアの総督は、世界の国のほとんどはロシアと交易通商しているが、日本のみ交易も通信もない。この度の帰国を機会に、交易関係を結びたいと考えていると言った。
      • 光太夫は、将軍の面前で、ロシア側の交易の希望を堂々と伝達したのである。正に度胸満点だった。
    • 定信以外の質問は常識的なものばかりだった。唯一つ、危険な問いもあった。"キリスト教徒にならないでどうしてロシア正教会の洗礼を観察することができたのか?"
      • 光太夫は答えた。"我々漂流民は制外であり、何方へ参り如何ようななものを見ても咎められることはございませんでした。"
      • 後で、定信は甫周を呼び出し、光太夫はさてさて弁者なり。あれほどの器量者ならば通詞によろしかろう。定信は上機嫌だった。
    • 将軍上覧は前代未聞の快挙。甫周は千古の一大奇事と記す。
      • この一件は江戸市中の知る所となり、光太夫と磯吉は一躍時の人となった。
      • またこの後、窓の覆いは外され、警備も通常になった。
  • 親戚の来訪:
    • 面会が許された。江戸に奉公に出ていた彦八 (光太夫の次姉の息子) と磯吉の兄・清吉 (白子の船乗り)が来て、故郷の消息を初めて知った。
      • その情報に依れば、1) 光太夫の母と長姉・国の夫婦はとっくに無くなり、健在なのは次姉いの一人。光太夫の家は妻が死に絶家となっていた。江戸の次兄・次兵衛もすでに物故していた。
    • ほどなく桂川甫周が訪れ、将軍への献上本を書きたいとのこと。数日後、甫周は蘭学者で弟の森島中良を連れてきた。
    • 甫周は編纂を年内に"日本漂流民からの聞き取り記録書"(漂民御覧之記)を仕上げた。
      • その本の写本は黙認され、広く知られるようになった。
      • 1793.10末; 正式の記録はほぼ完成し、題名は"北槎聞略" (北の筏の意)。
        • 1794.8, 絵図と地図を入れた10巻の本が完成し、直ちに将軍に献呈された。
    • また篠本九次郎が編んだ取り調べ記録"北槎異問"全4巻本も相前後して完成した。
    • これらの記録本"北槎聞略"と"北槎異問"は、日本で最初の優れたロシア紹介の本であり、実質、ロシア学事始めである。
    • しかし幕府はこの2書を禁書とした。協力した光太夫と磯吉の努力も虚しいものになった。
  • 1794.6.11: 伊勢二漂流民に対する処遇が決定。
    • 老中戸田氏教の勘定奉行所への申渡しは以下。
      1. 幾多の艱難を凌ぎ、帰国した奇特な志に付き、金30両ずつ下賜する。
      2. 両名は江戸に住み、故郷へは帰らない。月々の手当は、光太夫へは金3両、磯吉には金2両とする。
      3. 妻を呼び迎えは自由。但し、他の職業には就かないこと。
      4. 外国の様子等みだりに物語せぬこと。
    • 江戸幕府は、ロシア情報を独占し、またロシア船の再来航の際の通訳として考慮した。
    • 光太夫はしぶしぶこれらの条件を飲んだ。磯吉は若かったので、また船乗りになりたかったが、漂流民は再度船乗りになることは許されなかった。
  • 1494.8:
    • 根室で死んだ小市の土産品が故郷若松村の妻けんに下げ渡された。光太夫と磯吉はこれを聞いて喜んだ。
  • 1794.11.11 (1795.1.1西暦):
    • 蘭学者大槻玄沢は京橋でオランダ正月創成の会を催し、伊勢二漂流民も参席した。光太夫はロシア文字を書き、磯吉はロシア服に着替え一座の興を誘った。
    • ロシア船の長崎来航はその後もずっとなく、ロシア交易への関心が次第に薄れていくのが光太夫には悲しかった。
  • 1796頃:
    • 光太夫は江戸で嫁(向島の豪族中田家の娘)をもらう。光太夫46、妻27になる。子供はできなかった。同じ頃、光太夫は20歳前後の妾まきを作り、息子亀次郎 (1797生)と娘(1803生)が生まれた。
    • 同じ頃磯吉も妻をもらったが子はできなかった。
    • 1796 秋、光太夫はエカテリーナ2世の死去を、オランダ長崎商館長代理ラスが江戸参府の際、風の便りに聞いた。
  • 1797.8: 20年ぶりの帰郷:
    • 石川正房が勘定奉行に栄進した。伊勢二漂流民にとっては頼もしい庇護者ができた。早速祝いの品を届けた。
    • 1798: 磯吉は帰郷の申請を願い出て許可される。帰省帰還は12.18から翌年1.14まで。磯吉は35際で、母きく、妻けん、その他友人と再会した。
    • 1802: 光太夫(52)は帰郷の申請を20年ぶりに行う。期間は4.22から6.3まで。彼の次姉いのは2年前に他界。血族で残っていたのは、甥の小平治(大黒屋彦太夫)と四郎治、親類の喜右衛門の3人だけだった。
    • 光太夫は、帰省したその足で、伊勢神宮に詣で仲間達を鎮魂した。また父母や姉達、死んだ漂流民の仲間達を遭難20年後に訪れた。庄蔵と新蔵はロシアで幸せに暮らしていると伝えた。これらの訪問はずっと長い間光太夫の心の重荷になっていた。

>Top

10. The envoy of Rezanov came to Nagasaki:

  • 1804.9 (Bunka 1st):
    • Russian around-the-world ship Nadejuda (Надежда, Hope) came to Nagasaki port, after 11 years, bringing the permit letter of visiting Nagasaki.
    • The envoy Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov brought the sovereign message of Alexander I (grandson of Ekaterina II). Rezanov was secretary to the Emperor and a representative of Russia-American Company.
    • Also Nadejuda ship carried four Japanese castaways of Wakamiya-maru, which shipwrecked in 1793.
      • The Russian message contained their desire of establishment of trade relationship with Japan, particularly at Ezo.
      • However, then Councilor Toda Ujinori's stance was stubborn, sticking to the traditional seclusion policy of Japan.
      • Japanese government accepted delivery of Japanese castaways, but forfeited the valuable permit document of entering Nagasaki, rejected to receive neither the Emperor's message nor various gifts.
      • Nadejuda ship was expelled from Nagasaki without any positive result.
    • Then, Censor (Kanjo-bugyo) Ishikawa Tadafusa knew details of this treatment, resenting "If I were Rezanov, I could not return Russia anymore, I could suicide myself!"
      • Ishikawa Tadafusa had been a negotiation at the case of Ekaterina ship came to Japan in 1793, regretting to possibility of trade relationship with Russia decayed.
    • From Japanese castaways of Wakamiya-maru, who returned to Japan by Nadejuda ship, Kodayu heard the rumor from Ootsuki Gentaku, scholar of Dutch about Shozo and Shinzo living in Irkutsk.
      • Ootsuki Gentaku wrote "Kankai Ibun", based on the hearing of the castaways of Wakamiya-maru.
      • Shozo had lived in Irkutsk until 1796, dead as a single at 45 years old, who lived with the castaways of Wakamiya-maru.
      • Shinzo continued teaching at Japanese School at Irkutsk, and brought four castaways of Wakamiya-maru to St. Petersburg to meet with Alexander I. His Russian was excellent and awarded much by the Emperor. His first wife was dead, and got second wife blessed with four children two boys and two daughters each. Shinzo died in 1810 at Irkutsk at 52, which was unknown to Kodayu and Isokichi.
  • 1806-07 (Bunka 3rd-4th) Rioting in Ezo:
    • Fuvostov and others, naval officers, subordinate of Rezanov attacked Sakhalin and Iturup Island, as taking revenge on the treatment at Nagasaki to Rezanov.
    • Edo government ordered all Tohoku Domains to counter the attach. There continued several troubles in Ezo area. But the trapping and release of Captain Golovnin of Russian warship Diana triggered calming down of the bilateral relationship.
      • 1811: Golovnin incident; captured by Matsumae Domain, ailed in two years, and release in 1813.
    • 1808: Upon the request of the government, Kodayu taught Russian language to Baba Sajuuro, a translator of Dutch for two years. Sajuuro translated Russian history written in Dutch, and Kodayu cooperated to advise Sajuuro for about two years.
    • Later Kodayu taught Russian language to Adachi Sanai, astrologist & geographist.
    • Edo government fully used Kodayu as a Russian specialist.
  • 1812.2: Allowed to have own surname.
    • Officially allowed to have surname of the two castaways; Daikokuya Kodayu and Kitahama Isokichi. (Kitahama is the name of Isokichi's hometown)
    • Kodayu (now 65) was invited to the house of Matsumoto Kyuuou, talking Russian stories.
  • 1828.4.15:
    • Kodayu died at 78, and buried at Koanji. His wife was dead four years ago. The concubine Maki would become the following wife.
    • 1838.11.15 Isokichi (75) died, 10 years after the death of Kodayu.
    • The Buddhist names were: Dousei as Kodayu, and Junsei as Isokichi, which literally mans 'Dou' means the way which Kodayu pursued, 'Jun' means follower which Isokichi followed whereever Kodayu go.
    • The son of Kodayu, named Kamejiro became a scholar named Baiin teaching Chinese language. Kamejiro died in 1851.
  • 1853.6 (Kaei 6th):
    • Two years after the death of Kamejiro, and 26 years after Kodayu, the four black ships led by Perry came to Uraga, requiring opening Japan. The next year 1855 Japan-US Treaty was agreed, and Japan-Russian Treaty was the following year.

10. 使節レザーノフの長崎来航:

  • 1804.4 (文化元年)
    • ロシアの世界一周船ナデジュダ号が長崎へ来航。エカテリーナ号が箱館を去ってから11年ぶり。
    • 使節ニコライ・レザーノフは、ロシア皇帝アレクサンドル1世(エカテリーナ2世の孫)の国書を携えてきた。レザーノフは侍従官格の要職にあり、国策会社"露米会社"の代表でもあった。さらに1793に遭難した仙台藩領石巻廻船の若宮丸漂流民4人が同乗していた。
      • ロシアの国書には日本との交易(特に蝦夷での)を希望。
      • しかし当時の老中戸田氏教の姿勢は頑迷で日本の鎖国政策を墨守。
      • 日本政府は漂流民受渡には同意したものの、貴重な長崎入港許可書を没収し、皇帝の国書や献上品の受取も拒絶。
      • ナデジュダ号は長崎では何ら成果もなく退去されられる。
    • 当時の勘定奉行石川忠房は、事の子細を知る"レザノフは定めて自殺すべし、我なら生きてははおらじ"と慨嘆することしきりだったという。
      • 忠房は、1793に松前での日露外交交渉の当事者であり、エカテリーナ号来航によって生まれた日露通商の水脈が無惨にも断たれてしまったことを痛感した。
    • 若宮丸日本人漂流民がナデジュダ号で帰国したことで、光太夫は蘭学者大槻玄沢からイルクーツクでの庄蔵と新蔵の噂を聞いた。
      • 大槻玄沢は、若宮丸漂流民の聞き取りを元に"環海異聞"を書いている。
      • 庄蔵はイルクーツクに45歳で死ぬ1796 年まで生存し、若宮丸漂流民と共に住んでいた。
      • 新蔵はイルクーツクの日本語学校の教師を続けており、若宮丸漂流民4名をペテルブルグに連れて上京し、アレクサンドル1世の謁見に浴した。新蔵のロシア語通訳は堂に入ったもので、多額の褒美を賜ったという。彼の最初の妻は死去し、二度目の妻との間に男女二人ずつの子供に恵まれた。新蔵は1810年にイルクーツクで52歳で死去した。このことは光太夫も磯吉も知らぬことだった。
  • 1806-07 (文化3-4年):
    • レザーノフの部下だった海軍将校フヴォストフ等が樺太と択捉島を復讐を誓って攻撃した。
    • 江戸幕府は東北全藩に出動命令を下す。以後も蝦夷地での日露間の紛争は続くが、1813秋に、国後島で捕囚となったロシア軍案ディアナ号の艦長ゴロヴニンの釈放を契機にようやく沈静化する。
      • 1811: ゴロヴニン事件: 松前藩に捕らえられ2年間投獄。1813年釈放。
    • 1808: 幕府の命で、光太夫は蘭語翻訳方の馬場佐十郎(23)にロシア語を伝授している。佐十郎が蘭書のロシア史を翻訳するに当たって、光太夫は2年間も協力している。
    • 後に光太夫は天文方足立左内にロシア語を伝授している。
    • 江戸幕府は、光太夫をロシア通として結構重宝していた。
  • 1812.2:
    • 幕府は伊勢2漂流民に苗字を許可し、大黒屋光太夫と北浜磯吉を名乗る。(北浜は磯吉の故郷名)
    • 光太夫 (65)は、旗本松本鳩翁に招待され、久しぶりにロシア体験談を語る。
  • 1824.4.15:
    • 光太夫は78歳で死去し、興安寺に葬られた。妻は4年前に死去し、妾まきが後妻となったらしい。
    • 1838.11.15に磯吉(75)が死去。
    • 二人の法名は、光太夫が"道誓"、磯吉が"順誓"。我が道を行った光太夫、それに忠実に順った磯吉、二人は終生の同志だった。
    • 光太夫の息子亀次郎は漢学塾を開き、梅蔭と称した。亀治郎は1851に死去。
  • 1853.5 (嘉永6):
    • 亀次郞の死から2年後、光太夫の死から26年後、米国ペリー率いる黒船4艘が浦賀に来航。翌年、日米和親条約が締結され、日本の鎖国時代は終了する。その次の年1855、日露和親条約も締結する。

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11. Postscript:

  • The story of Daikokuya Kodayu reminds an old story of Japan of "Urashima-Taro":
  • The main casts and item are: 1) Urashima Taro is Daikokuya Kodayu, 2) Princess of the Dragon Palace is Ekaterina II, 3) An sea turtle which carries Urashima-Taro to the Dragon Castle subsea is Kirill Laksman, 4) Content of the treasure box given by the princess to Urashima-Taro is a future plan of establish trade relationship between Russia and Japan.
  • Urashima-Taro dreamed to be an active player once the trade relationship was established.
  • But there had been a high barrier named Seclusion Policy of Japan.
  • Ability, curiosity, experiences and human connections of Kodayu could not be utilized in the then isolated Japan.

Request of Honda Toshiaki (adviser to Matsudaira Sadanobu) - 1791

  • If the trade between Russia and Japan stood still for a long time, which would cause serious troubles of Japan.
  • Japan should promote, not stop, trading with Russia, mentioning Iturup and Kunashir Islands where Russians often come as a trade center, to exchange Japanese marine products and Russian local products. This would be a great policy of Japan.

11. あとがき:

  • 大黒屋光太夫の物語は日本の"浦島太郎"の昔話を思い起こす。
  • 主な登場人物や小道具としては、1) 浦島太郎=大黒屋光太夫、2) 竜宮城の乙姫様=エカテリーナII、3) 浦島太郎と竜宮城まで運んだウミガメはキリール・ラックスマン、そして4) 乙姫様が浦島太郎に贈った玉手箱の中身は、日露の交易実現。
  • 浦島太郎は交易関係が実現した暁には大活躍することを夢見ていた。
  • しかし日本の鎖国政策という高い障壁があった。
  • 光太夫の能力、好奇心、経験、人脈は当時の孤立した日本では活かされなかった。

本多利明 (松平定信の知恵袋)の建白書 - 寛政3年(1791)

  • この交易(日露交易)を永く停止せば、後々は国の大事に係わらんかも知れがたし。この後難を含み交易停止せんより、やはりいまでも(ロシア人が)渡来せし択捉島、国後島に場処を定め、日本の俵物(干しナマコなど)を用いてヲロシア土産物と交易するにおいては無事なるべし。(翠園雑録)
  • <Kuril Islands> (千島列島・クリル列島, Куринльские острова) Total 10,355 $km^2$
  • Kunashir Island: (国後島, Осторов Кынашир) 1,490 $km^2$
  • Iturup Island: (択捉島, Осторов Итуруп) 3,139 $km^2$
    • (択捉水道, Пролив Фриза)
  • Habomai Islands: (歯舞群島, Острова Хабомай) 97 $km^2$
  • Shikotan Island: (色丹島, Остров Шикотан) 255 $km^2$

  • <Changes of National Boundary>
  • 1855: Japan-Russian Treaty: Vries Strait (between Itrup and Urup)
  • 1875: Treaty of Saint Petersburg: Exchange of part of Sakhalin Island and Group of Kuril Island.
  • 1945.8.15-31: ocupied by Soviet forces; Japanese civilians (17,000) expelled by 1946.

kurils-russianname

Comment-1
  • Daikokuya Kodayu's success seems an exceptional case; due to 1) Kodayu's excellent personality, 2) luck of encountering with Kirill Laksman, 3) luck of reign of enlighted despot like Ekaterina II, 4) Matsudaira Sadanobu was also excellent councillor
  • There are bigoted conservatives everywhere, which breaks chain of success at various opportunities; therefore most of destinies of castaways had been pessimistic.
  • Kodayu's open mind and curiosity are particularly important as well as his patience and belief. He said learning Russian language is decisively important, which enables to get information correctly and to converge cooperations from various people.
  • 大黒屋光太夫の成功は例外に見える。彼の人柄、Kirill Laksmanとの出会い、啓蒙君主Ekaterina II, そして松平定信も優秀な老中だったからである。
  • 頑迷な保守主義者はどこにもいる。それは様々な成功の可能性の輪を切断する。それ故、ほとんどの漂流民の運命は悲劇的であった。
  • 光太夫のオープンマインドと好奇心は彼の忍耐と信念と並んで特に重要だ。ロシア語を学ぶことが決定的に重要であり、それによって情報を正確に掴み、多くの人達の協力を得ることができる。
Comment-2
  • Foreign relationship is apt to be done the role of an individual.
  • Following are the key historical players in the international relations:
    1. 600-618 to China: Japanese missions to Sui China (5 times);
      Particularly 607 by Onono Imoko remained in China in 32 years.
    2. 630-894 to China: Japanese missions to Tang China (20? times).
      Particularly 704 Yamanoueno Okura; 718 Abeno Nakamaro & Kibino Makibi; 804 Saicho & Kukai
    3. 1582-1590 to Rome: Ito Mansho, etc.
    4. 1613-1620 to Mexico & Spain: Keicho Embassy; Hasekura Tsunenaga, etc.
    5. 1782-1792 to Russia: Daikokuya Kodayu, etc.
    6. 1841-1851 to US: Nakahama John Manjiro castaway, etc.;
    7. 1860 to US: Oguri Tadamasa, Katsu Kaishu, John Manjiro, Fukuzawa Yukichi, etc.

国際交流に寄与した日本人:

  1. 607 遣隋使: 小野妹子ほか
  2. 702 遣唐使: 山上憶良ほか
    718 遣唐使: 阿倍仲麻呂・吉備真備ほか804 遣唐使: 最澄・空海ほか
  3. 1582-1590: 天正遣欧少年使節
  4. 1613-1620: 慶長遣欧使節; 支倉常長ほか
  5. 1782-1792: 大黒屋光太夫ほか
  6. 1841-1851: 中浜万次郎ほか
  7. 1860: 万延元年遣米詞節: 小栗忠順ほか
Commen-3
  • Even in 21C, the possession issue of Kunashir and Iturup Islands in particular would be a hard barrier for establishing Russian-Japan Peace Treaty.
  • In the end 18C, Matsudaira Sadanobu, Councilor, had a plan to establish trade relationship with Imperial Russia; if it had realized, then these two islands would have become more active business base, where many Japanese could have played more active part, probably involving Daikokuya Kodayu; which would have made the islands be more inherent with historical business practices.
  • 21世紀の現在でも、日露平和条約締結の壁となっているのが北方4島、特に国後島と択捉島の帰属問題である。
  • 松平定信の腹案であった国後・択捉島での日露交易が18世紀末から開始されていれば、そこはさらにおそらく大黒屋光太夫を含め日本人の活躍する島々に、即ちもっとビジネス実績のある日本の固有領土になった可能性がある。

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