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100 Rules of English Idioms

Cat: LAN

Hideya Tokiyoshi (時吉秀弥)

; a; account; anxious; any; anything; as; at; ;but ; call; charge; come; could; count; deal; do; even; ever; fall; far; few; from; get; give; go; have; in; into; less; make; more ; much; of; off; on; one; oneself; out; over; pass; pay; put; regard; respect; search; so; stand; subject; succeed; such; suppose; take; term; that; the; to; try; turn; up; way; what; whole; with;
  • This is an unique good referential book which compares and analyzes various English expressions focusing short words in their grammatical roles in the sentences.
  • 短い単語の文法的な役割に着目して、英文を比較・分析した新たな好著である。
Key Idiom

>Top <A>

  1. a
    1. a
    2. a day
    3. call it a day
    4. 行為+ call it a day

  2. account:
    1. a firsthand account
    2. account for A
    3. by/from all accounts
    4. by one's own account
    5. take A into account

  3. anxious
    1. be axious about A
    2. be abxuiy ti do A

  4. any
    1. if any

  5. anything
    1. if anything

  6. >Top 認識系SVO A as B
    1. see O as A
    2. strike O as A
    3. take O as A
    4. view O as A
    5. regard O as A

  7. as *6
    1. as 〜 as
    2. not as(s0) 〜as A
    3. not so much A as B
    4. as 〜as S can
    5. as 〜as ever
    6. as 形 as 形 can be
    7. as well
    8. might as well 原形†1
    9. might as well 原形 as not
    10. as 〜as 数字
    11. as 〜as any A
    12. X times as 〜as A
    13. as long as SV
    14. as far as bSV
    15. go as far as to do 〜
    16. not go as far as to do〜
    17. as far as it goes
    18. as 形 a 名 as A†2

  8. >Top a
    1. al all costs/any cost
    2. at best
    3. chip away at
    4. at first
    5. get at
    6. good/bad at
    7. keep A at bay
    8. jump at
    9. at one's best
    10. at one time or another
    11. be surprised at
    12. talk at
    13. at the mercy of A
    14. where it's at
    15. at will
    16. at your convenience



  1. a*1: 可算名詞; それ以上崩したらそれとは呼べない形
    1. a fish | some fish; - | some chocolate; a day, a difference, a name
    2. ¶Let's call a day.
    3. それで終わり ¶Don't just finish writing an essay and call it a day. 書き終えてそれで終わりではない
    4. それで終わりにする Why not just nail some stars to the roof and call it a day?
  2. account*2:
    1. 直接の体験談 This special report draws on firsthand accounts of crime victims and case detectives.
    2. 説明する(explain), Aの原因である ¶These factors do not account for the difference in the outcome. /¶Self-quarantine accounts for the increasing number of Internet users.
    3. 誰に聞いても ¶It was, by all acoounts, a foolhardy thing to do.
    4. 本にの話によると ¶By his own account, he is a man of letters.
    5. Aを考慮に入れる ¶We should take his Japanese skills into account.
  3. anxious*3:
    1. Aが心配 ¶People are anxious about the economy.
    2. 〜を切望している¶I'm anxious to sse my daughter.
  4. any*4 [randomに取り出してみても]
    1. 仮に少しあるとしても ¶We have to work long hours but receive little, if any, pay./ ¶What precautions, if any, di you take?
  5. anything*5
    1. どちらかと言えば ¶ we asked them what, if anything, to tell her.
  6. A as B [A=B]
    1. 見做す ¶We see him as a family man.
    2. 認識 ¶It struck me as odd that they were trying to get rid of experienced workers.
    3. 解釈 ¶She took the results of the test as proof of her theory.
    4. 認識 ¶I don't view myself as cold and unemotional.
    5. 認識 ¶He regards himself as a conservative.
  7. as [比較文] *7
    1. 同じくらい ¶They are as different from each other as a tree from a picture of a tree./ ¶This is much more difficult than I thought it was.
    2. Aほど〜な訳ではない ¶I cannot run so fast as Kathy.
    3. AというよりむしろB ¶This is not so much a question as a demand.
    4. できるだけ〜 ¶I'll call you back as soon as I can. /¶Try as hard as you can. =Try as hard as possible.
    5. (どの一点と比べても)相変わらず ¶He is as busy as ever.
    6. この上なくI'm as sure as sure can be that the attack was planned by him.
    7. 同様に ¶Are they attending the meeting as well?
    8. 〜した方がいいかも ¶We might as well ask him about it.
    9. どっちでもいいけど ¶We miight as well ask him about it as not =... as we do not ask him about it.
    10. ほども ¶ The number of people who had cellphones reached 10,000 as early as 1995.
    11. どのAにも負けず劣らず ¶This is as important as any issue that I work on.
    12. AのX倍 ¶He has twice as many books as I do.
    13. 同じ位長い時間SVする ¶You can stay here as long as you like.
    14. 視界が及ぶ限り¶The field was filled with abandoned cars as far as the eye could see./¶He is the best chef in this town as far as I know.
    15. 〜さえする ¶He went as far as to borrow money to see her.
    16. 〜するとまではいかない ¶I won't go as far as to say the project will fail
    17. それなりに ¶Her assessment of his character, as far as it goes, is accurate.
    18. かつてのような ¶The world is not as wonderful a place as it was. /
      ¶This is too big a problem for us to deal with.
  8. at*8: 鳥瞰的視点<動く一点に照準
    1. どんなに犠牲を払っても¶They wanted to avoid conflict at all costs.
    2. 色々なレベルを見てもせいぜい ¶Her spoken French is shaky at best.
    3. 徐々に削り取る ¶This new way of thinking is chippin away at our traditional values.
    4. 始めのうちは ¶At first I thought she was just busy and couldn't call me back.
    5. 照準>正に言いたいこと ¶That's what I was trying to get at.
    6. 得意・不得意 ¶I assume every Asian child is good at math.
    7. bay=吠え声; Aを寄せ付けない¶He tried his best to keep his enemies at bay.
    8. チャンスに飛びつく ¶She jumped at the sound of a crash in the kitchen.
    9. 最盛期に ¶He published two books a month at his best.
    10. 過去には ¶Everyone at one time or antoher has done something wrong.
    11. 感情が向かう>驚く¶We are surprised at her house.
    12. 言い合い ¶People are just talking at each other and not talking with.
    13. Aのなすがまま ¶She was always at the mercy of her mother.
    14. 正に存在する所>核心 ¶For me, Friday is where it's at.
    15. 思うがまま ¶We can't sell and buy stocks at will.
    16. 都合の良いときに ¶Call me at your convenience.


  • *1: まとまった1単位 <one, any, some

  • *2: 計算・会計・審判・評価・利益・物語; accountable 説明できる>責任のある

  • *3: ,anxiety 心配・気遣い・失望
  • *4:どんな、いくらか、どれほどでも
  • *5:何でも、何も
  • *6: と同様・程・の間・だけれど

  • *7: 比較文は2つの文の比較 [後半には省略・代名詞]

  • †1: might=消極さを表現: やったらいいかも、わからんけど

  • †2: 名詞句から形容詞だけ分離して副詞asとつく

  • *8:点・位置・場所・において・に向かって (cf. to)

>Top <B>:

  1. but
    1. but for A†1
    2. not A but B
    3. cannot but do†2
    4. can't help 〜ing
    5. all but A
    6. be anything but A†3


  1. but*1
    1. Aなしでは ¶All was silent but for the sound of the wind in the trees./¶But for the accident, we would have arrived earlier.
    2. ¶It's not what he says but how he says it that gets on my nerves.
    3. せずにはいられない ¶I cannot but think of the irony of the situation.
    4. せずにはいられない ¶I can't help laughing.
    5. A以外の全て ¶All but one of them accepted the offer./ ¶Indigenous species have all but died out.
    6. 全くAなどではない ¶He is anything but a gentleman./ ¶This concept is anything but simple.


  • *1: ただ・ほんの>除いて; 副詞>前置詞>接続詞へ発展; 代名詞も
    ¶Nobody but has his fault.
  • †1: 仮定法
  • †2: (古語) doは原形; =cannot help 〜ing
  • †3: notなし否定表現


  1. call
    1. call for A
    2. call up A

  2. charge
    1. be in charge of A
    2. charge OO
    3. charge to A
    4. charge 人 with
    5. take charge of A

  3. >Top come
    1. be/have yet to come
    2. A come across B
    3. A come first
    4. come into being
    5. come to 不定詞
    6. come up with A
    7. come what may
    8. for years to come /
      in years to come
    9. how come + S V
    10. when it comes to 名

  4. could
    1. couldn't be better
    2. could do
    3. could be true
    4. could have given me
    5. couldn't be more 〜
    6. could be
    7. I couldn't

  5. count
    1. count on A


  1. call*1:
    1. 〜を目的として叫ぶ>要求する ¶People took to the steets and called for an end to the lockdown.
    2. 電話の前に呼びつける ¶If you feel like you had a good time, don't be afraid to call him up and ask him out.
  2. charge*2:
    1. 責任の枠内>Aの担当者である ¶She was put in charfge of the new projecrt.
    2. 荷を追わせる>責任>料金請求 ¶My bank charges me 50 cents for using my PIN at the register.A
    3. Aにツケておく ¶How would you like ot pay for the meal? Charge it to my room, please./I'll charge it to my account.
    4. 負担を負わせる>〜の罪・責任で告発する ¶The district atoorney charged him with murder.
    5. Aを担当する ¶I'd like you to take charge of our human resources development.
  3. come*3: 自分の世界にやって来る.実現する ⇔go ¶This made all my dreams come true.
    1. yet 未到達 ¶The best is yet to come.
    2. Aが偶然Bに出会う¶I sometimes come across people who have a very different way of thinking about democracy.
    3. Aが第一に来る>最優先 ¶For me, family always comes first. I would do anything to protect them.
    4. 〜への変化が実現する ¶The UN came into being after WWII.
    5. 〜する状況が実現する>するようになる ¶The Easter Roman Empire, which came to be known as the Byzantine Empire, lasteed until 1453.
    6. 思考の海に潜って、アイディアを見つけて浮上する ¶He came up with a great idea.
    7. 何が来るかわからないけど ¶Come what may, we will beat the virus.
    8. for=継続. これから先何年も ¶The decision will paralyze the NYPD for years to come. /
      in=期間. 今から〜後 ¶In (the) years to come, we will take self-driving cars for granted.
    9. どうしてSがVするのか ¶How come you are hiding in a place like this.
    10. 話が〜のこととなると ¶A lot of things took place in the 1990s when it comes to the evolution of information technology.
  4. could*4: 仮定法=婉曲表現
    1. これ以上は良くならない>最高・絶好調 ¶How are you? Couldn't be better.
    2. できるでしょう ¶He could do it
    3. 本当かも知れない ¶It could be true.
    4. やっていただけますか ¶Could you do that for me?
    5. 忠告してくれてもよかったのに ¶You could have given me some advice.
    6. これ以上はない ¶This game couldn't be more exciting.
    7. おそらくprobably &Could be hie is right and I'm wrong.
    8. もう結構です。
  5. count: *5
    1. 数の内に入る>重要である ¶You can count on me. ;¶Can you count me out of the party on this evening Saturday?


  • *1: L. gallus, cock 大声で呼ぶ; 呼子・呼び笛
    >招集 >思し召し・天職 >起こす >ランプのコール>短時間の訪問 >電話をかける
  • *2: 荷物・告白・義務・負債・突撃・充電

  • *3: come: <L. venire (cf. advent, convene

  • *4: <sould, wouldの類推からのスペル。should<shou'd

  • *5: 収支決済>数えること>考慮・重視>訴因

>Top <D>:

  1. deal - dealt[delt]
    1. a great deal of A
    2. deal a 形 blow to A
    3. deal in A
    4. deal with A
    5. deal with it
    6. strike a deal with A

  2. SVO 人 to do [使役]
    1. tell 人 to do
    2. ask 人 to do
    3. want 人 to do
      would like 人 to do
    4. get 人 to do
    5. need 人 to do


  1. deal*1:
    1. 大量のA(不加算名詞) ¶We spent a great deal to time talking about the issue.
    2. 配る>打撃を与える ¶The drought dealt a serious blow to agricultue in Cameroon.
    3. 配る>商売をする ¶They deal in cleaning supplies. /¶He was charged with dealing in stolen property.
    4. 対戦相手に(with)>対処する ¶Why don't we deal with the reality in front of us?
    5. 対処しろ>我慢しろ>なんとかしろ ¶Does this hurt your feelings? Sorry, it's the truth. Deal with it.
    6. strikeなでる =make deal ¶Then, I made a deal with them./¶The year beforem UK, France and Germany struck a deal with Iran.
  2. to do [使役]*2
    1. ¶I told him to cancel the meeting.
    2. ¶I asked him to come with us.
    3. ¶I want you to join us./ I'd like them to marry.
    4. ¶Somehow I had to get her to hurry up.
    5. ¶We need to figure out the way to get ten more tables.


  • *1: <OE dælam, divide, share: 分配・参加・分割・処理・扱う

  • *2: 置く>する>させる(その後使役の意味を失う)>行動する>やっていく>である>役立つ; doer行為者; doingしわざ; done 済んだ

>Top <E>:

  1. even
    1. even+比較級
    2. 最上級+of all time
    3. the last 名 +to不定詞

  2. ever
    1. a


  1. even*1/(way<away) 比較級の強調
    1. の方がずっと ¶The threat is even higher with government soponsored espionage.
    2. 史上最も ¶He is one the greates gymnasts of all time.
    3. 最も〜しないであろう ¶He would be the last person to make friends with me.
  2. ever*2: どの時点の記憶を検索しても
    1. ¶This is the funniest joke (that) I've ever heard.


  • *1: 原義はequal; 平坦>平等・公平・平静に>互角>偶数>端数のない>十分に>ですら; evenness 公平・均等・平静>平坦; even-handed 公明正大な
  • *2: かつて・これまで・いつか・いつも・一体・非常に; ever-angryいつも怒った; ever-burning永遠に輝く; everduring 永遠の

>Top <F>:

  1. fall
    1. fall back on A

  2. far
    1. by far

  3. few
    1. to name *but) a few

  4. >Top from
    1. far from A
    2. be free from A

  5. SVO from [未然防止]
    1. take O from A
    2. keep O from 〜ing
    3. prevent O from 〜ing
    4. stop O from 〜ing
    5. prohibit O from 〜ing
    6. protec O from 〜
    7. discourage O from 〜

  6. SVP from [区別]
    1. distinguish O from 〜
    2. tell O from 〜
    3. know O from 〜
    4. differentiate O from 〜


  1. fall*1:
    1. 追い詰められて後に倒れる>最後の拠り所 ¶You should have something to fall back on, and foreign language skills are that for me.
  2. far
    1. by far (=much) 最上級の強調>断然 ¶This product is bay far the most popular.
  3. few *2
    1. ほんの少ししか例をあげていないが ¶Japan has many multination corporations such as Sony, Honda and Nintendo, to name (but) a few.
  4. from*3
    1. 決してAではない ¶It's still far from clear how the government will carry out the plan.
    2. Aから逃れている ¶These gains are free from taxes.
  5. from [未然防止]
    1. ¶I took 7:30 train from Tokyo to Osaka.
    2. ¶The pandemic has been keeping us from traveling abroad.
    3. ¶We must prevent misinformation from spreading again.
    4. ¶I tried to stop myself from crying.
    5. ¶He is prohibitred from contacting his ex-wife./
      ¶US goverenment prohibited the man from boarding a plane.
    6. ¶We need to take precautions to protect ourselves from dehydration.
    7. ¶My father, who is successful musician, discourages me from entering show business.
  6. from [区別]
    1. ¶It is said that Japanese language doesn't distinguish green from blue.
    2. ¶Can you tell Annie from Jamie?
    3. ¶I slept so many hours that I didn't know day from night when I woke up.
    4. ¶What diffrentiates our new product from others is this new feature.


  • *1: 落ちる・倒れる・沈む・起こる; falling 落下
  • *2: notなし否定表現
  • *3: notなし否定表現

>Top <G>:

  1. get
    1. get 形(ready)
    2. get 人・物+ 形(ready)
    3. get away from
    4. get away with A
    5. get back
    6. get 人・物 back
    7. get by
    8. get into trouble
    9. get 人 into trouble
    10. get on A's nerves
    11. get on well
    12. get on with A's life
    13. get on with it
    14. get out of 場所
    15. get 人・物 out of 場所
    16. get over
    17. get A over with
    18. get to 場所
    19. get 人・物 to 場所
    20. get up

  2. >Top give
    1. give away
    2. give up

  3. go
    1. go broke/bankrupt
    2. go extinct
    3. it goes without saying that SV
    4. go viral
    5. what's going on?

  4. go for
    1. go for broke
    2. go for help
    3. go for the gold
    4. go for the jugular
    5. the same goes for A


  1. get*1: get+副詞: 副詞の状態を手に入れる
    1. Vi: (Sがready状態を)getする ¶I'm getting ready.
    2. Vt: (SがO=ready状態を)get する ¶It 's almost impossible to get my kid ready within 10 minutes.
    3. (離れる状態を)手に入れる>逃れる ¶Get away from me.
    4. (悪事を抱えたまま)その場から離れる ¶I'll call the ploice. You won't get away with this.
    5. Vi: (back状態を)getする>戻る ¶He got back from Tokyo yesterday.
    6. Vt: (back状態を)getする>取り戻す ¶We are going to do everything to get him back.
    7. (そのものではないがその近似値を)手に入れる> 何とかやっていく ¶We'll have to get by without the subsidies.
    8. Vi: (トラブル状態に変化して)まずいことになった ¶I think we've got into trouble.
    9. Vt: (あなたが私をトラブルの中に入れる) ¶You got me into trouble.
    10. (Aの神経に乗るうように)イラッとさせる ¶She gets on my nerves.
    11. (ともかく乗れている状態なので)うまくやっている ¶We get on very well.
    12. (Aと共に)うまく乗り切る ¶I didn't get on with my boss.
    13. (課題itに乗る)うまく行動を開始する ¶Let's get on with it.
    14. Vi: (外へ出る)抜け出す ¶We managed to get out of the jungle.
    15. Vt: (外へと)getする ¶Now, get me out of here.
    16. (乗り越えた状態)を手に入れる>吹っ切れる ¶I can't get over her.
    17. (対戦相手を乗り越えて)けりをつける ¶They wanted to get it over with.
    18. Vi:(場所に到達状態を)getする ¶We got to the hospital 10 minutes later.
    19. Vt: (場所にOを連れて)行く≒take ¶They got me to the hospital.
    20. (体を起こす状態を)手に入れる ¶Wake up and get up.
  2. give*2:
  3. go*3: 離れる動作+悪いイメージ>悪いことが起きる
    1. broke=bankrupt 破産 ¶Our company will go broke without government subsidies.
    2. extinct <extinguish, put out ¶Many species have gone extinct during the past few centuries.
    3. 言わなくても状況は進行する ¶It goes without saying that language is a powerful tool.
    4. viral <virus 一気に広まる ¶The video went viral on social media.
    5. 状況如何 ¶It's a bit early to be confident in predictions about what's going on.
  4. go for 目的 (Cf. go to 場所)
    1. 一文無し(broke)を求めて行く>のるかそるかの賭け ¶We decided to go for broke and put the plan into practice.
    2. 人に助けを求める ¶You'll be safer here. I'll go for help.
    3. 最高の結果を目指して ¶We must do whatever we can. We must always go for the gold.
    4. 頸静脈=相手の弱点を突く ¶He always goes for the jugular in a debate.
    5. 同じことがAにも通用する¶It's true that the Japanese language is very complicated, but the same goes for any other language.


  • *1: 得る・来る・行く・になる

  • *2: 無償で与える・譲歩・; given 贈られた・既定の・特定の

  • *3: 歩く・行く・旅する; go-went-goneはsuppletion(補充法); go-between 仲人; go-cart 輿; goer-back 退く人;

>Top <H>:

  1. have
    1. have better +動原形
    2. had better have done it.
    3. have (something) to do with A


  1. have*1:
    1. やらないとヤバい ¶You had better not do it.
    2. とっくにできているはず ¶You had better have done it.
    3. Aと一緒にやることがある>関係がある ¶She now has little to do with the group she founded.


  • *1:持つ・状態におく・させる>財産・持てる国; have-not無産者;
    have at攻撃する have it 勝つ; have toは本来は未来の意
  • aux >完了形 >have got

>Top < I >:

  1. in
    1. in advance
    2. in doing so
    3. fall in with A
    4. for the first time in
    5. give in to A
    6. get/keep in touch with
    7. be lost in thought
    8. in order to
    9. persist in
    10. result in
    11. take part in A
    12. in that S+V
    13. in the end
    14. in the first place

  2. into
    1. fool/trick 人 into doing
    2. force/push 人into doing
    3. manipulate/cajole 人 into doing
    4. scare/bully 人 into doing
    5. talk/coax 人 into doing
      talk 人 out of 〜ing

< I >:

  1. in*1: 境界の内側
    1. (時間的前進の枠内で)前もって ¶Make sure to chill the wine in advance.
    2. (そういう枠内で)そうすることで ¶In doing so, you can improve your language skills.
    3. (たまたま落下したら)偶然出会う ¶My son fell in with a bad crowd.
    4. (期間内で)初めて ¶He visited his grandparents for the first time in two years.
    5. (相手に優勢を許し)屈する ¶I gave in to temptation and ate another slice of pizza.
    6. (枠内の状態を確保して)連絡を取る ¶I've been trying to get in touch with you, but I couldn't.
    7. (捕らわれて)もの思いにふける ¶Excuse me, I was lost in thought.
    8. (努力して)なんとかするため ¶I ran to the station in order to catch the last train.
    9. (完全に立つ)ずっと立ち続ける ¶She persisted in making changes.
    10. (枠内に存在する)結果となる ¶The surgey could result in death. ; Cf. result from ¶I'll take part in the meeting online.
    11. (自分の役割を取る)参加する
    12. (SVする条件の枠内で) ¶The results are important in that they have many parallels with each other.
    13. (最終到着)ついには ¶bad guys will always lose in the end.
    14. (他と対比して)そもそも¶Why did you go to a place like that in the first place.
  2. into*2
    1. 騙す系 ¶She tricked the littel boy into believing that she was his mother. ¶Don't let her charm fool you into thinking she is a nice woman.
    2. 強制系 ¶ I don 't want to force you into doing this. /¶I'm not trying to push you into accepting my poisition.
    3. 甘言系 ¶He had a heart attack last month, but even that didn't scare him into stopping drinking./¶He cajoled us into striking a deal.
    4. 説得系: Vt: 言葉で人を動かす ¶I talked my father into going there with me./ ¶The doctor coaxed the old woman into taking the medicine.
      Cf. My mom talked me out of going to his funeral.

< I >:

  • *1: <L. havere, give, habit;
    herein; inlet→in->il- l>im- b・m・p>ir- r >en-, em-

  • *2: の中へ; 元はin(ad)+ to(prep); be into ... に夢中>get into, go into >lesser (限定詞)二重比較形; Of two evils, choose the lesser.

>Top <J>:



  • *1:

>Top <K>:



  • *1:

>Top <L>:

  1. less
    1. couldn't care less
    2. couldn't-care-less*1


  1. less
    1. これ以上少なく気にすることはできない>限界まで気にしている>どうでもいい、お構いなしだ ¶I couldn't care less about him./ They couldn't care less about the law.
    2. characterized by complete indifference ¶I started to get irritated by this couldn't-care-less attitide.


  • *1: 仮定法過去; より小さい・より少ない・を欠いた; unless

>Top <M>:

  1. make
    1. 原因+make +人+感情
    2. make a big thing out of A
    3. make a difference
    4. make a fortune
    5. make a living
    6. make ends meet
    7. make it
    8. make of A
    9. make one's name as A
    10. make oneself done
    11. make or break A
    12. make money off of A
    13. lose money on A

  2. more
    1. more +原級
  3. much
    1. much less A


  1. make*1: 好きな形にする
    1. You make me happy. (me=happy)
    2. a+形は、具体的な取引で ¶The publishing company made a big profit off of the b0ok.
    3. 違いを生み出す> 効果がある ¶Do our part and make a difference.
    4. 生計を立てる ¶I once made a living playing a guitar in a rock band.
    5. 一儲けする ¶He made a fortune selling hair care production.
    6. 両端=帳尻 ¶Many samll businesses are struggling to make ends meet.
    7. 状況を形にする>成し遂げる ¶You followed your dream and you made it.
    8. Aから情報を取り出して考えを作る>理解する ¶ What do you make of A?
    9. Aとして名を馳せる ¶She first made her name as a fashion photograher in Paris.,
    10. 自身を〜という状態にする ¶I raised my voice to make myself heard.
    11. Aの成功・運命を左右する ¶ His decision will make or break the project.
    12. Aで金儲けをする ¶Some people make money off of fake news on social media.
    13. Aで金を損する ¶He lost a lot of money on his investment.
  2. more+原級の比較級*2:
    1. ¶That man was more wide than fat. <✕That mawa waas wider than fat.
  3. much
    1. ましてAなどではない ¶I have never met her, much less talked with her.


  • *1: <L. facere <こね土; 行動・作る・仕立てる・させる>動作・ふるまい・性格・製造・切り札の宣言・鑑定の決め手
    made <G. machte; What make you here?=What are you doing here?;
    maker 造物主; make-believe 見せかけ; make-peace 調停者; make-up 作り話・化粧; makeweight 目方の足し埋草

  • *2: 同じ形での比較

>Top <N>:



  • *1:

>Top <O>:

  1. of
    1. come of
    2. come of age
    3. die of A
    4. dream of
    5. get ahead of oneself
    6. have a chance of 〜ing
    7. have a mind of one's own
    8. let go of A
    9. make fun of A
    10. make good use of A
    11. make light of A
    12. make the best of A
    13. in a matter of
    14. none of your business
    15. take advange of A
    16. take care of A
    17. take the risk of 〜ing
    18. what do you make of A

  2. SVO+of
    1. assure 人 of A
    2. convince 人 of A
    3. inform 人 of A
    4. remind 人 of A
    5. warn 人 of A

  3. SVO+of [奪格?]
    1. rob 人 of A
    2. derive 人 of A
    3. relive 人 of A
    4. rid 人 of A
    5. cure 人 of A
    6. clear 人 of A

  4. 受動態 +of
    1. accuse 人 of A
    2. convict 人 of A
    3. acquit 人 of A
    4. suspect 人 of A

  5. >Top off
    1. break off
    2. come off
    3. cut off A with B
    4. get A off one's chest
    5. get A off the ground
    6. go off
    7. give off
    8. hit it off
    9. level off
    10. put off A
    11. pull it off
    12. percent off
    13. shake off
    14. show A off
    15. start off with A
    16. take off
    17. tell A off

  6. on
    1. on account of
    2. based on A
    3. blame A on B
    4. draw on A
    5. get down to
    6. give A a pat on the back
    7. give up on A
    8. have it on good authority that SV
    9. look down on A
    10. on one's merits
    11. on one's mind
    12. on one's own
    13. pick on
    14. on the verge of
    15. work on A

  7. >Top one
    1. one after another
    2. one another (=each other)
    3. one way or another

  8. oneself
    1. beside oneself
    2. by oneself
    3. for oneself
    4. in itsefl
    5. 名_+to oneself

  9. out
    1. be drummed out
    2. be not cut out for A
    3. be out of A
    4. carry out A
    5. dry out
    6. figure out
    7. find out
    8. V+flat out
    9. go out
    10. laugh out loud
    11. make out
    12. pick out
    13. out of the blue
    14. rule out A
    15. run out
    16. sell out
    17. work out
    18. work out a way to do 〜
    19. work out for A
    20. work out the way SV

  10. >Top over
    1. all over
    2. be falling over oneself
    3. be/get in over one's head
    4. be given over to A
    5. be left over
    6. be over/Game over
    7. be passed over for
    8. be written all over one's face
    9. A call B over
    10. check over
    11. choose A over B
    12. fall over each other
    13. give A an advantage over B
    14. gloss over A
    15. hand A over
    16. have A hang over one's head
    17. over and over again
    18. over ...
    19. over my dead body!
    20. over the counter
    21. over the hump
    22. over time
    23. pull over
    24. see ... over
    25. take over A
    26. talk over
    27. A tide B over
    28. turn ... over
    29. turn over a new leaf
    30. turnover
    31. walk all over
    32. win over


  1. of*1: 全部から一部を取り出す
    1. (自分の現実世界に入ってきて)実現する¶I'm confident that something will come of it.
    2. (年を重ねて)成人を迎える ¶He came of age during WWII.
    3. (様々な要因から出てきた)原因で¶He died of cancer. Cf. ≒die from
    4. (種々の理想の中から)一つ思い描く ¶He has dreamed of being an astronaut since he was ten.
    5. (自分自身より先立った状態で)先走る ¶Let's not get ahead of ourselves.
    6. (偶然の機会で)〜する可能性がある ¶We have a chance of curing cancer.
    7. (自分なりの思考法での)考えがある ¶Unlike you, I have a mind of my own.
    8. (Aの手を離して)去らせてあげる ¶Don't let go of the rope!; 掴んで離したくない¶I couldn't let go of the idea.
    9. (Aから取り出して)面白い形を作る ¶I was always made fun of in school about my hair.
    10. (Aから要素を取り出して)うまく利用する ¶We must think of a way to make good use of the money.
    11. (Aの要素は実際は重要なのに)Aを軽視する ¶We should not make light of his struggles with drug dependency.
    12. (Aから取り出して)最高の状態を作る ¶They made the best of the short amount ot time they had.
    13. (問題の核心は何かというと)ほんの〜で ¶The bus will take you to Tokyo Tower in a matter of minutes.
    14. (あなたの関与から何も出てこないので)首を突っ込むな ¶My income is none of your business!
    15. (有利な位置をとって)最大限利用する、つけ込む ¶ I don't want to take advantage of her personal situation.
    16. (Aに注意を払って)面倒を見る ¶We can take better care of children if we work from home.
    17. (〜することからできる)リスクを取る ¶Why did he take the risk of losing public support?
    18. (Aの状況から情報を取り出して)どう思うか ¶What do you make of what he said?
  2. SVO+of†1:
    1. ¶We can assure you of the quality we provide.
    2. ¶It's not easy to convince her of that.
    3. ¶Did you inform the police of the accident?
    4. ¶This song reminds me o my younger days
    5. ¶I'm warning you of the risk.
  3. SVO+of†2:
    1. 強奪 ¶They robbed me of my wallet. [robは人を襲う]
      cf. He stole my wallet. [steelは物を盗む]
    2. 剥奪 ¶Soldiers deprived the genral of his power.
    3. 除去 ¶I'll do my best to relieve you of you troubles.
    4. 追放 ¶We must rid the world of nuclear weapons.
    5. 治療 ¶The doctor cured my father of his brain tumor.
    6. 除去 ¶They cleared the road of illegally parked bicycles.
  4. 受動態SVO+of
    1. 理由 ¶He was accused of domestic violence. <She accused him of domestic violence.
    2. 宣告 ¶He was convicted of murder. <The jury convicted him of murder.
    3. 宣告 ¶He was acquitted of all charges. <The jury acquitted him of all charges.
    4. 疑義 ¶ I was suspected of stealing drugs and using htem. <They suspected me of stealing drugs and using them.
  5. off*2: <着脱・分離: be removed, separated < a variant of 'of"
    1. 取り外す>断絶 ¶Government broke off talks with the protesters.
    2. 着脱; ¶The cup's handle has come off.
    3. 関係断絶 ¶My father cut off contact with me when I was eight.
    4. 打ち明けて楽になる ¶To get it off your chest, talk about it.
    5. 離脱>軌道に乗せる ¶We spent a million dollars to get the project off the ground.
    6. 爆発, 発射, 突然消滅 ¶The alarm didn't go off.
    7. 芳香・熱・光の放射・拡散 ¶The cheese gave off a strange smell.
    8. 意気投合する ¶She and I met at a part and hit it off.
    9. 増減がなくなる→頭打ちになる ¶Foreign investment has begun to level off.
    10. 後回し>延期 ¶I postponed calling him a couple of times until I could put it off any longer.
    11. 引き寄せ>成功 ¶They are impressed that I managed to pull it off.
    12. 料金の分離>割引 ¶It's a thirty percent off.
    13. 考えを振り払う ¶He shook off the thought.
    14. 少し離して見せる→見せびらかす ¶She showed off her new necklace.
    15. 過程を始める>することから始める ¶I need a cup of coffee to starf off the day.
    16. 地面から分離>離陸
    17. offするよう伝える→叱る ¶He was told off by the boss over the phone
  6. on*3: 接触・圧力
    1. (考慮すべき事情の上での)理由で ¶This law has protected the right of vote from being denied on account of race.
    2. (土台の上に)基づいて ¶The model of thought of the Japanese is based on group consciousness.
    3. (A問題の責任は)Bにある ¶You shouldn't blame everything on me.
    4. (経験・知識を手元に引き寄せて)活用する ¶We should draw on expertise and experience to cope with the difficulties.
    5. (体をdownして)上に置く ¶He got down on his knees and proposed to me. >自分を責める ¶When you're not perfect, it's easy to get down on yourself.
    6. (背中の上をポンと)叩いて褒める ¶Give yourself a pat on the back for a job well done.
    7. (圧力をかけて)見限る ¶Please don't give up on me.
    8. (十分な権威の上に)SVする、十分な裏付があって ¶You must have it on good authority, or you wouldn't say such a thing.
    9. (上にのしかかって)見下す ¶They look down on him evey though he's rich. ⇔look up to A
    10. (価値・実績・功罪を評価して)
    11. (重荷に感じて)気にしている ¶That's weighting heavy on my mind.; Cf. in mind
    12. (自身の能力で)行動できる ¶Listen, you can do it on your own.
    13. (嘴でつついて)いじめる ¶Stop picking on my child.
    14. (何か発生しそうな先端の)際でする, 今にも〜しそうな ¶He ended his closing statement on the verge of tears.
    15. (Aに圧力をかけて)とりつく ¶I'm working on them. It takes time.
  7. one
    1. 一つ出た後、引き続いて ¶One after another the fishermen dove into the sea.
    2. いずれも代名詞 ¶They taled with one another (with each other) /¶We know one another (each other)
    3. どちらにしても、どうにかしも (結局こうなる) ¶One way or another the economy affects us all./¶I'll find you a girlfriend, one way or another.
  8. oneself
    1. 幽体離脱>我を忘れて ¶He was beside himself with excitement.
    2. 一人きりで(alone) ¶I don't want to be all by myself.
    3. 自身のために、自給自足¶I made some sandwiches for myself and ate them by myself./¶See for yourself./¶Those facts will speak for themselves.
    4. その(物)自体は ¶That in itself doesn't tell us anything about how the universe was created./¶Summer camp is a tradtion in itself in our school.
    5. 自分専用の ¶He is good at drawing attention to himself.
  9. out*4: (完了終了・出現発生)・明確・選別・消滅
    1. (ドラムのように叩かれて)追放される ¶No one should be drummed out of the community just because they have different point of view.
    2. (ぴったり切り出されてないので)Aには向いていない。 ¶I'm not cut out for working here.
    3. (Aの外側の状態で)Aが尽きてしまう。¶We are out of time.
    4. (運び出して)実行する ¶Prime Minister carried out what he promised on the campaign trail.
    5. (水分が抜けた状態の)カサカサになる>アルコールを断つ ¶He decided to go to a clinic to dry out.
    6. (輪郭をはっきりさせて)考え出す ¶What are we going to do? We need to figure it out.
    7. (調べた結果)見つけて外に出す ¶Can you find out what time the movie starts?
    8. (体を伏せて広げて)一生懸命にVする ¶I want to thank everyone who is working flat out to beat the virus.
    9. (外に出て行くように)消えてしまう。 ¶The lights went out.
    10. (大声を出して)爆笑する。LOL ¶They laughed out loud at her jokes.
    11. (外に出して明らかにするように)理解する ¶Did you make out what he said?
    12. (識別して)選び出す ¶See if you can pick her out in this photo.
    13. (青天の霹靂での稲妻のように)だしぬけに ¶I'm sorry for texting you out of the blue, but I didn't know who else I could turn to.
    14. (排除の裁定として)可能性から排除する¶I will not rule out any of these possibilities.
    15. (流れ出て尽きるように)使い果たす ¶Both time and money are running out.
    16. (外に出て行くように)売り切れてしまう。¶The tickets are sold out.
    17. (救出のように)トラブルを解決する ¶It will take more time to work out a solution.
    18. (頭をひねって)方法を考えつく ¶We must work out a way to protect our future from natural disaters.
    19. (Aにとって) ことがうまく運ぶ ¶I hope it will work out for you.
    20. (結果が出るように)ことが運ぶ ¶It worked out the way we wanted it to.
  10. over*5: 越える・超える・覆う・回転する・終わる・譲渡する
    1. 全部覆う状態で ¶He is famous all over the world.
    2. (自身に殺到するように)躍起になる ¶Media outlets are falling over themselves trying to get interview with him.
    3. (自分の能力を超えた状態)にっちもさっちも It is saida that he was in over his head as mayor.
    4. (Aに明け渡す=assignして)割り当てる、費やされる ¶Much of the book is given over to his biography.
    5. (終わった後に結果として)残ってしまった ¶It depends on how much money is left over.
    6. (越えてしまった状態で)プロセスを終了した状態にある。¶Our love is over./ Game over.
    7. (仕事の機会が通り過ぎて)はずされる ¶He was passed over for a promotion twice.
    8. (顔中全てを覆うように)ありありと表情が現れる ¶Her sorrow was written all over her face.
    9. (面倒を乗り越えてでも)来て ¶I gratefully joined them when they called me over.
    10. (満遍なく見渡して)念入りに調べる ¶Before you turn in your test, check over your answers.
    11. (AはBより上に立って)優位である。¶If asked, I would choose family over work.
    12. (〜を求めて)我先にと争う ¶He danced around defenders who fell over each other trying to tackle him.
    13. (原因がAに優位性をBよりも与える) ¶The new rule may have given us an advantage on them.
    14. (Aを覆うようにして)ごまかす ¶We tend to gloss over bad times.
    15. (渡す側が垣根を越えて相手に)手渡す ¶He handed over the notebook to me.
    16. (問題が覆いかぶさって)煩わされる¶I don't want to have it hang over my head.
    17. (元の位置で)ぐるぐる回る ¶She called my name over and over again.
    18. 物を覆う¶Put the cloth over the table.
    19. (行くなら私の死体を乗り越えて行け)絶対反対だ。¶I'll never do it for you. I'll do it over my dead body.; Over my dead body will I let you marry my daughter. [否定の倒置]
    20. (処方箋なしでカウンター越しで買える)市販の¶I have some over-the-counter painkillers.
    21. (瘤のような危機を)乗り越える ¶We had trouble getting over the hump for millions of reasons.
    22. (ある期間を覆って)時間をかけて ¶The definition of beauty has changed over time.
    23. (馬を引き寄せたように)車を脇に寄せて停める ¶I pulled over my car to look at my phone.
    24. 飛び越える ¶I saw a cat jump over the wall.
    25. (全てをカバーする形で)引き継ぐ>乗っ取る ¶I would like you to take over my job./ He killed the king and took over the territory.
    26. (話し合った結果)相手を説き伏せる ¶Stop trying to talk over me.
    27. (潮流に乗せて)危機をしのぐ ¶Here's some cash to tide you over.
    28. 回って越える>回転 ¶Choose a card and turn it over.
    29. (新たな頁をめくるようい)心機一転して行動する ¶I have an announcement to make. I'm turning over a new leaf!
    30. 回転率 >離職率 ¶We have a very low staff turnover rate.
    31. (全てを上を踏みつけるように)人をこき使う ¶You will let him walk all over you.
    32. (人の心を掴んで)支持を勝ち取る ¶He has already won over young readers.


  • *1: 原義は away; 分離・解放・起源・動機・によって・のために・手段道具・部分・所有・どう書く; 17C以降of/offの区別確立; a portion of 部分を表す属格用法

  • †1: 全体から構成要素を取り出す
    • thing about Socrates: 関連の話題まであれこれ
    • think of Socrates: 構成要素に集中

  • f†2: 奪格(ablative)的用法; ofの原義はaway, from, off; 分離・解放のof
    <L. ab/abs >absent=ab+esse; abstract=abs+tract; absorb=ab+sorb
    • Aenēas Troiā venit =Aeneas came from Troy., Troiāは奪格
    • 人 of 物
    • 物 from 人

  • *2: <本来はofと同じ; 離脱・分離・中止・終わりまで・遠くに・沖に・良く悪くいって・非番の・末節の・オフ側の・禁酒の; in the offing 近い内に>遠い将来に; offish よそよそしい; offbeat 風変わりな; loffshot 支流; offside; offtake 排気管
    • ¶ここにはもう不在; I,m off today, 今日は休み

  • *3: 上に・中に・日時に・基づいて

  • *4: 外へ・最後まで・徹底的に・終わって・消えて; (prep)から out of

  • *5: 上に・越えて・一面に・過度に・余分の>above

>Top <P>:

  1. pass
    1. pass away
    2. pass out
  2. pay
    1. pay off
  3. put
    1. put across A
    2. put A in A's place
    3. to put it simply (=simply put)
    4. put A into words
    5. put oneself in A's shoes

  4. put up
    1. put up a fight
    2. put 人 up
    3. put 物 up for A
    4. put up with A

  5. put on
    1. put A on
    2. put on +態度 (airs)
    3. put on a happy face
    4. put on weight
    5. put-on


  1. pass
    1. 見えなくなって消えてしまう。死ぬ ¶I didn't know he hd passed away.
    2. 気絶する ¶Yesterday, I passd out right after I got out of bed.
  2. pay*1
    1. 払い離れる>完済する>努力が結ぶ ¶Little by little, my hard work paid off.
  3. put*2
    1. A(考えなど)を二人の空間を横切って伝える¶I don't see what I can do to put across my idea any easier.
    2. 本来のplace ¶She put him in his place and it allowed him to refocus on what he should be doing.
    3. 置いて見せる=伝える>端的に言う To put it simply, we live in different world with different values.
    4. She found it difficult to put her question into words.
    5. shoes=他人の立場(place) ¶I hint I should put myself in your shoes and view the world from your standpoint.
  4. putは単純な棒切れ: put up 高い位置に置く ¶She put up an umbrella.
    1. 抵抗の意思表示を掲げる ¶He put up an oustanding peformance.
    2. 上=室内。人を中に入れる(上げる) ¶Can you put me up for the night?
    3. A (販売等)に出す ¶My father put his house up for sale.
    4. 棚上げ>我慢する ¶You need to learn to put up with things.
  5. put on (接触状態=着用)
    1. on=on his body ¶He stood up and put a jacket on.
    2. 気取った態度を装う>気取る ¶Other girls thought she put on airs.
    3. happy faceを身につける>気丈に振る舞う ¶Put on a happy face, and before long you'll start genuinely feeling happier.
    4. 体重も衣服にように身につける ¶She has put on weight since she beat her eating disorder.
    5. put-on ふりをする ¶Did this acutally happen? Or are you telling a put-on?


  • *1 満足・支払・償う; payable 支払うべき; payee 受取人

  • *2: <押す、角で突く; putter-on 扇動者> 職人>身に着ける ; putter-out 消す人; putting-by 拒否する人; putting-down 抑圧

>Top <Q>:



>Top <R>:

  1. regard
    1. as regards A†1
    2. in this regard
    3. regardless of A
    4. with regard to

  2. respect
    1. respectfully
    2. with all due respect
    3. with respect to


  1. regard*1:
    1. Aに関しては ¶As regards a cure for the disease, very few advances have been made.
    2. この点に関しては ¶US still has an edge on China in this regard.
    3. どうでもよい>Aに関係なく ¶Regardless of what people tell me, I will not stop thinking about the plan.
    4. 注意と共に>Aの話題に関しては;=with respect to
  2. respect*2: 考慮
    1. それぞれ ¶This will help you focus on things respectively, in a more efficient way.
    2. 当然の尊敬を添えて>お言葉ですが ¶That's absolutely incorrect with all due respect to that person.
    3. 注意と共に>Aの話題に関しては ¶With respect to hurricanes we have little option but to adapt.



  • *1: 考慮・判断・外観・尊敬・注意; rewardと二重語; in one's regard に対する配慮; regardfully 注意深く; regardless 顧みられない
  • †1: 非人称構文
  • *2: 考慮・関係・尊敬;
    repireと二重語 ;
    in respect of と比較すると; have respect to に注目: respectability, respected, respecter えこひいきする人、reespectful 注意深い
    respective 関係ある・注意深い・いんぎんな・各々の

>Top <S>:

  1. search
    1. search for+場所

  2. so〜that; so〜as to †1
    1. so tired that SV
      not so tired that SV
    2. SV so 〜as to do...
      SV not so 〜as to do...
    3. SV so 〜that
      So 〜SV that [倒置]
  3. so that SV
    1. , so that SV
    2. so as to do 〜
    3. not so much as V
    4. V without so much as
      〜ing A
  4. >Top stand
    1. can't stand A
    2. stand for A
  5. subject
    1. be subject to A
    2. A subject B to C
  6. succeed
    1. succeed to A
    2. succeed in A

  7. >Top such
    1. there is no such thing as
    2. be 過分 + as such
    3. not 〜as such, but
    4. As such, ...†6

  8. suppose
    1. What am I supposed to do?
    2. be supposed to


  1. search
    1. 探す+場所+for 目標 ¶We searched the mountains for the missing kid.
      Cf. ¶I lookef for the dictionary in the bookstore.
  2. so=それ位 (指示語); not so 〜that SV=SVほど〜な訳ではない
    1. ¶He was so tired that he couldn't speak anymore.
      ¶He was not so tired that he couldn't speak anymore.
    2. ¶The trafic problems in LA are so serious as to require a radical solution. †1
      ¶I'm not so naive as to believe that.
    3. ¶The prejudice against him was so strong that few people believed what he said.
      So strong the prejudice against him was that few people believed what he said.
  3. so that構文: soすれば、that以下になる; so=指示語 †2
    ¶I'll finish this by four in the evening so that I can have dinner with my family.
    1. ¶I mised the last train, so (that) I decided to find a hotel for the night.†3
    2. ¶The hotel clerk politely truned down my request so as to avoid trouble. †4
    3. as程Vすることもなしに ¶The man didn't so much as glance at me. †5
    4. AすることなしにVする ¶She bought the dress without so much as checking the price tag.
  4. stand*1:
    1. Aを支えきれない>我慢できない ¶I can't stand this heat!
    2. 何かを表現する(石碑の)言葉が立っている¶US stands for the United Nations.
  5. subject
    1. Aの影響を受けやすい ¶The schedule is subject to change.
    2. AがBをCの目に遭わせる ¶Thy subejceted him to torture.
  6. succeed
    1. Aをい引き継ぐ ¶He succeeded to the next ower of his father's farm
    2. Aにおいて成功する ¶We should praise him. He succeeded in doing something we couldn't.
  7. such as [形]; as such [代名]
    1. ¶There is no such thing as a free lunch.
    2. ¶He is a heeo nd should be treated as such.
    3. ¶He was not a politician as such, but he liked to do things for others.
      ¶Unlike other landmasses, thre was no indigenous population in Iceland. As such, Iceland's settlers could get whatever land they wanted.
  8. suppose*2:
    1. どうすればいいのか? Wehat am I suppord to do? Stay home all day without doing anything?
    2. 当然こうする方向 ¶He is also supposed to be here by 5:30.


  • †1: as=equal

  • †2: so thatの後は助動詞 can, may, might [思考だけで未実現]

  • †3: , so (that)は新たな場面展開

  • †4: soすればas=equal

  • †5: not [so much as] +V

  • *1:<L. stare, stand; stander-by 傍観者; standpoint 観点; standstill 静止

  • †6: Discourse marker (話の流れを示す標識)

  • *2: <sup+pose<L. ponere, put under; 仮定・想定


  1. take
    1. take A(it) for granted
    2. what it takes

  2. term
    1. as a term of
    2. be on 〜terms with A
    3. come to terms with A
    4. in general terms
    5. in layman's terms
    6. in real terms
    7. serve a term

  3. >Top that clause
    1. It seems that SV現在
      S seem to V
    2. It seems that SV過去
      S seem to have been V
    3. It seems that SV過去
      S seem to have been V
    4. It is believed that †2
      S is believed to
    5. It is reported that
      S is reported to
    6. It is likely that SV
      S is likely to V †3

  4. the +比較級
    1. the+比較級
    2. a change fro the bettr
    3. get the better of 人
    4. the 比較級+SV
    5. all the more for 〜
    6. nonetheless
    7. no less than〜
    8. A, no less than B
    9. A is no less than B
    10. no less A than B
    11. no more than〜
    12. no more A than B†4
    13. no better than A
    14. no soon A+過完
      than B 過
  5. >Top to
    1. ラテン比較級+to
    2. prefer A to B

  6. >Top try
    1. try 〜ing
    2. try to do

  7. turn
    1. turn A down
    2. turn to A
    3. turn on A
    4. turn on A to B
    5. in turn

  8. turn 部位
    1. turn a blind eye to A
    2. turn a deaf ear to A
    3. turn one's back on A
    4. turn one's stomach
    5. it turns out that SV
    6. turn up one's nose at A


  1. take*1
    1. A=grantedもみなして>当然のものとして¶She seems to take it for granted that I buy her dinner on weekends.
    2. 状況がとるもの>素質・才能 ¶She has what it takes to be a great leader.
  2. term*2: 終わりの点・線
    1. 任期・刑期 term=definition ¶Nerd is used as a term of abuse†1.
    2. 人間関係>Aと〜な仲だ ¶He and I are on first-name terms.
    3. 不自由な状況で>あきらめて受け入れる¶She is trying har to come to terms with her own past.
    4. 一般的な言葉で ¶When foreign people talk abou Japanese people in general terms, they often think of very shy and obedient people.
    5. 世俗の人>素人でもわかる言葉 ¶In layman's terms, what are Omega-3 fatty acitds?
    6. 実質的には¶Defense budgets wer uct, in real terms by 40% in the last decade.
    7. の期間を勤める ¶He served a term as chairman of the company./¶He served a term in prison for robbing a bank.
  3. that節*3: 'it seems that'とS seem to do'の書き換え問題
    1. ¶It seems that she is satified with the results.
      ¶She seems to be satisfied with the results.
    2. ¶It seems that she was satified with the results.
      ¶She seems to have been satisfied with the results.
    3. ¶It is said that their marriage lasted fewer than three years.
      ¶Their marriage is said to have lasted fewer than three years.
    4. ¶It is believed that dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago.
      ¶Dinasaurs are believed to have gone extinct 65 million years ago.
    5. ¶It is reported that the government carried out a chemical weapons.
      ¶The government is reported to have carried out a chemical weapons.
    6. ¶It is highly likely that he will win reelection.
      ¶He is highly likely to win reelection.
  4. the: 選別・判別 [驚きと意外性の比較級]
    1. ¶He is the taller one of the two.
    2. 好転 ¶Focus on what you can do to make a change for the better.
    3. 感情・欲望に人が支配される ¶Curiosity got the better of you.
    4. 倒置 ¶The more he walked, the narroer the space became./
      ¶The more money you make, the more taxes you must pay.
    5. 〜のせいでなおさら ¶She valued family all the more for having lived without it./ ¶... all the more because she had lived without it.
    6. not the less より少ない方ということはない>それでもなお ¶Nonethelss, the global financial recovery remained sluggish.
    7. もする ¶This bag cost no less than 1,000 yen./¶How long do you think it is going to take? not less than a week
    8. Bに劣らずAも ¶The history of art, no less than the history of science, suggests that this is true.
    9. 同レベル、他ならない、多さの強調 ¶Your daily commute is no less than one hour./ ¶Your damage is no less than mine./ ¶Life is no less than a journey.
    10. Bに劣らずA ¶Intellectura propety rights are noless important than other forms of private property./何とあの人が ¶That was sung by no less a person than Ray Charles.
    11. ほどしかなかった ¶Thw small box wa sno bigger than the palm of her hand.
    12. と同じくあり得ない ¶He is no more a Christian than Buddha is./ ¶I'm no more a kid than you are.
    13. Aも同然、と変わらない。たった、AがBと同じく馬鹿げている ¶Then you are no better than a bully.
    14. Bの時にはAは既にもうしてしまった ¶She had returned to the kitchen when he emerged form the bedroom. →No sooner had she returned to the kitchen than he emerged from the bedroom. (彼女はもっと早く台所にもどってしまったとおもっているだろうけど、実際はそんなことなくて同時だ>台所に戻るやいなや彼が寝室から現れた。)/
      No sooner had I closed my eyes than images flickered in my mind.
      ¶As soon as she returnd to the kitchen, he emerged from the bedroom. [時制は同じ]
  5. to: ラテン比較級*4: はthanではなく
    1. ¶He thinks he is suopeior to me.
      cf. He thinks he is better than I.
    2. ¶Even as a little child she preferered toy cars to dolls.
  6. try
    1. 試しに〜してみる(試験動作中) ¶He tried opening the door./¶He found the soup tasteless, so he tried adding some salt to it.
    2. 〜しようとしている (未実現) ¶He tried hard to open the door.
  7. turn*5:くるりと回る
    1. ひっくり返して下にやる>却下する ¶I know what it means to accept the offer. I should turn it down.
    2. 〜の方を向く>に頼る ¶He turned to me and said, "What do you make of this?" Cf. make of A
    3. on 圧力をかける>急に襲いかかる ¶The man suddenly turned on the TV reporter.
    4. Bに対してAのスイッチをonする>興味をもつようになる ¶He turned me on to rap music.
    5. turn (n) 順番という回転>順番に ¶Ten people said the same word in turn.
  8. 体の部位を使った比喩的表現
    1. 見て見ぬふりをする ¶We must not turn a blind eye to bullying.
    2. 耳を貸さない ¶My boss turned a deaf ear to my proposal.
    3. Aに圧力をかけて(=あてつけて;Cf. give up on A)、背を向ける ¶The government turned its back on the asylum seekers.
    4. 〜をむかつかせる ¶The smell of the animals turned my stomach.
    5. 状況がひっくり返った結果、意外が状況が現れる ¶It turned out that he didn't run for the election.
    6. (鼻を上に向けて)あしらう ¶I asked her out for dinner but she turned up her nose at me.


  • *1: <L. tangere, touch, seize, grasp, 触れる・行う・捕まえる・取る・握る・魅する; >借地権, 捕獲高, 保護人, 捕獲物, 収益金; take-in ペテン; take-out 持ち帰り; takeover乗っ取り; taking-off 命を奪う
  • †1 悪口として
  • *2: term: <L terminum, limit, boudary; termless 無限の; termly 定期的に; terminal

  • *3: that節とto不定詞の比較
    • It+V+that節: より客観的表現: 状況全体
    • S+to不定詞: Sへの関心が強調されより感情的な表現
    • 不定詞には時制表現

  • †2: believed=十分な根拠があって考えられる

  • †3: 不定詞自体が未来志向の表現

  • †4: くじら構文
    ¶A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.

  • *4: ラテン比較級 (-or)
    • senior/ junior/ major/ minor/ superior/ inferior

  • *5: <L. terere, rub, throw, wend;
    at every turn 至る所で; turn color 顔色を変える; turn head 立ち向かう; turn the scale 天秤の一方を重くする; turn loose 解き放つ

>Top <U>:

  1. up
    1. be made up
    2. bring up
    3. catch up
    4. draw up A
    5. end up 〜ing
    6. It's up to you
    7. keep up A
    8. keep up appearances
    9. live up to A
    10. make/cook up
    11. make up with A
    12. pick up
    13. ramp/beef up A
    14. show/turn up for 〜
    15. sum up
    16. waht are you up to?


  1. (完了終了・出現発生)・合計
    1. (積み上げて)全体を構成する ¶Japan is made up of 47 prefectures.
    2. (下から上へ)子供を育てる、話題を持ち出す¶Are you going to bring up the subject again/
    3. (先を行く相手に)追いつく ¶ I'll catch you up later.
    4. contract.
    5. (双六での上がりのように)結局〜する ¶After all, he always ends up eating a hamburger.
    6. あなた次第 ¶It's up to you to make goood decisions.
    7. (期待に沿うように背伸びして)高いレベルを維持する ¶I must work harder to keep up with the others.
    8. (上限まで達した結果)Aの期待に沿う ¶I have tried to live up to their trust.
    9. (無理をして)体面を保つ ¶We need to keep up appearances.
    10. (嵩上げして)でっち上げる ¶He made up some stories and posted them on social media.
    11. (関係を埋めて)仲直りする¶I want to make up with her, but she is still mad at me.
    12. (嘴で拾い上げるように)取る、上向く ¶Pick up the phone and dial the number.; ¶The economy is picking up, and unemployment is falling.
    13. 増加・増強させる ¶ME countries have decided to ramp up their oil production.
    14. 浮上して出現するように)顔を出す ¶Thet didn't show up for the press conference. /¶They refused to turn up for their trials.
    15. (積み重ねて)勘定をする.まとめ上げる ¶To sum up, there are two reasons why we should give up this plan.
    16. be up覚醒して>どこへ向かう>これから何する>何を企む ¶What are you up to this time? Huh? What? Nothing.


  • *1: 上方へ・話者の方へ・し尽くして・登る

>Top <V>:



>Top <W>:

  1. way
    1. in the/one's way
    2. in a way

  2. what
    1. what if SV
    2. A is to B what C is to D*2
    3. What is A like?
    4. S make A what A is today.
    5. what little time/money A have

  3. whole
    1. as a whole
    2. on the whole

  4. >Top with
    1. combine A with B
    2. conclude A with B
    3. diagnose 人 with 病名
    4. equip A with B
    5. fill with A with B
    6. furnish A with B
    7. leave 人 with 物
    8. load A with B
    9. mix A with B
    10. pepper 人 with quetions
      shower 人 with 〜’
    11. present 人 with 物
    12. provide 人 with 物
    13. spray A with B
    14. supply 人 with 物
    15. surround oneself with
    16. SVOO系(Germanic系)

  5. SVO+with
    1. come A with B [連行]
    2. come A with B [小型化→持参]
    3. cover A with B [覆う]
    4. start A with B [開始]
    5. replace A with B [交替]
    6. treat 人 with respect [敬意]
    7. console oneself with 思考 [慰撫]


  1. way*1
    1. 進むルートにいる>邪魔 ¶You're in the way./ ¶Sorry, am I in your way?/ ¶There was a big rock in the way.
    2. ある意味で ¶I was glad in a way, because the typhoon prevented my daughter from going out.
  2. what 構文
    1. What (will you do) if he doesn't attend the meeting?/
      (would you do) if this bridge collappsed now?
    2. ¶Age is to woman what kryptonite is to Superman.
    3. What is the new app like?
      ¶I don't know what it is like.
    4. ¶The experience made me what I am today.
    5. ¶He gave me what little money he had. †1
      What little hair he had was deep red, and mostly near his temples.
  3. whole
    1. 一つも欠けることなく全部 ¶The project will be of great benefit to the region as a whole.
    2. 部分ではなく全体の上で見ると ¶On the whole, I thought the film ware pretty good.
  4. with*3: 提供・組合せ [SVO+with]; 場所格交替現象*4
    1. 組合せ ¶When you combine a healthy diet with exercise, you can lose weight more effectively.
    2. 総括 ¶She concluded the article with a message of gatitude.
    3. 診断 [reification 物化] ¶The doctgor diagnosed me with diabetes.
    4. 設置 ¶The governor is trying hard to equip schools with air conditoners./ ¶This new system will equip more workers with new skills.
    5. 充足 ¶She filled the cup with tea.
    6. 設置 ¶We furnished our apartment with only what was necessary.
    7. 伝達 ¶The argument left us with a bad taste in our mouths.
    8. 積載 ¶ He loaded his car with food and waer.
    9. 混合 ¶I mixed the powder with water.
    10. 贈呈 ¶I was so proud when they called my name and presented me with the statue.
    11. 放射 ¶Reporters peppered the governer with questions about their suspiciouns./¶ He showered her with expensive gifs.
    12. 提供 ¶The Amazon rain forest privides us with a lot of oxygen.
    13. 塗装 ¶He sprayed the wall with paint
    14. 大量供給 ¶US supplied the rebels with military assistance.
    15. 包囲 ¶He is successful in surrounding himself with competent advisors.
    16. ¶He left me a message./ Leave me some cake/ Our parents left us a fortune
  5. with+道具[一緒]→[小型道具]手に持つ→[抽象化]
    1. ¶He came to me with her.
    2. ¶He came to me with a cup of coffee in his hand.
    3. ¶Cover the dough withg a towel and let it rest for five minutes./¶His house was covered with snow
    4. ¶Start tje dau wotj a well-balanced breakfast.
    5. ¶They replace the door mat with a new one.
    6. ¶I have treated you with respect, and I'd like you to treat me in the same manner.
    7. I consoled myself with the thought


  • *1: 道路・道のり・方向; wayless 道がない; waymark 道しるべ; wayside 道端

  • *2: A:B=C:D, C:Dが喩え話

  • †1: what littleで強調

  • *3: Latin系言語 SVO+with; Germanic系 SVOの他SVOOも
  • *4: 場所格交替
    • Brush the dough with olive oil. [全体]
    • Brush olive oil over the dough. [一部]
    • He stacked the barn with hay. [全体]
    • He stgacked hay in the barn. [一部]
    • The bus splashed my clothes with muddy water. [全体]
    • The bus splashed muddy water on my clothes. [一部]
    • She crammed the jar with coins. [全体]
    • She crammed the coins into the jar. [一部]
    • I packed my suitcase with clothes. [全体]
    • I packed clothes into my suitcase. [一部]

>Top <X>:



>Top <Y>:



>Top <Z>:



  • My highschool English teacher ofter told us to pay special attention to the small words such as a, on, of, for, etc.; but I couldn't recognize the importance he mentioned until I had studied English to a certail leve.
  • 高校の英語の先生が、小さい単語a, on, of, forなどには特に留意しろとよく言っていたが、その重要性はかなり英語を学習したからでないとわからなかった。

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