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Double Your Reading Speed

Cat: MIS
Pub: 1964

The Reading Laboratory, Inc.


Double Your Reading Speed


  1. Preface:
  2. Reading Techniques:
  3. Vocabulary by Etymology:
  4. How to Read Newspaper:
  5. How to Read Magazine:
  6. How to Read a Book (Non-Fiction):
  7. How to Read a History and Biography Book:
  8. How to Read a Novel:
  9. How to Read a Book Review:
  10. How to Read Business Letters:
  11. Vocabulary II:
  12. Read Twice:
  13. PS: Related article:
  1. 序文:
  2. 読書の技術:
  3. 語源による単語:
  4. 新聞をどう読むか:
  5. 雑誌をどう読むか:
  6. ノンフィクション本をどう読むか:
  7. 歴史年記本をどう読むか:
  8. 小説をどう読むか:
  9. 書評をどう読むか:
  10. ビジネス文書をどう読むか:
  11. 語彙 II:
  12. 二度読む:
  13. 追記; 関連記事:
; Avoid distraction; Chunking; Key-word reading; Know what you want; Meta guiding; Mind-map; Pre-reading; Pointer method; Read twice; Regression; Rod & Cone; Scanning method; Skimming; Space-reading; SQ3R; Subvocalization; Visusal cortex; ;

>Top 0. Preface:

  • Can you handle that one million words in a single week!
  • Think of the flood of printed material you must cope with; business letters, monographs, report forms, memoranda, trade journals, perhaps textbooks, not to mention newspapers, advertisements, and all the novels, short stories, and magazines which you would like to read buy neve have the time for.
    • You will learn the modern techniques of phrase reading, space reading, indentation, skimming, columnar reading, pre-reading critical reading, and many others.
    • 225-250 words per minute (wpm) is average for an intelligent American adult. You can double this rate in the nest ten days; a rapid and effective reader.

0. 序文:

  • chunking: grouped information, relying on indiviudal perceptions
  • modality effect: how chunking occurs
  • 情報洪水の中で、どう対応すべきか
  • 読書速度は、225-250語/分が平均的

>Top 1. Reading Techniques:

  • Phrase Reading: (→chunking)
    • is designed to allow you to cut down on the number of eye fixations per line, to take in words in bigger "visual bites" or thought-units; take on meaning only in context or in words-groups.
  • Space Reading: (→scanning)
    • rather than focusing your eyes directly on the print, lift them so they focus slightly above the line; allow your eyes to relax and "spread" your span of vision over several words, so that you are reading a whole phrase at a time, not a single word.
  • Top Pacing: (→Visual Regression)
    • too many readers have an almost unconscious habit of frequently regressing on a line every thought you have thoroughly understood its meaning.
  • Phrase Marking:
    • Take bigger "visual bites" from the page.
    • You read not only by words groups, but by meaningful word groups. Look for the units of thoughts.
  • Indentation: (→the Pointer Method)
    • When you finish the line, you will tend to stop on the last words; it follows that when you focus on the first world of line, half of you vision span is in the margin, reading black space. The same holds true at the end of a line.
  • Top Columnar Reading: (→Meta guiding; Visual cortex)
    • Draw a light line down the center of it and practice moving your eyes down the guideline reading each line with a singe eye fixation.
  • >Top Key-Word Reading:
    • Run your eyes over the page in a rhythmic zigzag motion. Your awareness of phrases will allow you to stop at the key phrases that contain the pith of the article.
  • Eye-Swing:
    • Keep on "reading" rapidly or you may find yourself making more than two fixations on each line. Be sure to make fast, even swings from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.
    • eye-fixation point: around the fixation point only 4-5 letters are seen with 100%.
  • Mumbling: (→subvocalizaion)
    • The good reader reads almost entirely by sight. He does not have to translate the print into sounds in order to understand it.
  • Top Pre-Reading: (→Scanning Method)
    • Related knowledge before reading; such as related vocabulary, background, outline of the story, profile of the character, surrounding environment, etc.
    • By spotting the author's conclusions and reasoning processes beforehand, you can direct your reading and know just what to look for in order to get the best comprehension most rapidly.
      • You won't read every word, but your eyes will land on what is important to grasp the idea.
    • Articles:
      • Quickly looking at the title and the author of the piece, then reading the first two or three paragraphs to get an introduction to the topic under discussion.
    • Texts:
      • Your pre-reading approach will vary according to the typography of the particular textbook or business report; the bold print and other visual aids are there, so make use of them for your overview.
    • Books:
      • Pre-read entire books by reading the forward, introduction, preface, any introductory or concluding chapters, table of contents and index.
    • News Stories:
      • Reading the headlines and the first two or three paragraphs only. A critic's opinion in a book or drama review is almost always contained in the last two paragraphs.
  • Top Skimming:
    • If you know exactly what you are looking for, run your eyes down the center of the page without reading.
    • Some skilled readers prefer to skim by running their eyes diagonally over the page.
  • Concentration: (→Avoid distraction)
    • Avoid fatigue. Never read for several hours without a break. Read in a good light.
    • Hold the book about 35 cm for your eyes; never read in s sprawled position in a too-soft chair.
    • A slight, regular background noise is better than absolute silence, for it raises your whole level of concentration.
    • it is useless to read when you are bothered by pressing emotional or business problems.
  • Top Cue Words:
    • Cue words like; in addition to, therefore, for this reason, in brief, in conclusion, to sum up, although, but, nevertheless, on the contrary, in particular, specifically, etc. indicate important thoughts to come, or major shifts in the author's development of this thesis.
      • (→Know what you want from the text)
  • Top Summarizing: (→mind-map)
    • As you finish each major section of a particular reading, jot down very briefly its main idea.
    • A few minutes spent summarizing can save your hours of restudying and rereading.
  • Critical Reading;
    • Approach everything with a healthy skepticism; never confuse fact with opinion.
    • An opinion is what the author thinks is true but cannot necessarily prove.
  • Top Note-taking: (→SQ3R, or SQRRR)
    • Becoming a better reader will make you a better and mor alert listener and note-taker a well
    • It is much easier for a forceful person to influence you by speaking to you than by writing to you.

1. 読書の技術:

  • pith: essence of sth
  • mumble: say sth indisticly
  • wade: walk with effort through water
  • sprawl: だらりと伸ばして
  • jot: write quickly
  • pre-read: 先読みする
  • subvocalization: saying words in your heade rather than grasping the idea; supressing inner speech
    • subvocalization: slowest reading
    • auditory reading: 450 wpm
    • visual reading: 700 wpm
    • proficient reader: 280-310 wpm withou compromising comprehension
  • regression: unconscious process where the eyes go forward 2-3 stops and then go back
  • hone: 砥石
  • SQ3R: reading comprehension method of 5 steps; Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review
  • REAP method: study skills; Read, Encode, Annotate, & Ponder
  • RSVP, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation; one of popular speed reading technologies
  • 句毎のまとまりで読む
  • 言葉を追わない。距離を保って読む
  • 読み返さない
  • 読むというより看ながら読む
  • 行始、行末で止まらない
  • 行の中心で広く視野を保つ
  • キーワードに着目
  • 止まらずに読む。読み返さない
  • 音を口に出さない
  • 先読みする
  • 飛ばし読みする。対角線上に
  • 集中読書
  • キーワードは著者の強調の合図
    • in addition to
    • therefore,
    • for this reason
    • in brief
    • in conclusion
    • to sum up
    • although
    • but
    • nevertheless
    • on the contrary
    • in particular
    • specifically
  • 要点をまとめる
  • 批判的精神で読む
  • メモ・ノートを作成

>Top 2. Vocabulary by Etymology:

  • Recognition of basic word roots, derivation of meaning from prefixes and suffices, and use of words in context.
    • Eg: incredible <L. in (not)+ credibilis (believable)
      • credence: belief in or acceptance of something as true
      • creed: a system of religious belief
      • credible: able to be believed; convincing
      • credulity: a tendency to be too ready to believe that something is real
      • credulous: showing too great a readiness to believe things
      • incredulity: the state of being unable to believe something
      • incredulous: unable to believe something
    • Eg: merces <L. pay, wages, reward
      • mercantile: relating to trade or commerce
      • mercantilism: belief in the benefits of profitable trading
      • mercenary: primarily concerned with making money at the expense of ethics; a professional soldier hired to serve in a foreign army
      • mercenariness: noun
      • merchandise: goods to be bought and sold
      • merchant: a person or company involved in wholesale trade
    • Eg: incongruity <L. in (not)+ con(with) +gruens (agreeing)
      • conflict: a serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one
      • conform: comply with rules, standards, or laws
      • confrère: a fellow member of a profession
      • confront: come fact to face with someone with hostile or argumentative intent
      • congenial: pleasing or liked on account of having qualities or interests that are similar to one's own
      • congruence: agreement or harmony; compatibility
      • congruent: in agreement or harmony
      • congruity: noun
      • congruous: in agreement or harmony
      • incongruence: noun
      • incongruent: incongruous, incompatible
      • incongruous: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something
      • conjugate: give the different forms of (a verb in an inflected language)
      • connubial: relating to marriage or the relationship between a married couple; conjugal
      • consequent: following as a result or effect

2. 語源による単語:

  • mercenary: 傭兵
  • 語源でまとめてvocabulary増強

>Top 3. How to Read Newspaper:

  • "Nothing is staler than yesterday's news" is an old and trite saying.
    • the news section and the editorial pages are the heart of any paper.
    • editor's prime concern is to present facts in the most clear, concise, and readable fashion possible without much of an eye to literary merit.
      • AP at one time had a standing rule that no story could contain more than an average 19 words per sentence; that no paragraph could contain more than three sentences, all polysyllabic words were to be avoided when a monosyllable would express the sense as well.
      • almost all newspapers are written with a sixth-grade readership level in mind.
      • a newspaper, by its very nature, is doomed to be read in a scanning, perfunctory way, it is written to accommodate such a reading.
    • inverted-pyramid style simply means that all the important facts will be presented in the first paragraph or two, and that each succeeding paragraph will be of progressively less importance.
    • editorials and analytic columns are essentially persuasive, deserve a through, thoughtful reading.
      • they are usually aimed at the most thoughtful, perceptive, and intelligent segment of the public and, although clarity is still at a premium, they are apt to be more difficult and elevated in content, language, and style than the rest of the paper.
      • Read the editorial every day, discover the trend of a particular paper's thinking; conservative or liberal, isolationist or cosmopolitan about global affairs, business or labor?

3. 新聞をどう読むか:

  • trite: lacking freshness
  • slick: operation in a impressively smooth and efficient way
  • 昨日の新聞は気の抜けた...
  • 文体の特徴:
    • 1文は19語以下、
    • パラグラフは3文以下
  • 逆ピラミッド型の記述
    • 重要なことは最初に記述
    • 残りがカットされても重要部分が残るような書き方
  • 社説や分析コラム記事
    • 個々の記事より思索・知的分析
    • 新聞の立場がわかる

>Top 4. How to Read Magazine:

  • The point is how to choose your magazine; for entertainment or for information?
    • Pulp fiction writers are often paid by the world, without paying much attention to its quality.
    • Writers of non-fiction in the slicks and semi-slicks are competent professionals, usually with newspaper experience.
    • In general, pre-read all the non-fiction articles and then select the one or two that seem to contain exceptional insight, and read those with care.
    • there are the "quality" magazines consistently offer thought-provoking and penetrating fiction and non-fiction written by outstanding person in their fields.

4. 雑誌をどう読むか:

  • pulp writer: 三流作家
  • 雑誌は玉石混交、選択が重要
  • 質の高い雑誌を選ぶとその分野の鋭い分析がある

>Top 5. How to Read a Book (Non-Fiction):

  • Three types of non-fiction books; 1) those that attempt to survey an entire field (like most textbooks), 2) those with a single thesis (eg, contemporary political situation0, 3) those in chronicle form (most history and biography).
  • Every book must have some binding factor to make it a unified whole; containing 200,000 words. If you had an average 200-250 wpm, and spend 3-4 hours a week on the book, it would take you about a month and a half to finish it.
  • There are two steps to solve your problem:
    • First, you have to improve general approach to the page. By-pre-reading, or phrase reading, you will increase your reading rate until reading will be more commensurate with the information contained in the book.
    • Secondly, use comprehensive aids which publishers provide, you will be able to see the book's point of view, follow it main idea, and keep yourself from getting lost or bogged down.
      • Blurb: What is the title and who is the author? Read the publisher's blurb on the book jacket.
      • Preface: next turn to the prefatory material, foreword, and introduction.
      • Index: table of contents. Read carefully the table of contents, then try to pick out the introductory, concluding and topic chapters. If there seems to be a tricky chapter title, dip into the chapter itself for a minute or two.
      • Conclusion: the last chapter will conclude the work, or sum up the author's findings.
      • If you have followed all the steps, you should have a fairly good idea by this time as to what the book is about.
    • For the thesis-type book, it is the structure of and approach to the field that you want. What does the book encompass the theme? Find out what the book deals with in general terms before you start worrying about details.

5. ノンフィクション本をどう読むか:

  • bog: wet muddy ground
  • blurb: short description of a book written for promotional purposes
  • prefatory: serving as an introduction
  • ノンフィクションは3種類:
    • 広範なテーマ本
    • 単一テーマ本
    • 歴史・年記本
  • まず全体像の把握。そのテーマをどのように概説しようとしているか。
    • タイトルと著者
    • 序文
    • 目次: 初章は導入部、終章は結論
    • 結語

>Top 6. How to Read History and Biography Book:

  • The approach is similar: make judicious use of all the help provided by the publisher such as table of contents, foreword, preface, and introduction to pin down the book's scope and the subject; skim through the index to get a good idea of the range of material; pick out topic chapters; pre-read the first and last chapters of the book as introductory and concluding chapters.
  • But history is essentially a chronicle - an account of events as they happed.
    • This is not to say that there is no logic to history; there is. But, more often than not, you will have to put it there; to deduce the main idea behind a history book, to synthesize the event it recounts, to see the broad patterns that move the world: in short to impose a logic upon history.
    • You cannot let yourself be satisfied with learning the chronicle of the times; now you must find logic behind it, the answer to the question, Why?
    • Pre-read the work three times on three different levels: once from the political point of view, then from the social point of view, and finally from the economic point of view.
    • Don't let yourself get bogged down in a mass of names, date and trivial incidents. A history book should never read like a telephone book.

6. 歴史年記本をどう読むか:

  • judicious: showing with good judgement or sense
  • 基本は前章と同じ
  • 歴史本特有な点は
    • 個々の事象ではなく、背後の論理を探索しながら
    • まず政治面、次に社会面、最後に経済的側面に着目して読む
    • 歴史本は電話帳ではない。年代などより、背後の流れを掴む

>Top 7. How to Read a Novel:

  • Reading a novel is a wonderful experience; the whole range of human emotion, human suffering and human triumph can be found within its pages.
    • When you read a novel, you want to identify with the characters, to live with then, to try to experience everything that they experience throughout the course of the book.
    • Your reason for reading novels must also affect your choice of novels. You must be the judge of what you like or don't like. Never read a novel because everybody else tell you it is good. Read it because you thing it is good.
    • Read the first two or three chapters slowly, trying to find the mood of the novel, the atmosphere the author is creating. Get the feel of this style. Get to know the characters. What kind of people are they? How would you expect them to react in different situations? Are they people that interest you?
    • Most parts of most novels attempt to paint a picture for the reader, or better yet, attempt to suggest a picture.
    • Reading a novel is mostly a question of attitude and involvement, but it precludes a rigid word-by-word approach. You will find the novel almost takes on the aspect of a moving picture. You will be able to "live it" that much more easily. The proper attitude, then - looking for the pictures and sensations on the page rather than the individual words - will increase your speed and your enjoyment, and will add greatly to the riches you will discover in novels.

7. 小説をどう読むか:

  • 小説には人間の感情、苦しみ、勝利などが書かれている。
  • 最初の2−3章を味わい、その小説の文体・時代・人物像を感じる
  • 景色背景の描写に注目
  • 小説は動画のよう。その中の登場人物・時代の生き様を感じる

>Top 8. How to Read a Book Review:

  • The average reviewer is a competent professional, usually a writer himself, whose experience and insight can be an invaluable aid in guiding your purchase.
    • For a start, read The New York Times Book Review and the Saturday Review which offer weekly reviews of a fairly large selection of recently published books.
    • Most reviewers feel obligated to begin by not mentioning the book in question, but by discussing some unrelated subject a lead-in. This part many be skipped. Then follows a summary of the book, and in the last paragraph, the author's critical opinion. The last paragraph alone will be sufficient for your purposes.
    • Never be satisfied with just one reviewer's opinion. Just like all other writers, the critic will slant his review according to his own tastes and opinions, and those of the publication he is wring for.

8. 書評をどう読むか:

  • 書評はそれなりのプロが書いている。
  • NY Times Book Review, Satureday Reviewなど有名な書評は参考になる。
  • 書評は、第2パラグラフから始まる
  • 一つの書評を鵜呑みにしない。

>Top 9. How to Read Business Letters:

  • Business letter of today serves several other purposes besides simple communication.
    • First, it creates uniformity, and uniformity is far more in the interest of a large corporation than excessive individuality.
    • second, it gives anonymity; such as "it is felt that .... "rather than "I feel that ..." makes it difficult to place blame and easy to claim praise. But, granted the usefulness of the modern business letter, the fact remains that too often it is extremely difficult or boring to read.
    • If you have to wad through a whole stack of letters every day, some shot cuts are in order. The first paragraph of a business letter will usually be a friendly hello. Glance at the second paragraph of those that are left.
    • Separate those you definitely are not interest in from those that might be important. Read this latter pile thoroughly. If you have any doubt at all about the importance of a letter, don't discard it until you have made sure.
    • Up to 15% of all business letters are written because a previous letter was not properly understood.
    • Avoid long (usually insincere) over-friendly or fawning salutations.
    • State your business, and get to the point immediately. Keep your sentences short, concise and crisp.

9. ビジネス文書をどう読むか:

  • malign: けなす
  • fawning: へつらう
  • ビジネス文書は、匿名表現
  • 多分に形式的で退屈文書が多い
  • 第2パラグラフから読むべし
  • 簡潔、明解、実務的な文章作成

>Top 10. Vocabulary II:

  • English derives a great deal of its flexibility and expressiveness; it is actually an amalgam of the Romance languages, Germanic tongues, and ancient Greek, even further back, is a descendant of the ancient Indo-European dialects.
    • It is inflectional; the meaning of a word is expressed by combining the word root with significant affixes (elements added)
    • Now that you have set yourself seriously to the task of improving your vocabulary; rather than simply learning a word, learn how it is made. Understand the meaning of its root, its affix, either prefix or suffix.
    • Roots:
      • ag, actus: to do , move, urge ¶agile, agitate
      • aud, audit: to hear ¶audio, auditor
      • cap, apt, cip, cept: to take, seize, hold ¶capture, accept,
      • ced, cess: to go , yield ¶cede, concede
      • leg, lect: to read, gather ¶collect, legible
      • mitt, miss: to send, throw ¶admit,
      • pell, puls: to drive ¶propel,
      • roga: to ask, propose ¶interrogate
      • sent, sens: to feel, perceive ¶sensor, sentimental
      • vid, vis: to see ¶video, vision,
    • Prefixes:
      • a, ab, abs: away from ¶abrupt, absence, absorb
      • a, ad: to ¶address, adhere, adjoin, adjacent, adjourn
      • ante: before ¶anticipate, antenatal, antemeridian, antecede, antebellum,
      • ben, bene: well ¶benevolence, benefaction
      • co, com, con: with ¶company, companion, commune
      • de: down, from, away ¶decay, depart, decrease
      • di, dif, dis: apart, from, away, not ¶dissolve, divide, distant, discern
      • e, ex: out ¶exit, exodus, exile
      • in, im: in, into, toward ¶income, imprison
      • ob: against, toward, reversely ¶object, obstinate
      • per: through ¶perfect, perform, persuade
      • syn, syl, sym: along with, together ¶sympathy, synthetic, syllable, sympathetic
    • Suffixes:
      • age: act, state of ¶damage, bandage, stoppage, carriage, triage
      • esce, escent, escence: becoming ¶coalesce, acquiesce
      • fic, fy: to make ¶specific, prolific; clarify, exemplify, justify, magnify, modify, terrify
      • ism: act of , manner of, state of ¶realism, activism, Catholicism, communism, egotism

10. 語彙 II:

  • 英語の語彙の特徴を語源的に分解理解
  • 語根
  • 接頭辞
  • 接尾辞

>Top 11. Read Twice:

  • In order to improve you comprehension as you read faster, you began to pre-read. Now you pre-read short articles by reading their introduction and conclusion, and the key words.
    • Key-word reading; to develop concentration and comprehension ever further, be active, questioning reader, tying to anticipate what the author would ay, trying to discover his conclusions beforehand.
    • Think of the skills you should apply to everything you encounter. Don't use your new skills to read what you always read but in half the time. Use them to read twice as much as you ever read before.
      • →Practice, practice, practice. The more you train yourself, the more natural it will feel.

11. 二回読む:


>Top 12. from Related Article:

  • We began learnig our spoken language as babies (around 6), whose process doesn't requre explict instruction.
    • Reading and writing is an optional accessory that must be painstakingly bolted on.
  • Wirting systems: reviewing the mental and visual processes involved in reading; written words are composed of smaller visual units that can be combined in various ways.
    • Once a symbol has been learned, it can be recognized in many printed forms (regardless of the font)
  • Speed Reading (wpm)
    • to memorize: less than 100 wpm
    • normal rate for learning: 100-200 wpm
    • for comprehension: 200-400 wpm
    • speed learning: 400-700 wpm
    • sacrificing compehension (this varies from person to person: 500-700 wpm

12. 関連記事:

  • acuity: visual resolution
  • fovea: from the center of vision, 1º; oarafiveam 1-5º; periphery >5º
    foveal: high resoution
  • oculomotor: eye movement
  • cone: photoreceptor cell, color vision 錐体細胞; 色・距離感・細部認識, 明るい所, 感度100倍(5-10分)
  • rod: photoreceptor cell for night (scotopic) vision; 桿体細胞; 白黒・周辺視, 暗い所(30分, night adaptation) 100times more sensitive than cones; respond slower to light than cones; ability to sense temporal changes is less accurate than that of cones; peak sensitivey blue-green.
  • The essence of speed reading is unchanged even in any language. This classic book, published in 1964, describes still comprehensive technique to improve speed reading.
  • The key-words expessed in 'Speed learning" article at Wikipedica in 2020 are shown in green character in corresponding places.
  • It is much important speed understanding than speed finishing to read. There are more exaggeration of speed reading method widely disseminated such as five times or ten times more speed reading; which seems unbelievable. Two times speed reading as in this book seems reasonable and attainable.
  • In speed reading in foreign language, followings need be additionally mastered:
    • More vocabulary building; be more familiar spelling and etymological roots.
    • More practices in speed reading.
    • Be familiar and be enjoyable in reading in foreign language.
  • Wikipedia (2020) etc. says that:
    • "Speed-reading is most useful to those who need to skim a large amont of material or need to imporve their study skills and less useful to those who read highly technical magerial that requires careful study of each sentence."
  • 速読法は、どのような言語でも変わらない。この1964に書かれた古典的な本は速度法の改善について普遍的な技術を述べている。
  • 速読法のWikipedia (2020)の記事にあるキーワードの表現は、相当する場所に、緑色で記載した。
  • 早く読み終えるよりも、早く理解する方が遥かに重要である。世の中には、5倍あるいは10倍もの速読法なるものも流布しているが、とても信じられない。本書のように2倍速読法というのが妥当であるし実現可能と思う。
  • 外国語での速読法では、以下が追加的に必要となる。
    • さらなる語彙の増強。スペルや語源に着目
    • さらなる速読法の実践
    • 外国語での読書に楽しく親しむこと
  • Wikipedia (2020)等の情報:
    • 大量の文書を読む人にとっては、速読法は有効だが、技術的文書や注意深く読む必要のある文書にはさほど有効ではない。

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