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English Basic Verbs and Sentence Patterns

Cat: LAN
Pub: 2023
#: 2302a

Compiled by Kanzo Kobayashi


English Basic Verbs & Sentence Patterns


  1. Declension:
  2. Five Sentence Patterns:
  3. Usage of Verbs:
  4. Predicate Verbs:
  5. NNNN:
  6. NNNN:
  7. NNNN:
  8. NNNN:
  1. I格変化:
  2. 英文5文型:
  3. 動詞の用法:
  4. 述語動詞:
  5. NNNN:
  6. NNNN:
  7. NNNN:
  8. NNNN:
  • Learning English requires systematic study of English grammar; I think that the essence of it is the five sentence patterns.
  • Following books and so on were also referred;
    • A New Guide to English Grammar by Taiichiro Egara, Kaneko Shobo
    • Royal English Grammar with Complted Examples of Usage by Yo Watanuki, Obunsha
    • A Better Guide to English Grammar by Minoru Yasui, Kaitakusha
    • New English-Japanese Dictionary by Sanki Ichikawa, Kenkyusha
    • Preogressive English-Japanese Dictionary by T. Konishi, Shogakukan
    • Wisdom Japanese-English Dictionary by T. Konishi, Sanseido
  • 英語は、組織的に英文法学ぶ必要がある。その最たるものは英文5文型である。
    • Progressive英和辞典、小学館が文型に詳しい
    • Wisdom和英辞典、三省堂も文型に詳しい
    • 英文法解説 江川泰一郎著、金子書房
    • ロイヤル英文法 綿貫陽著、旺文社
    • 英文法総覧 安井稔著、開拓社
    • 新英和大辞典、市河三喜他著、研究社
    • 英和中辞典、小西友七他著、小学館
    • 英語語源辞典、寺澤芳雄、研究社等も参考にした。

>Top o. Declension:

  1. 格変化: ラテン語から
    1. 主格 (nominative) ; Fāma volat. =Rumour flies; Puella cantat.= A girl sings; Deus erat verbum. =God is a word. =A word is God.; Homō sum. =I am a human.; Dux vītae ratiō =Guide of life is a reason. =Reason is a guide of life.;
    2. 呼格(vocative); Et tū, Brūte? =And you, Brutas?; Quo vadis, Domine. =Where are you going, Lord.; Ō caelum, ō terra, ō maria Neptūnī! =Oh Heaven, oh Earth, oh, Neptune Sea!
    3. 属格(Genitive) =所有格=生格; -ae; -ī; -is; -ūs; -eī
      pater historiae =father of history; Māter artium necessitās =Neccesity is the mother of art. [māter, -tris f.; ars, -tis f.; necessitās, -ātis f.]; Ō vītae philosophia dux =Oh Phylosophy is the guide of life.; Hominis est errāre. =To error is an attribure of human.; Amor deī magnus est. =Love of God is great.;
      1. 属格の用法: 1) 述語、2)部分の属格、3)主語 (Amor deī)、4)目的語、5)性質、6)説明、7)価値、8)目的語 ¶Vīve memor mortis. =Live memorising death. [mors, -tis]
    4. 与格(dative): ¶Rosam puellae dō =I give a rose to the girl. [puella, -ae, f.];
      1. 与格の用法 1)関心、2)共感、3)行為者、4)所有、5)判断者、¶Nihil difficile amantī =Nothing is too hard for lovers.; ¶Dictum sapientī sat est. =One word suffices for the wise. 6)分離、7)目的、8)利害関係
    5. 対格(accusative):
      1. 対格の用法 1) 目的語 ¶Rosam amō =I love a rose. 2)副詞句 ¶Ad puellam rosās mittō =I send a rose to the girl. 3) 不定法 ¶Intellegō sapere. =I understand you are wise. 4)広がり¶multōs annōs =for many years, 5)方向 ¶Rōmam eō =I go to Rome. 6)二重 ¶Expediam dictīs, et tē tua fāta docēbō =I'll explain by word, and to you your fate.、7)限定、8)感嘆 ¶Mē miserum! =How pity I am.
    6. 奪格(ablative)=造格: 奪格の用法 1)とともに、2)によって、3)から、4)において
    7. 地格(locative)=前置格: 場所を示す; 但し、場所の奪格もある。in+奪格、apud+対格:
      特に、domus =home, rus =ruralに限り使われる。Rōmae =in Rome, Rhōdī =in Rhodos Island; domī =at home; humī =on the ground, rūrī =in rural area; ¶Rōmae habitō =I live in Rome; ¶Domī maneō =I stay at home.

0. 格変化

  • ラテン語の
    • 主格: Nominative
    • 呼格: Vocative
    • 属格: Genitive
    • 与格: Dative
    • 対格: Accusative
    • 奪格: Ablative
    • 地格: Locative
  • ロシア語の

>Top 1. Five Sentence Patterns:

  1. [I]文型:
    1. [Ⅰ⊘] S+Vi: Viだけで文が完結。目的語や補語としての名詞句をとらない。
      1. ¶God is.; It rains.; Years passed.; That will do.
    2. [I副] S+Vi+M(副詞句): 自動詞が意味上、前置詞句・副詞句を必要とするもの
      1. ¶Mary lives in Tokyo.; John goes to school.; I looked for my dog.; The party consists of ten persons.
      2. ¶The sun is shining brightly; He has been waiting for an hour.
        1. [I] S+Vi+Adjunct(付加語): [削除できない副詞語句];
          ¶Mother is in the kitchen.; SVA文型には、be, live, stand, stayなどがある。
        2. 場所や時の情報を動詞の直後に配置 ¶I cook in my house.; She slept for one hour.; He danced with his girlfriend.
      3. [Ⅲ]との区別:
        ¶I go home.; I arrived here yesterday,; I will cook tomorrow.; There is a book on the table.
    3. Vi・Vt両用に使われる動詞に留意:
      1. ¶The door opened.; Someone opened the door.
      2. ¶The plate broke into pieces.; Who broke this plate?
      3. ¶The flag was flying in the wind.; Bill was flying his kite in the open field.
      4. ¶The buses are running as usual.; We run extra buses on Sundays and holidays.
      5. ¶Tennis balls sell best in summer. 夏にはよく売れる
      6. ¶Ripe oranges peel easily. よく皮がむける
      7. ¶This sweater looks beautiful.Will it wash? 洗濯がきくか
      8. ¶This pen writes more smoothly than that. すらすら書ける
      9. ¶She goes to the theater not so much to see as to be seen. 芝居を観るより自分を見せるため
      10. ¶My uncle runs a Chinese restaurant in Kobe.神戸で経営している
      11. ¶If she wanted to marry just to be married, there were a dozen boys who would jump at the chance. ただ結婚せんがために結婚したいと言うのなら

  2. [Ⅱ]文型:
    1. S+Vi+C; [S=CなのでCは主格補語という]; 自動詞が補語として形容詞・前置詞句をとるもの
    2. [Ⅱ形]: Viが補語として形容詞句・前置詞句をとるもの
      1. ¶Mary is young.; The old man looked healthy.; John became famous.; The balloon grew bigger.; He is without wife or child.
    3. [Ⅱ to do]: Viが補語としてto不定詞をとるもの
      1. ¶We agreed to go out for a walk.
      2. ¶They came to realize the importance of the matter.
      3. ¶I hesitated to tell the truth.
      4. ¶My explanation will serve to make the point clear.
      5. これらは、名詞句を伴う場合は、前置詞が必要; ¶agree to a proposal; come to a conclusion; hesitate at nothing; serve for nothing.
    4. [Ⅱ doing]: Viが補語としてing形をとるもの
      1. ¶Seeing is believing.
      2. ¶John came running.
      3. ¶Mary went shopping.
    5. [Ⅱ過分]: Viが補語として過去分詞をとるもの
      1. ¶John got fired.
      2. ¶I stand accused.
      3. ¶John got hurt. [補語が過去分詞or形容詞か曖昧]
    6. [Ⅱ名]: Viが補語として名詞をとるもの
      1. ¶Mary is a teacher.
      2. ¶John became a doctor.
      3. ¶Bill remained a bachelor.
    7. [Ⅱ as名]: Viが補語としてas+名詞をとるもの
      1. ¶John acted as go-between.
      2. ¶This will serve as a good excuse.
    8. [Ⅱ that節]: Viが補語としてthat節をとるもの
      1. ¶I agree that he is right. [agreeはViが、表面的にはⅢ that節と見分けがつけにくい]
      2. ¶It appears that he is wise.
      3. ¶It seems to me that Mary was sick.
    9. [Ⅱ wh節]: Viが補語としてwh節をとるもの; (when, waht, where, if, whetherなど)
      1. ¶I stopped caring what anybody else thought. [表面的にはⅢ wh節と見分けがつけにくい]
    10. Ⅱ文型の動詞区分:
      1. 状態動詞 〜である: be, lie, sit, stand; keep, remain, stay, continue, hold
        be: ¶May I use this phone? Be my guest どうぞご自由に
        lie: ¶Do we have to lie flat on the ground?
        sit: ¶The student sat still, listening to the lecture.
        keep: ¶He kept quite calm.
        remain: ¶He remained silent.
        stay: ¶We have been roommates for four years.
      2. 状態変化動詞 〜になる:
        become (will beより強い; 過去や現在完了形) ¶English has become my favorite subject.
        get (変化の起こり始め; 進行形) ¶We are getting older day by day.
        come (平常の好ましい変化; 慣用句) ¶Everything will come right in the end.
        go (好ましくない変化) ¶The milk has gone bad.
        grow (次第に変化) ¶The children are growing tire.
        fall (突然の変化; 慣用句) ¶While he was studying, he fell asleep.
        turn (別状態への変化) ¶The leaves turned red as the days passed.
      3. 外見動詞 〜に見える:
        seem ¶He seemed surprised by my ignorance. [主観的]
        look ¶She looked troubled by the new. [視覚的]
        appear ¶He appears happy in his new job. [中間的]
      4. 知覚動詞 〜と感じる:
        feel ¶I feel my heart beat violently.
        smell ¶These lilies smell lovely.
        sound ¶Your voice sounds funny today.
        taste ¶Peaches taste sweet.
    11. S+V+C+A [削除できない付加語として of+名詞がつく; that節への置換可能]
      1. He is very fond of playing the guitar. →He likes playing the guitar very much.
      2. I am sure of his honesty. →I am sure that he is honest [ofは脱落]

  3. [Ⅲ]文型: S+Vt+O
    1. [Ⅲ do]:
      1. ¶John helped solve the problem.
      2. ¶She made believe that she was ill.
    2. [Ⅲ to do]:
      1. ¶I want to go.
      2. ¶John likes to swim.
      3. ¶We learn to speak English.
      4. ¶Mary tried to help her mother.
    3. [Ⅲ doing]: Vtが目的語としてing形をとる。
      1. ¶We all enjoy singing.
      2. ¶John like swimming.
      3. ¶Would you mind opening the window?
      4. ¶She stopped dancing.
      5. 動詞によっては、[Ⅲ to do]、[Ⅲ doing]あるが、意味の違いあり
    4. [Ⅲ 名]: Vtが目的語として名詞句をとる
      1. ¶I want a new house.
      2. ¶A cat killed a rat.
      3. ¶John reached the station.
      4. ¶Mary survived her mother. 母より長生き
    5. [Ⅲ 名副]: Vtが目的語として名詞句+前置詞句・副詞句をとる
      1. ¶John put the book on the table.
      2. ¶Bill gave a ring to Mary.
      3. ¶I asked the teacher for advice.
      4. ¶They provided us with food.
      5. ¶They deprived him of his title.
      6. 副の部分の必要性は動詞による。
        provide/deprive >put/give/ask >buy
    6. [Ⅲ that節]: Vtが目的語としてthat節をとる
      1. ¶I believe that John is honest.
      2. ¶He said that he was unhappy.
      3. ¶Bill knows that he is going to fail.
    7. [Ⅲ wh節]: Vtが目的語としてwh節をとる
      1. ¶I know who you are.
      2. ¶He inquired whether I was healthy.
      3. ¶John forgot what to say.
      4. ¶I'll explain how to do it.
    8. S+Vt+O Vtが[Oになるのは名詞相当語句]
      1. Most of us probably eat too much meat.
      2. Heaven helps those who help themselves.
      3. I want to have some apple.
      4. At last he stopped looking for the pearl.
      5. We must decide when to start.
      6. The settlers learned that the land in the valley was fertile.
    9. S+Vt+O+A [前置詞付き句を伴うことで意味が完全となる]
      1. He put his hands in his pockets.
      2. She introduced me to her brother.
    10. 成句構文 (Vt+O+前置詞)
      1. The man robbed him of all his money.
      2. Bees provide us with honeyt.
    11. S+Vt+O+A 型をとる動詞 [Ⅳ文型SVOOをとらない]
      1. admit: ¶admit one's guilt to the police.
      2. communicate ¶She communicated the whole story to me.
      3. describe ¶Can you describe the event to me?
      4. explain ¶The teacher explained the rules of the game to us.
      5. suggest ¶I suggest the new plan to the committee.

  4. [Ⅳ] 文型: S+Vt+Oi+Od; 授与動詞
    1. [Ⅳ 名名]: Vtが間接目的語と直接目的語の2つの名詞句をとる。
      1. ¶I gave him a book.
      2. ¶John bought Mary a new dress.
      3. ¶I told her a funny story.
      4. ¶I wish you a good luck.
    2. [Ⅳ 名that節]: Vtが間接目的語としての名詞句とthat節の2つをとる。
      1. ¶John told Mary that she was pretty.
      2. ¶Bill promised me that he would help me.
      3. ¶He warned me that it would be dangerous.
      4. ¶I convinced him that I was innocent.
    3. [Ⅳ 名wh節]: Vtが間接目的語としての名詞句とwht節の2つをとる。
      1. ¶John asked Mary whether she would like to come.
      2. ¶Mary informed John when she was coming.
      3. ¶I told him what to do.
      4. ¶I showed him how to do it.
    4. S+V+O1+O2
      1. give グループ; 〜に...を与える;
        ¶I gave him some advice. →I gave some advice to him.
        ¶He handed the salesclerk the money.→He handed the money to the salesclerk.
        ¶The girl lent her friend her new bicycle.→The girl lent her new bicycle to her friend.
        ¶He told his brother the story. →He told the story to his brother.
        ¶We showed him some pictures of London.→We showed some pictures of London to him.
      2. buy グループ; 〜のために...を買ってやる
        ¶He bought his daughter a dress.→He bought a dress for his daughter.
        ¶Get me a nice video camera.→Get a nice video camera for me.
        ¶I will find you a vacant seat. →I will find a vacant seat for you.
        ¶I've ordered you some dessert.→ I've ordered some dessert for you.
      3. bring グループ
        ¶Bring the money to me here.; I have brought your heavy suitcase for you.
        ¶He left a pretty fortune to his wife.; I left some cookies for him.
      4. ask グループ
        ¶The teacher asked me a very difficult question.
        →The teacher asked a very difficult question of me.
        ¶Can I ask
      5. S+V+O2+[toO1; withO1]

  5. [Ⅴ] 文型: S+Vt+O+C
    1. [Ⅴ 名形]: Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としての形容詞をとる
      1. ¶John thought Mary pretty.
      2. ¶I found the book interesting.
      3. ¶She keeps her room clean.
      4. ¶I made her happy.
    2. [Ⅴ 名as形]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としてのas+形容詞をとる
      1. ¶I regard it as unnecessary.
      2. ¶We accept it as true.
    3. [Ⅴ 名do]: Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としてのtoなし不定詞をとる
      1. ¶I saw him go out.
      2. ¶I heard him say so.
      3. ¶I made him go out.
      4. ¶I let him do it.
      5. ¶Mary helped her mother cook.
    4. [Ⅴ 名to do]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としてのto不定詞をとる;
      1. ¶I told him to go out.
      2. ¶I asked her to come to the party.
      3. ¶She likes the children to sing.
      4. ¶She forbids the children to go out alone.
    5. [Ⅴ 名to be]: 上記と同じだが、目的補語としてのbe不定詞をとる
      1. ¶I think John to be a fool.
      2. ¶We believe the story to be true.
      3. to beの部分が省略されれば、[V名名]や[V名形]の型になる
    6. [Ⅴ 名doing]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としての現在分詞をとる
      1. ¶I saw a dog running around.
      2. ¶Mary heard her little sister crying.
      3. ¶He kept me working all day.
      4. ¶Mother does not like her children playing on the street.
    7. [Ⅴ 名過分]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としての過去分詞をとる
      1. ¶I found the house destroyed.
      2. ¶I can't make myself understood.
      3. ¶I had may hair cut.
    8. [Ⅴ 名名]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としての名詞句をとる
      1. ¶The Queen made him a knight.
      2. ¶I consider John a genius.
      3. ¶They elected Mary chairperson.
    9. [Ⅴ 名as名]:Vtが直接目的語としての名詞句と目的補語としてのas+名詞をとる
      1. ¶We regard the plan as a failure.
      2. ¶I remember you as a child
      3. ¶They chose Bill as reporter.
    10. S+V+O+C

1. 英文5文型:

  • 文型は義務的な文構成要素を表示
  • 5文型のルーツは、Onions 1904年出版。基本的構文の説明には便利
  1. [Ⅰ]: SV 完全自動詞
    1. SV; 主語の動作
      arrive; begin; climb; come; cook; cry; dance; depart; die; do; end; exercise; fade; fall; fight; go; lie; listen; pass; run; see; shine; sit; sleep; smile; stand; talk; travel; wait; walk
    2. 主語の存在:
      appear; be; exist; live; reside; stay
    3. 主語の動作:
      cook; cry; dance; die; exercise; fight; lie; listen; sit; sleep; smile; stand; talk; wait;
    4. 主語の移動:
      arrive; climb; come; depart; fall; go; run; travel; walk;
    5. 主語の変化:
      age; agree; begin; change; continue; decline; decrease; end; finish; grow; happen; increase; last; lose; start; speed; win;
    6. it主語の天候:
      rain; snow
    7. 特殊型:
      There+be+S; It seems that節

  2. [Ⅱ] SVC
    1. 状態動詞: beグループ: 〜である
      be; lie; sit; stand;
      get; grow;make; run;
    2. keepグループ:〜のままでいる
      continue; hold; keep; remain; stay;
    3. 状態変化動詞: 〜になる
      become; come; get; go; grow; fall; make; run; turn;
    4. 外見動詞: 〜に見える
      appear; look; seem;
    5. 感覚動詞:〜と感じる
      feel; smell; sound; taste
    6. SVC+A:
      fond of; sure of;

  3. [Ⅲ] SVO
    1. [Ⅲ to do]
    2. [Ⅲ wh to do]
    3. [that節をとる動詞]
      believe; feel like; know; learn; say; show; tell; think;

  4. [Ⅳ] SVOO:
    1. give型動詞: [+to]
      allot; award; bring; give; grant; hand; lend; offer; pass; pay; promise; read; sell; send; show; teach; tell; throw; write;
    2. buy 型動詞: [+for]
      buy; call; cook; find; get; make; order; prepare; save; spare;
    3. bring型動詞[+to/for]
      bring; leave
    4. その他動詞: [ask of; play on]
      ask; play
    5. cost; envy; save; spare [順序変更不可]
    6. [SVO+wh節]
      advise; ask; instruct; remind; show; teach; tell; warn;
    7. [✕ SVO+that節とれない動詞]
      expect; explain; order; propose; recommend; require; request; suggest; urge; want;

  5. [Ⅴ] 不完全他動詞
    1. make グループ:〜を...にする
      appoint; choose; declare; drive; elect; get; lay; leave; let; make; name; render; set; turn; vote
    2. paintグループ: 動作結果の状態
      bake; beat; boil; burn; color; cut; dye; lick; paint; push; wash; wipe;
    3. thinkグループ: 〜を...と思う
      consider; think;
    4. 使役動詞:
      get; have; make;
    5. 知覚動詞:
      hear; see;
    6. その他:

>Top 2.  Basic Verbs Patterns:

  1. Accept:
    1. 受け取る: ¶I accepted his offer. [Ⅲ名]
    2. 認める:
      1. ¶We accepted his statement as true. [Ⅴ名as名]
      2. ¶We accepted that he was right. [Ⅲthat]
  2. Act:
    1. 行動する:
      1. ¶The soldiers acted bravely . [Ⅰ副]
      2. ¶He acted as go-between. [Ⅱas名]
      3. ¶I acted for him while he was out. [Ⅰ副]
    2. ふるまう: ¶He acted wisely. [Ⅰ副]
    3. 動く: ¶T
    4. 演じる
  3. Get: 得る取る取ってくる|わかるさせる|着くなる
    1. 得る:
      1. ¶I got my son an interesting book. [Ⅳ名名]
      2. ¶I got an interesting book for my son. [Ⅲ名副]
    2. 受け取る: ¶I got a letter from him. [Ⅲ名副]
    3. 取ってくる:
      1. ¶I'll get something to eat. [Ⅲ名]
      2. ¶Will you get me the newspaper?[Ⅳ名名]
      3. ¶Will you get the newspaper for me? [Ⅲ名副]
    4. わかる、理解: ¶I didn't get what you said. [Ⅲ名]
    5. させる、使役:
      1. ¶I got him to repair my car. [Ⅴ名todo]
      2. ¶I got the engine running. [Ⅴ名ing]
      3. ¶I must get my hair cut. [[Ⅴ名過分]
    6. 着く、到着: ¶We got there at five. [Ⅰ副]
    7. なる、受身変化:
      1. ¶He got drunk. [自然変化; [Ⅱ過分]
      2. ¶They soon got to love each other. [能動変化; [Ⅱtodo]:
      3. ¶He got scolded. [想定外 [Ⅱ過分]
  4. Give:
    1. 与える:
      1. ¶They gave me some money. [物][Ⅳ名名]
      2. ¶Please give my best wishes to your parents. [情報][Ⅲ名副]
    2. 生じる: ¶His delay gave us a lot of trouble. [Ⅳ名名]
    3. うつす: ¶He has give me his cold. [Ⅳ名名]
    4. 加える: ¶I gave him a kick. [Ⅳ名名]
    5. 催す: ¶We gave him a welcome party. [Ⅳ名名]
    6. 発する: ¶She gave a cry of joy. [Ⅲ名]
  5. Go:
    1. 行く:
      1. ¶He went home. [Ⅰ副]
      2. ¶He went swimming in the lake. [Ⅱing]
    2. 去る:
      1. ¶The has already gone. [Ⅰ副]
      2. ¶I must be going now. [Ⅰ副]
    3. 動く: ¶This machine goes well. [Ⅰ副]
    4. 進行する: ¶Everything is going well. [Ⅰ副]
    5. 過ぎる: ¶The summer goes fast. [Ⅰ副]
    6. なる: ¶He went mad. [Ⅱ形]
  6. Have: あるある|するする|させるされるまま
    1. ある、所有; ¶I have no money with me. [Ⅲ名副]
    2. ある、飲食: ¶I usually have bread for breakfast. [Ⅲ名副]
    3. する、経験: ¶I have a headache. [Ⅲ名副]
    4. する、行為: ¶I had a good night sleep. [Ⅲ名]
    5. させる、使役: ¶I had him go there in my place. [Ⅴ名do]
    6. される、被害: ¶I had my purse stolen. [Ⅴ名過分]
    7. まま、放置: ¶I had the water running in the bathtub. [Ⅴ名ing]
  7. Put:
    1. 置く ¶She put the vase on the table. [Ⅲ名副]
    2. 入れる ¶I put too much sugar in my tea. [Ⅲ名副]
    3. 課す ¶They put a heavy tax on liguor. [Ⅲ名副]
    4. 表現する ¶He put his feelings into words. [Ⅲ名副]
    5. 評価する ¶I don't put any value on his works. [Ⅲ名副]
  8. Set:
    1. 置く ¶He set knives and forks on the table. [Ⅲ名副]
    2. 定める ¶We set the date of our wedding on June 1. [Ⅲ名副]
    3. 整える ¶He set his alarm clock for five. [Ⅲ名副]
    4. 向ける ¶They set their course to the east. [Ⅲ名副]
    5. 与える
      1. ¶Our teacher sets us a quize every Monday. [Ⅳ名名]
      2. ¶Our teacher should set a good example to the students. [Ⅲ名副]
    6. ある状態にする
      1. ¶Thet set the slaves free. [Ⅴ名形]
      2. ¶ He set the engine going. [Ⅴ名ing]
    7. させる
      1. ¶She set her daughter to clean her room. [Ⅴ名todo]
    8. 沈む ¶The sun sets in the west. [Ⅰ副]
  9. a
    1. a
    2. a

2. 基本動詞の文型:

>Top 3. Usage of Verbs:

  1. 自動詞と他動詞
    1. Vi/Vtの両用
      1. ¶Rice grows in a warm climate. (Vi); Young people grow their hair long these days (Vt)
      2. ¶His latest novel is selling very well. (Vi); His latest novel has sold 20,000 copies (Vt); Department stores sell almost everything (Vt)
    2. VtのVi用法: 美白な場合はVtの目的語を省略
      1. ¶Some women don't smoke in public. ; We eat to live, not live to eat.
    3. ViのVt用法: 使役の意味のVtとしての用法
      1. ¶The engine runs days and night. (Vi); They run the engine day and night.
      2. ¶Six people were sleeping in this room. (Vi); This room can sleep six persons. (Vt)
      3. ¶The baby is sitting on its mother's knees. (Vi); I set (or sat) the baby on my shoulders. (Vt: 母音変化)
      4. 母音変化: fall-fell; rise-raise; lie-lay
    4. Viと間違えやすいVt:
      1. ¶The animal resembles a rat.
      2. ¶We reached our destination in two days.
      3. ¶A stranger approached me and accosted me.
      4. ¶A lot of people attended the funeral
      5. ¶Answer the bell, Jim.
      6. ¶Everybody stands up when the judge enters the court.
      7. ¶My sister married a bank clerk.
      8. ¶I discussed the problem of food with them.
      9. ¶You must consider other people's feelings.
    5. Vtと間違えやすいVi:
      1. ¶We all hope for you success. (We all wish your success.(Vt))
      2. ¶I object to her going to the party.
      3. ¶I apologized to him for my rudeness.
      4. ¶He quite agreed with me on that point.
      5. ¶We have nothing to complain of.
      6. ¶He looked up at the sky. (She looked me full in the face. (Vt))
      7. ¶Listen carefully to the conversation on the tape.
    6. 動作動詞(Action verb; 進行形になる)と状態動詞(State verb; 進行形にならない)
      1. ¶What are you looking at?; What do you see? 何が見えるか; They were seeing the sights of London. 見物は進行形になる; The doctor is seeing someone else at the moment. 診察中も進行形になる
      2. ¶Everybody was listening to the newscast intently.; Do you hear me?
      3. ¶She put on an evening gown and went to the party.; She wore [was wearing] a white evening gown at the party. [put onはその場で着用する動作; wearは着用している状態]
    7. ペア動詞; 両方向動詞
      1. ¶Jim sold an old motorbike to Bill; Bill bought an old motorbike from Jim.
      2. ¶My father lent me his camera.; I borrowed a camera from my father.
      3. ¶I leased the house to Mrs. Taylor. (貸し); Mrs. Taylor leased the house from me. (借り)
      4. ¶You have to replace butter by [with] margarine.; You have to substitute margarine for butter.
    8. 日本語より細かい動詞
      1. ¶Can I borrow your umbrella? [借りて移動する]; Can I use your bathroom? [その場で借りる]
      2. ¶Can I borrow your mobile phone? [借りて移動]; Can I use your telephone? [その場, or 固定電話]
      3. ¶I forgot my keys. [持ってくるのを忘れる]; I left my gloves in your car. [ある場所に置き忘れた]
      4. ¶I doubt if I'll finish the work by tomorrow. [doubt ≒don't think]
        ¶Doctors suspect smoking has to do with cancer. [suspect ≒think]
      5. ¶The burglar robbed her of some jewels. [rob A of B; AからBを盗む]
        →She was robbed of some jewels.
        ¶The burglar stole some jewels from her.[steal B of A; AからBを盗む]
        →Some jewels were stolen from her. →She had some jewels stolen.
      6. ¶She wrote her name in Kanji.; She drew a circle on the blackboard.; Do you like landscapes painted by Turner?
    9. その他間違えやすい用法
      1. ¶I had a strange dream last night. [have a dream/ dream a dream/ ✕see a dream]
      2. ¶I take medicine every morning.; She ate soup at lunch.;
      3. ¶I'll go to see him tomorrow.; I'll come to your house tomorrow.; I'm coming.; I'm going.
        ¶Will you come to the party. [自分も行く]; Will you go to the party. [自分は行かない]
      4. ¶Will you tell me the way to the post office? [口頭で教える]
        ¶Will you show me the way to the post office? [同行・図示して教える]
      5. ¶The police know Sharon went up the mountain on the cable car. [climbは歩行登山、go upは乗り物など]
      6. ¶We were showing a Jessie Mattews film called Everygreen. [nameは正式名; callは一般的]

3. 動詞の用法:

>Top 3. Predicate Verbs:

  • 述語動詞には、1)不定詞、2)動名詞、3)分詞、4)that節、5)wh節(+不定詞)ととるものがある。
  1. 不定詞をとる他動詞: [不定詞の主語に留意]
    1. ¶We can't afford to keep a car. Can you arrange to be here at five o'clock.; The pilot attempted to land the crippled plane.;He doesn't care to go with them.; I decided to try again.; I expect to go on a trip around the world.;
    2. She hesitated to spend so much money on the dress.; I hope to do better next time.; I only intended to help him; Have you learnt to swim yet?;
    3. I managed to pass the test.; I didn't mean to hurt him.; I offered to help him; He is planning to build a yacht.;He promised to help me. ;
    4. He has refused to help us.; He resolved to do better work in the future.; I tried not to move, pretending to be asleep.; She wished to be alone.;
  2. 動名詞を目的語とする動詞:
    1. He admitted having stolen the money.; Avoid eating too much meat.; Please continue working.; He often defers making a decision; Why have they delayed opening the new school?; He denied knowing anything about the plan.;
    2. You can hardly escape being seen if you go out now.; Please excuse my being so late.; Have you finished reading the book?;
    3. Give up smoking.; I don't mind waitng a while.; Never miss taking this medicine.; He postponed sending an answer to the request.; Don't put off answering the letter.
    4. I couldn't resist laughing at the sight.; I can't understand his deceiving his friend.
  3. 不定詞を後に従える自動詞:
    1. He appeared to be very happy.; I chanced to meet him in the park.; He asked if I happned to know any good consultant.;
    2. He seemed to be in trouble.; The plan proved to be a success.; Everything turned out to be satisfactory;
  4. 目的語+不定詞を従える他動詞:
    1. Everyone admitted him to be the best man for the job.; She was astonished to see the man whom she had fancied to be dead.; I expect you to be punctual.; I myself believed him to be an able man.; I consider myself to be lucky.;
    2. I expect you to be punctual.; We found Tom to be honest.; I guessed him to be about forty.;
    3. He proved himself to be worthy of promotion,; They reported the enemy to be ten miles away.; I suspected him to be a detective.; At first I thought hgim to be a farmer.;
  5. 他動詞+目的語+To不定詞: [O+不定詞が主語・述語の関係]
    1. I asked her not to disturb me.; I can't bear it to be untidy, The noise caused the audience to start.; I encouraged him to try again.; I like my rooom to be in order,;
    2. I also permitted him to work with me.; I persuade him not to give up his research.; The chairman requested them to be quiet.
    3. 不定詞とthat節の意味の違い
      1. I expect him to succeed. [親近感]
      2. I expect that he will succeed. [客観的]
      3. →許可・使役動詞は不定詞の構文だけ(密接な関係維持)
        allow; cause; compel; enable; force; permit
    4. 述語動詞の対象範囲:
      1. I persuaded [him] to give up the plan.; persudeの目的語はhim
      2. I expected [him to give up the plan.]; expectの目的語は後半全体
      3. 上記の受身文は
        1. I persuaded the plan to be given up. [??]
        2. I expected the plan to be given up.
        3. I persuaded the doctor to examine Mary. [the doctorを説き伏せ]
          →I persuaded Mary to be examined by the doctor.[Maryを説き伏せ]
  6. 分詞を後に従える構文:
    1. She remained sitting in her chair.; Her eyes kept following a butterfly which had come flying into the garden.
    2. tom stood surprised at the scene. He looked quite puzzled.
    3. As she sat listing to the music, she got excited.
    4. The truth became known to all.
    5. The city lies sleeping.; The fields lay thickly covered with snow.; The ball went flying.
    6. He is married now, but I can't tell you when he got married.
      1. He was hit by the ball.;
        1. He got hit by the ball. ボールに当たる羽目になった。[当り所が悪い]
        2. I wasn't blamed for the mistake.
        3. I didn't get blamed for the mistake. 運良くその失敗をとがめられなかった。
        4. When these women get talking, they go on for hours. [get+分詞は口語]
    7. 動詞+名詞+分詞の構造をとる動詞:
        1. I kept the door closed nd left the child sleeping alone.
      1. I heard the wind blowing. I saw the trees bowing.
    1. He felt his hand seized. He found himself caught.
    2. I like babies simling. I can't have them crying.
    3. This started hem laughing, but it set me thinking.

3. 述語動詞:

  1. 不定詞のみをとる動詞:
    afford; arrange; care; decide; desire; expect; hesitate; hope; intend; learn; manage; mean; offer; plan; pretend; promise; refuse; resolve; try; wish
  2. 動名詞を従える動詞:
    admit; advise; avoid; continue; defer; delay; deny; enjoy; escape; evade; excuse; fancy; finish; give up; cannot help; leave off; mind; miss; postpone; practice; put off; resist; stabd; stop; understand;
  3. 不定詞を従える自動詞
    appear; chance; happen; prove; seem; turn out;
  4. 目的語+不定詞を従える他動詞
    admit; believe; consider; declare; fancy; find; guess; imagine; prove; report; suppose; suspect; take; think;
  5. 他動詞+目的語+To不定詞: [O+不定詞が主語・述語の関係]
    advise*; ask; bear; beg; cause; cinnand; command*; compel; enable; encourage; expect*; force; like; permit; persuade*; request*; require*; want; warn*;
    [*印: that節もとる]
  6. 分詞を後に従える構文:
    become; come; get; keep; lool; remain; sit; stand;
    1. get/become+過去分詞は、動作の変化に重点→動作受動態 (Actional passive)
  7. 動詞+名詞+分詞の構造をとる動詞

>Top 4. Classification of Verbs:

  • 基本動詞 (be, have, do); 助動詞としても使われる
    • be: 状態動詞 (State Verb)
    • have: 状態/動作動詞
    • do: 動作動詞 (Action Verb)
  • Be:[Ⅱ]文型: S+be+C
    • ...である:
      • [Ⅱ形]¶No news is good news.
      • [Ⅱ名]¶Appearances are deceptive.
      • [Ⅱtodo]¶The difficulty is ti to decide waht to do.
      • [Ⅱthat]¶The problem is that you know too much.
    • ある、いる:
      • [Ⅰ⌀]¶Whatever is(=exists), is right. 世にあるものは(神意により)正しい
      • [Ⅰ副]¶His house is near the station.; Jim is downstairs.
      • [There be]¶There is a tall tree in the garden. [✕the tall tree]
    • 助動詞としてのbe:
      • [進行形]¶Why are you crying?
      • [受動態]¶The candles were lighted.
    • 義務的な要素のM (obligatory):
      • [Ⅱ名]¶The concert was a success.
      • [Ⅱ形]¶The concert was very good
      • [Ⅰ副]¶Tje concert was yesterday [副詞]; in the open air [副詞句]
    • There be構文: [存在文Existential Sentence: 新情報の存在; the付きでも新情報OK]
      • ¶There's a hole in the heel of your sock.; There'll be no school tomorrow.
    • There ほらあそこ: [限定名詞]
      • ¶There's the man we saw yesterday.; Look! There's Bill with his girl friend.
    • ◆There's no need...: ¶There's no need (for you) to hurry.
    • ◆There is no 〜ing (=It's impossible to〜):
      • ¶There's no knowing what he will think up next. 何を考え出すか見当がつかない
    • ◆There's going to be ...
      • ¶They say there's going to be a bus strike next week.
      • ¶There's to be three speakers at the public hearing.
  • Have:
    • 持っている:
      • (英) ¶I have (got) a bicycle.; he hasn't (got) any sisters.; Have you (got) a pencilt; He has (got) a dog, hasn't he? [had gotはまれ、(米)では不使用]
    • 否定・疑問文にはdoを使う
      • ¶What did you have for dessert?
      • ¶I didn't have any trouble getting an entry visa.
    • 助動詞としてのhave
      • [完了形] ¶He has lot his memory.
      • [have to] (英)¶I have (got) to go now.
    • [Ⅴ]
      • [Ⅴ名形]
        • ¶We have a taxi ready for you.; I can't have this machine idle. 機械を遊ばせない
        • ¶Can We have our ball back, please?
        • ¶I have my eyes wide open
      • [Ⅲ名副]
        • ¶We have coffee ready.
        • ¶Don't come in! I've nothing on.
      • [Ⅴ名todo] ¶We had a plumber in to repair the water pipe.
      • [Ⅴ名doing]
        • ¶This plant has prickles sticking out of its leaves.
        • ¶We have several guests coming over the weekend.
      • [Ⅴ名do]
        • ¶I must have him help me with my homework.
        • ¶We won't have this happen again.
        • ¶We like to have our friends come to stay with us.
      • [Ⅴ名過分]
        • ¶I had my house painted.; We had our house destroyed in the earthquake.
        • ¶They have not money saved for thier old age.
        • H's having a tooth taken out.
  • Do:

4. 動詞の分類:


>Top 5. History of English:

  • 英語は、ゲルマン語派の西ゲルマン語(Westr Germanic0に属する
    • 中ドイツ語やオランダ語と同系統
  • 主な区分: 最初にBritain島に居住していたのはケルト族系(Celts)ブリトン人(Britons)
  • ローマ帝国の属領: 55BC (Julius Caesarの侵略)〜410 (ローマ人の退去)
    • 409 ローマ帝国Britania放棄(Celtic tribe)。
    • 597: Augustine ローマ教皇の命でキリスト教伝導;
    • 北スコットランドのピクト人(Picts)とスコット人(Scots)の侵入; その都度Britons人は、大陸に援軍派遣を要請→渡来したゲルマン人にかえって征服された。
  • 大移動; Heptarchy建国
    • 5C半ば〜: ジュート人 (Jutes)がKentに、サクソン人 (Saxons)はSussex, Wesex, Essexに、アングル人 (Angles)はNorthumbria, Mercia, East ngliaの侵攻し、それぞれ王国を建設した。(七王国、Heptarcy) ブリテン島もほとんどがゲルマン民族に占領され、先住民であるブリトン人は、西方、北西方に追いやられた。今日、ウェールズ語(Welsh)として北部ウェールズに、またゲール語 (Gaelic)としてEire(アイルランの一部)や北西スコットランドの片田舎に残っているに過ぎない。
      • 征服民族の言語は9Cに優勢であったアングル人の名からEnglisc (=English)と呼ばれた。
    • 8C始めからOEの方言は、1) Kentish, ジュート人のKent方言、2) West Saxonのサクソン方言、3) Mercian (アングル人の中部方言) Northukbroian (Humber川以北のアングル人の方言)があった。
    • 最も重要だったのは、West Saxonであり、Alfred大王 Wessex王(在位871 - 899)が英国全土を統一し、文運を高めたので、West Saxon語が標準語となった。
    • 英国最古の年代記(Anglo-Saxon Chronicleや、Ælfricの説教集(Homilies)、Beowulf [béiəwulf]の英雄伝説の国民的叙事詩もWest Saxenで書かれた。
  • Alfred大王時代:
    • Alfredの時代以前の787年から、以後11Cにかけて、ブリトン島は北欧Vikingsであるデーン人(Danes)が侵入してきた。ついに1066年にはデンマーク王Cnut (Canute)が英国王を兼ねることとなった。(Norman Conquest)
    • この頃より古代スカンジアビア語 (Old Norse) が英語の借用語として流入した、[they, though, tillなど] この結果、侵入者と土着者の2つの方言が混同したことで、言語の伝達に直接必要ない語尾屈折が無視され、文法の単純化が進展した。(屈折変化のLevelling)
  • Norman Conquest以降:
    • 9C末以降、北欧人はフランスにも侵入し、10C始めにはNormandy公国を建設した。1066年に、Normandy公Williamが王位継承権を主張して英国に攻め入り、Harold王の軍を破って、ノルマン王朝を樹立した。それ以降13C半ばまで、英国の公用語は、ノルマンフランス語(Norman French)となり、英語は、一般下層階級の通俗語としてしか通用しなくなった。フランス語の借入が最も多く行われたのは、1250〜1400年間であった。その結果、古代以降のラテン語の借用と併せ、ロマンス語(Romance)系は英語の語彙の50%を占めるようになった。
    • 本来の英語は、13C後半から14Cにかけてその勢力を挽回し、標準的な文学語として復活した。
    • 1066: Norman Conquest; William I, the Conqueror (Guillaume, Normandy公, 母語は仏語)
      • man, father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sisterはOE。名詞・冠詞: 男性・中性・女性が格変化
  • Chaucerの時代:
    • MEの後期を代表するChaucerの英語は、東中部方言の影響を受けたロンドン方言(London dialect)で書かれた。また宗教改革の先駆者John Wycliffe (1320?-84) が、1382年頃ラテン語訳聖書を英訳に使用したのも標準的な南東中部方言の英語である。
    • 15Cには、William Caxton (1422?-91) が大陸から印刷術をもたらし、1476年に多くの文学や宗教の著作を出版した。この翻訳もロンドン方言の英語であったが、英語の綴字を固定させた功績は大きかった。
    • OEにおける雑多な屈折語尾は、MEで水準化したが、代わりに前置詞や助動詞がフランス語の影響もあり多く用いられるようになった。同時に格変化の衰退にともない、語順(Word order) がより重要になった。SVOの語順は、Alfredでは40%, MEでは66%、Chaucerでは84f%, EarModEのShakespereでは93%となった。
  • RenaissanceとReformationの時代:
    • ModEは、文芸復興と宗教改革を経て、Henry Ⅶ (1485-1509)〜Elizabeth Ⅰ (1588-1603)に至るTudor王朝は、対外的にも英国の隆盛した時代であったが、各君主はRenaissanceに影響されて、ギリシア・ラテンの古典研究熱を高めた。
    • 16C後半から17C前半にかけてラテン語の借入が最も盛んな時期であった。特に、William shakespeare (1564-1616)は、詩と散文の劇作に、英語の表現力を駆使し後世に多大の影響を与えた。MEに残った屈折語尾の母音-eも、この時代には発声上は消滅している。
  • Industrial Revolution以降
    • 産業革命によって交通機関が発達し、ロンドン方言が標準語として各地に浸透した。
    • また文芸思潮では、18Cにおける疑古典主義 (Pseudo-classicism)が、ローマン主義(Romanticism)のとって代わり、一層、心理的、主観的な表現法が普及した。
  • 20C以降
    • 2つの世界大戦を経て、科学的態度が、英文法教育にも影響し、伝統的なラテン語を範とする文法からの離反傾向が顕著になった。
    • 同時に、アメリカ英語の鍼灸によって、英国の若い世代の口語に多くの俗語をもたらし、英語の慣用句の比喩的表現が増大した。
    • 一方で、1922開局のBBCを中心とした明瞭な標準語を通じた英語の普及に努めている。

5. 英語の歴史

  • Old English (OE 古英語) 700 〜1100:
    • 8C頃, Beowulf [béiəwulf] 英雄の叙事詩
    • 800 - 1050北欧Viking Ageノルマン(Danes tribe)人の侵略 (Plagueと並んで脅威)
    • 871 -899 Alfred the Great大王, Wessex王, Vikingの侵攻を防ぎ、OEを普及
  • Middle English (ME 中英語): 1100〜1500:
    • 支配階級は仏語。大量の仏語語彙が流入 (person, human, aunt, uncle, cousin)、ロマンス語化
    • Geoffrey Chaucer [tʃɔ́ːsər] 1343 -1400, The father of English poetry, MEで物語執筆
    • 英仏百年戦争 1337 -1453; 英語の意識が高まる (inkhorn terms排斥) 1384 Wycliffe 最初の英語聖書
  • Modern English (ModE 近代英語) 1500〜1700:
    • 英国ルネサンスは16-17世紀の人間中心の分化。ギリシア語・ラテン語の流入 bill, money, judge, duke
    • William Shakespeare, 1564 -1616); Bard of Avon, Myriad-minded, 英国ルネサンス演劇の代表者
    • 1599 スペインの無敵艦隊 (Invincible Armada)を打破。植民地の拡大 (1600 East India Co.設立)
  • Late Modern English (LModE 後期近代英語): 1700〜1900:
    • 1815 -1914 Pax Britannica, Imperial Century (Waterloo – WWI)
    • 1819-1902 Queen Victoria、63年間治世, 帝国主義政策
    • Present English (PE 現代英語): 1900〜
  • WWI (1918-), or WWII(1945-): Pax Americana:
    • UN/EU公用語の一つ; 1993 Global Standard:

>Top 5. Etymology:

  • 何処まで遡れるか
    • ME、OEまで遡る語史的語源研究と、英語の成立以前のゲルマン基語 (Proto-Germanic; Gmc)、印欧語 (Proto-Indo-Europeaan; IE)を扱う遡源的語源研究とがある。
    • 例: cow <OE cū /kuː/ <Gmc *gōus (L. bōs =ox/ Gk boūs/ Skt gaús) cf: kine /kʌin/
  • 印欧語基語 (IE):
    • BC4-3000頃までは単一の言語グループであったと推測される。その後、西はアイスランド、東はロシア、インド、中国トルキスタンにまで分布し12ほど (数え方によって70ほど) の語族に分化し、世界人人口の約半数を締めた。これらは直ちに分化したのではなく、徐々に分化が進行したと考えられる。
    • IEの研究は、英国のインド学者William Jonesが、司法官としてインドに滞在中、サンスクリット語を研究する中で、欧州のギリシア語やラテン語との類似性に気づき、これらの言語が共通の源から分化したとの仮説を1786年に発表した。
  • 母音交替(Ablaut; gradation)
    • J. Grimmが1819年に、IE諸言語の中での規則的な母音変化

5 語源学:

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