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Sense of English

Cat: LAN
Pub: 1993

Eiichoro Ohtsu (大津栄一郎)

up 18x05

Sense of English


  1. Preface:
  2. Visible or invisible:
  3. Moving or nonmoving self:
  4. World of existence or nonexistence:
  5. Dynamic capture of things:
  6. Combination of words:
  7. Stance of expressions:
  1. 序文:
  2. 見えるもの、見えないもの:
  3. 動かない自己、動く自己:
  4. 存在界のことか、非存在界のことか:
  5. ものごとを動的に捉える:
  6. 言葉を組み合わせる:
  7. 表現の姿勢:
; Active verb; Afferent; Apodosis; Article; Bare infinitive; Causative verb; Cognate verb; Combination of words; Comparative expression; Definition of limit; Demonstrative pronoun;Dynamic capture; Efferent; Epithet; Factitive verb; Gerund; Impersonal it; Kind of nouns; Mental activity; Metaphysical; Mood; Occurrence time; Paragraph; Participle; Passive voice; Perceptive verb; Phantom; Protasis; Satire; Speaker; Stance of expression; Stative verb; SVOC; Temporal awareness; That clause; Transitive verb;

>Top 0. Preface:

  • To use a foreign languse as a second one, we must use it for ourselves, or for self-assertion neither to be neglected nor crushed (like an immigrant to USA).
  • This book is titled as 'Sense of English', which means 'The world-view required to speak English' or 'Some views on English as a Japanese.'
    • 敢えて単純に英訳できない表題「英語の感覚」とした。

1. 序文:



>Top 1. Visible thing or non-visible?:

  • Personal pronoun:
    • big difference of personal pronouns between English and Japanese.
    • Japanese personal pronoun is derived from demonstrative pronoun.
      • あなた =you; こなた =I
      • ¶ This is Brown speaking.; Who is this?
    • Japanese personal pronoun is not independent, which is included as a part of pronoun.
  • >Top Visible or invisible (metaphysical) pronoun
    • demonstrative pronoun = mentioning visible; personal pronoun = invisible
      • ¶ There is an old man coming up here. I know him. (I know that old man.)
      • ¶ I don't understand you.
      • ¶ Do you catch me?
      • ¶ Have you go him?
  • it has personality:
    • ¶ Our baby is crying. It wants mother's care.
    • ¶ What is this? It is a book. (本です。it=人称代名詞)
    • ¶ What is this? That is a book. (それは本です。that=指示代名詞)
  • >Top Impersonal it: formal or provisional subject; itは特定を保留・回避した代用語
    • ¶ It is not use crying over spilt milk.
    • ¶ I thought it best to keep silent.
    • ¶ The rain falls./The weather is rainy./It is rainy. (その時は雨模様)
    • ¶ The room is dark./It's dark in the room. (部屋は何かが暗い。)
    • ¶ That's it. (見聞きしたものはそれだ。)
    • ¶ Don't let it come to a breach between us. (それ=友情を壊すな。)
    • ¶ Fight it out. (苦境を戦い抜け。)
    • ¶ I've had a good time of it. (楽しい時間を過ごせた。)
    • ¶ They made a night of it.
    • ¶ Make it to Jamaica. (it=your way, the way, your effort, time, or money...)
    • ¶ She made it as a jazz singer. (it=success, reputation, money...)
    • ¶ You will make it if you hurry. (punctually, preparation, arrangement...)
    • ¶ That guy made it with her. (sex ...)
    • ¶ Take it easy (relax, comfortable, )
    • ¶ He made a good job of it. (profitable, acceptable...)
    • ¶ Let me set it right. /Let me sum it up./I did it/I've done it/Your answer is it./I feel it's hot in the heard.
  • >Top Article:
    • the Browns
    • Lake Michigan: 固有名詞化
    • in the morning; in the evening
    • at night, by night; in the night.
    • ¶ Mix the sugar with the flour.; Mix the sugar with flour.; Mix sugar with the flour. (レシピ表示の一定量)
  • Adjective and Adverb: 日本語は見える範囲での表現する言語
    • ¶ She gazed at the baby with a happy simile. (幸福そうな微笑で)
    • ¶ She left the store happily. (幸福な気持で)

1. みえるもの、見えないもの:

  • personal pronoun: 人称代名詞; 見えないもの=形而上的存在
  • demonstrative pronoun: 指示代名詞; this, these, that, those
  • formal/provisional subject: 仮主語
  • 人称/指示代名詞の日英比較
  Japanese English
丁寧さ あの人>彼 he>that man
氏神、八百万、上代 唯一絶対神
起源 曖昧 重視
  • 名詞の分類:
    • 英: 何でも名前をつける
    • ¶ forms of bolts and boltheads
  • >Top 冠詞は話者
    • in the morning
    • at night
  • ものの総称:
    • a horse; horses; the horse; the horses
    • a man; men; the man; the men;
    • ¶ Man is mortal.
    • ¶ human being; divine being; animal being
    • play baseball; play the piano
  • 日: 見える範囲で表現
  • 英: 目に見えないものも見える
  • >Top 名詞の種類, Kind of nouns:
国文法区分 普通名詞 固有名詞
En. Grammar Common Noun Collective N. Material N. Abstract N. Proper N.
Eg. boy; word family; audience; crew; police; enemy; public; machinery meat; iron; wine; brick; earth; oil; justice; art; furniture (=to furnish a room suitable); equipment (=to equip with necessary items) Tokyo, Lincoln
Visible/ nonvisible
Except. ¶What fruits are in season now?
¶You needn't make allowances for my being a woman.
¶She comes from the oldest family in Devonshire. ¶Pass me a glass. ¶A man of family is not necessarily a man of ability. ¶There are many Tokyos now in Japan.

¶ The Fatal Sisters/the Weird Sisters (Nona, Decima, Morta); telomerase.
Winter is gone. Spring has come.
¶ A church looked down over the square.

Dynamism of noun

Anger had never been easy for him.
¶ There is too much betrayal, there is a general atmosphere of intellectual disgrace.

  • Every noun has its unique name.

>Top 2. Moving self or nonmoving?:

  • 英: 発想の遠心性 (efferent)と日: 発想の求心性 (afferent):
    • Paragraph (段落): a distinct section of a piece of writing.
      • 英: Paragraphの構成、論理的な表現方法を重視。(文法やSpellよりも)
      • 英: 結論が先。日本語の翻訳の難しさは、結論が最後に来る文体のため。
      • 日: Paragraphの概念が欠除。論理的に表現する技術が自覚されない。
      • 日: 俳句が芸術なのも、発想の求心性に依存。
  • >Top 事象の変化(=時間認識 temporal awareness):
  • 事象の時間認識 過去aspect 現在aspect 未来aspect
    その瞬間静止 過去時制

    ¶ I dislike him.
    ¶ He satands six feet.

    その瞬間進行中 過去進行時制 現在進行時制 未来進行時制
    その週間完了 過去完了時制 現在完了時制 未来完了時制
    過去の時点での未来 過去未来時制    
    • その瞬間静止した状態: 現在時制
    • そお瞬間進行中の状態: 現在進行時制
    • その瞬間完了した状態: 現在完了時制

2. 動かない自己、動く自己:

  • temporal: relating to worldly/time
  • 動詞の位置:
    • 英: 動詞が前。文は遠心的。前述した動詞はその後も意識される。
    • 日: 動詞が最後。一つの文で完結。一文毎に話者の位置や姿勢が変わり得る
  • 時間認識:
    • 日: 過去から未来へ
    • 英: 未来が次々やって来る

>Top 3. The world of existence or non-existence:

  • Mood:
    • Indicative mood: 直接法: 存在界の事象を伝達
    • Subjenctive mood: 仮定法: 非存在界(幽霊的phantom or ghost)の事象を伝達
      • 仮定+推測によって非存在界を表現する(=仮定法)
      • <仮定の接続詞> if, unless, suppose, suppposing, provided, in case
      • <推測の助動詞> will, shall, can, may, must
      • 動詞の意味を強めるには時制を過去にする進める。
      • ¶ if you had ... / if that were ...
      • 直接法過去→仮定法過去完了
      • 直接法現在→仮定法過去
      • 直接法未来→仮定法現在
      • 推測表現 ¶ He will be there.
        →過去未来(過去起点の未来表現) ¶ He would be there.
    • Imperative mood: 命令法: 存在界&非存在界の事象を伝達

>Top 仮定節 (条件節): Subjunctive clause (Assumption clause); Protasis

直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去完了)
  • As he had gone away,
  • If he had not gone away,
  • Because he was not there,
  • If he had been there,
  • When she was walking in the park,
  • If she had not been walking in the park,
  • Since you could not stay home,
  • If you could have stayed home,
  • As he has not come yet,
  • If he had been there,
  • As he will not have been there,
  • If he would have been there,
  • As he may not have been there,
  • If he might have gone there,
直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去)
  • When he is not home,
  • If he were(was) home,
  • As I can not start soon,
  • If I could start soon,
  • Since he will go,
  • If he would not go,
  • Because I shall not fail this time,
  • If I should fail this time,
直接法 仮定法 (仮定法現在)
複数の現在形(古風); notなし
  • If it will rain tomorrow,
  • If it rain (rains) tomorrow,
  • In case he will stay here,
  • If he stay(stays) here,

推測節 (帰結節): Consequence Clause; Apodosis

直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去完了)
  • he had done it.
  • he would not have done it.
  • she did not say so.
  • she would have said so.
  • I was walking in the park.
  • I would not have been walking in the park.
  • you could not be in time.
  • you could have been in time.
  • she has done it.
  • she would not have done it.
直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去完了) 感情・判断付き
  • (To my regret,) he did not do it.
  • he should have done it.
  • (To be regretable,) he did it.
  • he should not have done it.
  • (I'm sorry that) he did not come.
  • he ought to have come.
  • (To my sorrow,) he came.
  • he ought not to have come.
  • (To my surprise,) she did not say so.
  • she might have said so.
  • (To my surprise,) he did not become a billionaire.
  • he might have become a billionaire.
直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去)
  • he does not believe it.
  • he would believe it.
  • he is walking.
  • he would not be walking.
  • I am not glad.
  • I would be glad.

直接法 仮定法 (仮定法過去) 推測・謙譲・婉曲→意外
  • I will(shall) like to visit you.
  • I would(should) like to visit you.
  • You shall obey your father.
  • You should obey your father.
  • What can I do for you?
  • What could I do for you?
  • May I come it?
  • Might I come in?
  • What will you say about this?
  • What would you say about this?
  • Why shall you suspect me?
  • Why should you suspect me?

>Top 様々の仮定節+推測節時制の組み合わせ; 事象発生時期occurence timeを明確に把握
  • If I were you , I would act at one.
  • If he had not died in the accident, he would be 20 now.
  • If he were in this town, we would have already seen him somewhere.
  • If he had been bewildere before, he was now terrified.
  • I wish I could come to see you.
  • I wish I were a bird. /I wished I were a bird.

3. 存在界のことか、非存在界のことか:



>Top 4. Dynamic capture of things:

  • 動かすのか、動かされるのか; 他動詞の分類:
fail→abandon, disappoint ¶ Words failed me. 言葉が出なかった。
¶ His courage failed him. 彼の勇気が出なかった。
stand→bear ¶ I could not stand the cold. 寒さに耐えられなかった。
¶ He stood us a drink. 一杯おごった。
¶ He stood a ladder against the wall. 立てかけた。
become→suit ¶ Such a mystification becomes him. いかにも彼らしい。
go→endure ¶ I can't go this heat. 耐えられない。
bear→produce ¶ This tree bears well. よく実がなる。
cook, boil, fry, roast ¶ Meat cooks [boils, fries, roasts] better than vegetables. 料理すると野菜よりうまい
carry→reach ¶ His voice does not carry well. 通らない。
catch→lock ¶ This lock does not catch.


cut→short cut ¶ This lane cuts. 近道だ。
drink→good taste ¶ This drinks [eats] well うまい。
feel→comfortable ¶ This cloth feels well. 手触りがよい。
wear/wash ¶ Shirts of thsi cloth wear[wash] badly. 持ちが悪い[洗いに弱い]
pay→advantageous ¶ It pays to advertise. 割に合う。
pull→exert force ¶ These roots pull hard. なかなか抜けない。
pull ¶ The train pulled in. 入ってきた。
sell ¶ This sells well. よく売れる。
sweep ¶ Children swept in. さっと入ってきた。
¶ The news swept through the town. 走り抜けた。
take ¶ A jetliner took off. 離陸した。
tear ¶ The cloud tore. ちぎれた。
¶ He tore through the street. 走り抜けた。
  • 他動詞の用法:
Pattern Active voice (積極的な声の調子) Passive voice (消極的な声の調子)
SVO ¶ He abhors to be criticized.

名詞句 (noun phrase); 不定詞

¶ Children learn how to skate easily. 名詞句; 疑問詞+不定詞
¶ He now regrests having quit college. 名詞句; 動名詞
¶ She knows what she should do. 名詞節 (noun clause)
¶ He laid himself on a couch. 再帰動詞 (reflexive verb)
¶ He overworked himself.
¶ He live a happy life. >Top 同族目的動詞 (cognate verb)
¶ That hourse ran a mile-and-half's race.
¶ They laughed at her. 自動詞+前置詞=他動詞的
¶ They played on her credulity.
¶ They robbed me of my wallet. of: 分離ではなく同格の前置詞
¶ They stripped me of my shirt.
¶ The new mediccine will cure him of his cronic kedney disease. of: 分離の前置詞
¶ He asked a few questions of me. of: 出発点
SVOO ¶ Do me a favor. 授与動詞 (dative verb):
ask, bring, buy, deny, fetch, give, lend, hand, make, order, pass, reach, refuse, send, show, teach, tell
¶ They offered her a good postion.
¶ Would you reach me the sugar.
¶ She denied her son nothing.
¶ They refused Tome the promotion.
¶ He taught her how to ski. 名詞句
¶ I can't tell you how sorry I was to hear the sad news. 名詞節
¶ He told us that he had never doubted us.
¶ He gave her to understand that he had to part from her. 名詞節; 理解するようにthat...を与える。


¶ She bought herself a pet dog. =She bought a pet dog for herself.
SVO+of ¶ He asked me strane questions. =He asked strange questions of me.
SVO+on ¶ He played us a dirty trick. =He played a dirty trick on us.
¶ Bees provide us honey. =Bees provide honey for us. 米
¶ He supplied me the necessary information 米 =He suppled the necessary information for[to] me
SVOC ̄ >Top 不完全他動詞
¶ He name his son George. 目的各補語: 目的語の状態・動作・変化を伝達
¶ I believe him innocent.
  • 作為動詞 (factitive verb):
  • 〜とする: make, choose appoint, elect get, have, keep, leave, let, render.
  • 〜考える: think, believe, consider, find, take
  • 〜と称す: call, name
¶ We thought it him 代名詞
¶ I found him in. 副詞
¶ Tell the boy to return soon 不定詞句
¶ Imagine him nursing a baby. 現在分詞句
¶ He left her perplexed by his words. 過去分詞句
¶ We consider this of the most importance. 形容詞句
¶ I have made him what he is. 関係詞節
  • 使役動詞 (causative verb)
  • have, make, let, bit: (原形不定詞)
  • get, allow, bid,, cause, compel, force, induce: (to不定詞)
¶ Have him do it. 原形不定詞
¶ She let him kno it.
¶ He bade the boy go at once.
¶ Get him to do it. to不定詞
¶ The commander ordered him men to advance.

¶ He demanded that we should include him.

☓ He demanded us to include him.
SVOC ¶ He had[got] a new bicycle bought by his mother.  
  • >Top 知覚動詞 (perceptive verb)
  • see, watch, look at, notice, observe, perceive, watch
  • hear, listen to
  • feel
  • △perceive; Nobody perceived Jamie going out of the room. (原形不定詞は稀)
  • ☓ find; I found the rumor to be true.
¶ I saw a bird fly. 知覚動詞 ¶ A bird was seen to fly. (to必要)
¶ He heard someone knock. ¶ Someone was heard to knock.
¶ I sometimes feel my heart beat these days. ¶ My heart is sometimes felt to beat these days.
¶ A voice was heard to call for help. to不定詞再来
¶ I felt an ant creeping on my leg 進行相 An ant was felt creeping on my leg.
¶ I heard a door slammed upstairs. ☓A door was heart slammed upstairs.
¶ We have brakfast at seven o'clock. ☓ Breakfas is had at seven o'clock.
¶ I have just had a letter from my son. ☓ A letter from my son has just been had.
¶ Carry this. (命令形の場合) ¶ Let this be carried.
¶ Have him do it. ¶ Let him (☓ be had to) do it.
  ¶ Yoiu have got to do it at once. 米 have to=have got to 個別的
  • >Top 分詞・原形不定詞・不定詞・動名詞
Pattern 意味
分詞と不定詞の違い ¶ With a view to becoming an artist.

¶ 画家の状態になる視野をもって (現実域の表現)

¶ I like teaching English. ¶ 英語を教えている現実が好きだ
¶ I like to teach English ¶ 英語を教えるような未来が好きだ
¶ You need exercising. ¶ 運動が足りない。
¶ You need to exerise. ¶ これから運動が必要だ。
¶ I remember having met her before. ¶ =I remember meeting her before.
¶ He helped her do the dishes. ¶ 同時に皿洗いを手伝った。
¶ He helped her to do the dishes. ¶ 彼女を皿洗いを間接的に手伝った。
¶ You must obey your father. ¶ 父親に直ちに従え
¶ You must to obey your father. ¶ 父親には従う心構えが必要
have to ¶ You have to see her home. ¶ 彼女を家まで送り届けることを持っている→送り届けなければならない。
be to ¶ She is to return to her mother's. ¶ 母の家に戻るために存在→はずだ。

4. ものごとを動的にとらえる:

  • transive verb: 他動詞
  • transive: <transit, gone across
  • stative verb: 状態動詞
  • active verb: 動作動詞
  • 英語には10の時間表現→進行相や完了相の表現方式。
    • 日本語は目的語を含め動詞が全体として自動詞的
    • 英語の動詞は大半が他動詞
    • 英訳も他動詞的に
    • ¶ I don't think they will elect him president. 会長に得られることはあるまい。
    • ¶ This district will have winter soon. もうすぐ冬になるだろう。
    • ¶ Stay and eat curried rice, as I am making it now. 手料理を食べていってくれたまえ。
    >Top 動かすのか動かされるのか
    • 能動態と受動態
      Active/Passive voice
    • 再帰動詞
    • ¶ He overworked himself.
    • SVOO:
      授与動詞(dative verb)
    • ¶ Do me a favor.
    • SVOC:
    • >Top 作為動詞(factitive verb)
    • ¶ We thought it him.
    • 使役動詞(causative verb)
    • ¶ He made me go.
    • 知覚動詞(perceptive verb)
    • ¶ I saw a bird fly.
  • [do]が隠れている。
    • I [do]make reports in the morning.
      I do always make ...
    • I am busy with reports in the morning.
      I am alyas busy ...
  • >Top 分詞(participle ≤participate);
    • beある+ingしつつ=進行形
    • beいる+ppし終わって=受動形
    • ¶ He has the hedge sheared.刈り込まれた垣根を持つ→He has sheared the hedge.刈り込んでしまった。
  • >Top 動名詞gerund=現在分詞の転用による動詞的な名詞
    • ¶ Stop being idel.
  • 原形不定詞とto不定詞; 未現実の実現
    • ¶ I like to teach English.














  • 米の用法:
    have to =have got to



  • SVOC文型: 不完全他動詞;






  • 分詞 (particle <participate): 動詞が形容詞/現在/過去に参加している分詞の意
  • 不定詞: 動詞の名詞化; 原形の転用による不定詞; infinitiveはfiniteでない=限定されない; 原形動詞は観念なので、それが具体的に現れた時の呼称が不定詞;
  • to不定詞のtoは、動詞的状態への到達する未来を意味。
  • I like to teach English. 英語を教えるようなるのを好む。
  • 動名詞: 動詞の名詞化:
    現在分詞の転用による動名詞; 動的な名詞の形成
  • Stop weeping. 進行中の泣くのをやめよ。
  • 動名詞は、現在進行中〜過去の事象を表現する。
  • 不定詞 (infinitive <L. infinitus, infinite)、原形不定詞 (bare infinitive)、動名詞 (gerund <L. gerere, do):


  • 助動詞: 推測(will, shall), 可能(can, may), 義務(must, ought)は動詞に時速間を与える。
  • 助動詞doは、あらゆる動作を包括し、動詞に具体性を与える助動詞。

>Top 5. Combination of words:

  • 英語の単語は即物的 (realistic & practical)
    • 組み合わせによる表現の多様化
    • SVOC文型の発展 (>Fig)
    • 前置詞+名詞→形容詞句、副詞句
      • ¶ He that lies down with dogs, will rise up with fleas. (朱に交われば)
    • 動詞(分詞・不定詞・動名詞)→形容詞句、副詞句、名詞句
    • 名詞句・形容詞句・副詞句・代名詞句・動詞句・助動詞句・前置詞句・接続詞句→節
      • 代名詞句: one another
      • 動詞句: catch out, take place, cut a person's face
      • 助動詞句: ought to, had etter, had rather
      • 前置詞句: out of, from behind, inside of, on the side of
      • 接続詞句: as if, as though
    • 節:
      • 名詞節
      • 形容詞節: 関係詞
      • 副詞節
    • thatの用法: thatの前の前置詞の省略
      • I am sure of it, that you will succeed.
      • → I am sure of it that you will succeed.
      • → I am sure that you will succeed.
      • that 非省略の動詞: advise, agree, assert, assume, assure, aver, boast, calculate, claim, conceive, confide, convince, doubt, explain, find , forget, hold , judge, learn, maintain, reckon, persuade, promise, prove, privide, read, recollect, recommend, suspect, state, sugget , write
    • >Top 精神活動(mental activity)の諸形態を表示する動詞:
      [〜だと...; 意味はthat節をとる自動詞的] be+形容詞[過去分詞]+that
      • that 省略 or非省略の動詞: confess, consider, declair, grant, hear, hope, kno, perceive, propose, say , see, tell, understand
      • that 普通省略の動詞: believe, jmagine, presume, remember, think, suppose
      • that 常に省略の動詞: wish
      • 動詞とthat節との間の隙間:
        • He insists that she is innocent.
        • We believe she is innocent.
      • to不定詞(推測・信念)とthat節(事実);
        • We know him to be an architect. =We know that he is an architect.
        • I think her to be a good mother. =I think that she is a good mother
        • We advised him to keep his neutral position. =We advised him that he (should) keep his neutral position.
        • I promised him to meet him at the airport. =I promised that I would meet him at the airport.
    • >Top 比較表現 (Comparative expression):
      • as〜as any...; as〜as...can; as〜as ever...
        • She was as great a statesman as any was. [as any could be; as ever lived]
        • We might as well cooperate with him as not.
        • We might as well expect the sun to rise in the west.
      • not so much ... as
        • He is not so much a scholar as a journalist.
        • He did not so much as cast an eye on it. (一瞥もせず)
      • no more ... than; no less... than; not any more ...than; ☓not any less ...than
        • He is no more satisfied than you.
        • A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.
        • A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.
        • He is no less same than you.
    • >Top 転移形容語句(transferred epithet)
        • a nice cup of tea =a cup of nice tea

5. 言葉を組み合わせる:

  • combination: joining of different parts in which component elements are individually distinct


  • 句の形成: 前置詞+名詞
  • 節の形成: 接続詞・関係詞・疑問詞
  • 文法用語の限界:
    • ¶ I made haer change her plan.ではchangeは補語だが、change her planは形容詞句か名詞句か?


  • to不定詞:
  • >Top that節(that clause): 現実の表現
    • 建築家だろうと思う
    • 建築家であると知る
  • 感情表現vs 精神活動表現
    • I am fond of it
    • I am sure that


  • >Top ε-δ definition of limit:
    if for ever $\epsilon >0$ there exists a $\delta$ such that, for all $x\in D$, if ... , then, ...

>Top 6. Stance of expressions:

  • 風刺 (satire): 自分の真意を強く印象づけるため
    • You are as good as an umbrella on a rainy day.
    • What a blessed nuisance.
    • He may be a descendant of the great John Knox himself, for what we know to the contrary.
      • for aught I know, for all I know, for what I know.
    • A parrot, who, for any signs of life he had previously given, might have been a wooden bird.
    • He failed for all his efforts.
      • as likely as not =probably =very likely
      • as often as not =more often than not =very often
    • Nothing comes out of nothing.

6. 表現の姿勢:

  • satire: use of humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule
  • humour: quality of being amusing or comic.
  • bored: feeling weary and impatient because one is unoccupied or lack interest in one's current activity.
  • Humour:
  • 人間は退屈する動物:
    Human being is an animal which usually getting bored.
  • There are many exceptions in English grammar; we are only forced to remember them to imitate the native exceptional expressions.
  • This is a book explaining a part of the reason with the knowledge of linguistics and other historical background of English as well as full imagination of culture and people, so as not to be bored.
  • 英文法には多くの例外表現がある。我々はその固有の例外を模倣すべく覚えなければならなかった。
  • 本書は、言語学の知識や英国の歴史的背景、さらには文化や人々に対する想像力を使って、(退屈しないような表現で) その理由の一部を解明しようとしている。

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