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Word Smart: the Root Parade

Cat: LAN

Adam Robinson, etc.

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; amoral; abduct; acid; adapt; agent; alternate; amateur; ambitious; ambit; unanimous; anterior; anthropology; annual; antidote; apology; apt; architect; monarchy; art; augument; automtic; belittle; rebel; benefit; biannual; brief; cascade; candle; chant; capture; capital; cardiac; caste; caustic; cede; central; concern; chronicle; circumference; scissor; excite; exclaim; closet; decline; connect; bureaucracy; creation; credit; crypt; culprit; occur; cubicle; descend; democracy; dialogue; dictionary; dignity; disperse; doctor; orthodox; condolence; donate; dubious; conduct; endure; epidemic; equaition; err; adolescence; exclude; euphoria; extraordinary; fable; factory; offer; fervor; confide; final; flame; deflect; afflict; fluid; foresight; fortune; fracture; fruitful; foundation; confuse; generous; ignore; grand; congregation; progress; grateful;

  • The forest of words comprises of three parts; etymology as root, major meaning as truck, and example sentences as leaf and fruit.
  • Roots indicate historical background, trucks major principles, leaves & fruits tyical and unique usages.
  • There are various definitions among dictonaries, varying from logical to practical explanations. It's interesting to find most suitable ones for a foreginer to understand the association of words.
  • Refereces:
    1. Word Smart, Buiding an educated vocaburary
    2. Merriam-Webster, 11th Collegiate Dictionary, 2003
    3. American Herritage Dictionary, 3rd edition
    4. Oxford Dictionary of English, 2010
    5. Shogakukan Random House English-Japanese Dictionary, 1979
    6. The Kenkyusha Dicitonary of English Etymology, 1999
  • 言葉の森は、構成する木の3つの部分から成る。根としての語源、幹である主要な意味、そして葉や実に相当する例文である。
  • 根は歴史的背景、幹は主要な原則、葉と実は典型的でユニークな用例を示してくれる。
  • 辞書によっては、論理的なものから実用的なものまでさまざまな定義がある。外国人にとって言葉の関連を理解する上で、最適の定義を見つけることは楽しい。
  • 参考:
    1. Word Smart, Buiding an educated vocaburary
    2. Merriam-Webster, 11th Collegiate Dictionary, 2003
    3. American Herritage Dictionary, 3rd edition
    4. Oxford Dictionary of English, 2010
    5. 小学館ランダムハウス英和大辞典
    6. 研究者英語語源辞典, 1999

>Top <A>:



  1. amoral
  2. atheist
  3. atom
  4. atypical
  5. apathy
  6. amorphous
  7. atrophy
  8. apartheid
  9. anomaly
  10. agnostic


  1. lacking a moral sense; an amoral attitude to sex.
  2. one who believes that there is no deity
  3. <G. atomos=inivisible; a + temnein=to cut
  4. not typical; irregular, unusual; a flower atypical of the species (この種の内の変種の花)
  5. <G. apatheia; a+pathos =without feeling; lack of feeling
  6. <G. a+ morpha=form; having no definite form; shapeless
  7. <G. a+ trephein=to nourish; decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue: myoatrophy (筋萎縮); Cf. dystrophy
  8. < apart+ hood; racial segregation
  9. deviation from the common rule
  10. <G. a+ gnastos=known; a person who holds the view that any ultimate reality is unknown and probably unknowable: agnosticism (不可知論)

>Top Ab/Abs:
off, away fro, apart, down

  1. abduct
  2. abhor
  3. abolish
  4. abstract
  5. abnormal
  6. abdicate
  7. abstinent
  8. absolution
  9. abstruse
  10. abrogate
  11. abscond
  12. abjure
  13. abstemious
  14. ablution
  15. abominate
  16. aberrant
  1. <L. ab+ ducere=to lead; to seize and take away by force
  2. <L. ab+horrare=to shudder; to regard with extreme repugnance: A gentlemen abhors vulgarity. (紳士は卑俗を憎む)
  3. <L. abolare=to destroy
  4. <L. ab+trahere=to pull, draw; disassociated from any specific instance
  5. <L. ab+normalis=normal; deviating from the normal or average
  6. <L. ab+dicare=to proclaim; to cast off, discard; to relinquish: abdicate the throne (退位する)
  7. <abstain <L. ab+tenare=to hold; to refrain deliberately and often with an effort of self-denial from an action or practice: abstinence from food (絶食)
  8. <absolve <L. ab+solvere=to loosen; to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt: 赦免・赦罪
  9. <L. ab+trudere=to push; difficult to comprehend; difficult to comprehend: abstruse theories (難解な理論)
  10. <L. ab+rogare=to ask; to abolish by authoritative action: abrogate concordats with other countries. (他国との協約を破棄する)
  11. <L. ab+condere=store up, put; to depart secretly and hide oneself: The cashier absconded with money. (出納係は金を持って姿をくらました)
  12. <L. ab+jurare=to swear; to renounce upon oath; to reject solemnly: abjure extravagance. (贅沢を慎む)
  13. <L. ab+temetum=intoxicating drink; marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol: He was of abstemious habit. (日頃から節食していた)
  14. <L. ab+lavere=to wash; the washing of one's body or part of it: perform one's ablution (斎戒沐浴する)
  15. <L. ab+omin=omen; to hate or loathe intensely: an abominable crime (忌まわしい犯罪)
  16. <L. ab+errare=to wander; straying from the right or normal way: annual (diurnal) aberration 年周 (日周)光行差

>Top Ac/Acr
sharp, bitter

  1. acid
  2. acute
  3. acerbic
  4. exacerbate
  5. acrid
  6. acrimonious
  7. acumen
  1. <L. acare=to be sour; sour, sharp, or biting to the taste
  2. <L. acus=needle; characterized by sharpness or severity
  3. <L. acid in temper, mood, or tone: acerbic criticism (辛辣な批評)
  4. <L. ex+acerbus=harsh, bitter; to make more violent, bitter, or severe: Foolish words exacerbating a quarrel. (喧嘩に油を注ぐ愚かな言葉)
  5. <L. acr+acer=sharp; sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor; irritating; acrid smoke from the burning rubber (燃えるゴムから出る刺激臭のある煙)
  6. <L. caustic, biting, or rancorous especially in feeling, language, or manner: an acrimonious dispute (激論)
  7. <L. acuere=to sharpen <acus=needle; keenness and depth of perception, discernment, or discrimination especially in practical matters: political acumen (政治的な読みの深さ)

>Top Ad/Al
to, toward, near

  1. adapt
  2. adjacent
  3. addict
  4. admire
  5. address
  6. adhere
  7. administer
  8. adore
  9. advice
  10. adjoin
  11. adultery
  12. advocate
  13. allure
  14. alloy
  1. <L. ad+aptare=to fit; to make fit
  2. <L. ad+jacare=to lie; akin to, not distant
  3. <L. ad+dicere=to say; to devote or surrender oneself to something habitually
  4. <L. ad+mirari=to wonder; to regard with admiration
  5. <L. ad+drescer=to direct; to direct to go
  6. <L. ad+haerare=to stick; to give support or maintain loyalty
  7. <L. ad+ministrare=to serve; to manage or supervise the execution, use, or conduct of: The courts administer the law. (裁判所は法律を司る)
  8. <L. ad+orare=to speak; to worship or honor as a deity or as divine
  9. <L. ad+visus=visage; recommendation regarding a decision or course of conduct
  10. <L. ad+jungere=to join; to add or attach by joining; adjoin one thing to another (一つのことを別のことに結びつける)
  11. <L. ad+ulssster=alter; voluntary sexual intercourse; Thou shalt not commit adultery.
  12. <L. ad+vocare=to call; one that pleads the cause of another; plead not guilty
  13. <L. al+lure: to entice by charm or attraction; a great allure for women
  14. <L. al+ligare=to bind; the degree of mixture of base metals

>Top Ag/Act
to do , to drive, to force, to lead

  1. act
  2. agent
  3. agile
  4. agitate
  5. exact
  6. litigate
  7. prodigal
  8. pedagogue
  9. demagogue
  10. synagogue
  11. cogent
  12. exigent
  1. <L. actus=thing done; the doing of a thing
  2. <L. agere=to drive, lead; one that acts or exerts power
  3. <L. agere=to drive; marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace
  4. <L. agere=to drive; to give motion to
  5. <L. ex+agere=to drive; to call for forcibly or urgently and obtain; A hard piece of work exacts effort and patience. (困難な仕事は努力と忍耐を必要とする)
  6. <L. lit lis=lawsuit+agere=to drive; to carry on a legal contest by judicial process
  7. <L. Pro=forth +agere=to drive; characterized by profuse or wasteful expenditure: a prodigal expenditure (浪費)
  8. <G. paid=ped +agagos=leader; slave who escorted children to school; teacher, schoolmaster
  9. <G. damos=people +agagos=leading; a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power
  10. <G. synagaga=assembly; a jewish congregation
  11. <L. co+agere=to drive; having power to compel or constrain: a cogent argument (人を納得させる議論)
  12. <L. exigere=to demand; requiring immediate aid or action; at this exigent moment (この緊急時に)

>Top Al/Ali/Alter
other, another

  1. alternate
  2. alias
  3. alibi
  4. alien
  5. alter ego
  6. alienation
  7. altruist
  8. altercate
  9. allegory
  1. <L. alternus=alternate; occurring or succeeding by turns; Day alternates with night. (昼夜は交互にくる)
  2. <L. allus=other; otherwise called, otherwise known as
  3. <L. allus=other; elsewhere; the fact or state of having been elsewhere at the time
  4. <L. allus=other; belonging or relating to another person, place, or thing
  5. <L. a second self
  6. <L. a withdrawing or separation of a person or a person's affections from an object or position of former attachment; a sense of alienation (疎外感) Cf: Defamiliarization or ostranenie
  7. <L. alter=other; unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others; ↔egoist
  8. <L. altercari=alter; to dispute angrily or noisily; 激論・口論
  9. <G. allagoria=to speak figuratively <Agora; expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalization about human existence; 比喩・風諭法・寓言法

>Top Am/Em

  1. amateur
  2. amatory
  3. amorous
  4. enamor
  5. amity
  6. paramour
  7. amiable
  8. amicable
  1. <L. amare=to love; one who engages in a pursuit, study, science, or sport as a pastime rather than as a profession
  2. of, relating to, or expressing sexual love; amatory poems (恋愛詩)
  3. <L. amare=to love; strongly moved by love and especially sexual love; an amorous tie
  4. <L. en=from +amour=love; to inflame with love
  5. <L. amicus=friend; friendship
  6. <F. par amur; an illicit lover; illicit intercourse
  7. <L. amare=to love; pleasing admirable
  8. <L. amare=to love; characterized by friendly goodwill

>Top Amb
to go, to walk

  1. ambitious
  2. amble
  3. preamble
  4. ambulance
  5. ambulatory
  6. perambulate
  7. circumambulate
  1. having or controlled by ambition; ambitious students (大望をもった学生)
  2. <L. ambulare=to walk; to walk slowly or leasurely, stroll
  3. <L. pre+ambulare=to walk; an intoductiory statement; the preamble of the UN Charter (国連憲章前文)
  4. <F. amublant field hospial (移動野戦病院)
  5. of, relating to, or adapted to walking; an ambulatory court (移動法廷)
  6. <L. per=through+amulare=to walk; to travel over or through especially on foot
  7. <L. circum+ambulare=to walk; to circle on foot especially ritualistically 巡視・巡回


  1. amphitheater
  2. ambit
  3. ambiance
  4. ambient
  1. <G. amphi+theatron=theater; an oval or circular building with rising tiers of seats ranged about an open space and used in ancient Rome especially for contests an spectacles; 円形劇場
  2. <L. ambire=to go around; 周囲・境界・範囲
  3. <F. ambince; a feeling or mood associated with a particular place,person, or thing; 高級な雰囲気; The restaurant had a delightful ambiance. (レストランは楽しい雰囲気)
  4. existing or present on all sides; the ambient air (周囲の空気)

>Top Amb/Amph
both, more than one

  1. ambiguous
  2. amphibian
  3. ambivalent
  4. ambidextrous
  1. <L. ambi+agere=to drive; doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness; an ambiguous answer (曖昧な返答)
  2. <G. amphibios; an amphibious organism, having gilled aquatic larvae and air-breathing adults; 両生類
  3. simultaneous and contradictory attitudes or feelings toward an object, person, or action; have an ambivalent attitude toward (相反する態度)
  4. <L. ambi+dexter=right-hand; using both hand with equal ease; an ambidextrous painter (器用な画家), an ambidextrous policy (二股をかける政策)

>Top Anim
life, mind, soul, spirit

  1. unanimous
  2. animosity
  3. equanimity
  4. magnanimous
  5. pusillanimous
  1. <L. unus+animus=mind; being of one mind
  2. <L. animosus=spirited; ill will or resentment tending toward active hostility; enmity; 悪意・敵愾心
  3. <L. aequo animo=with even mind; evenness of mind especially under stress; feign equanimity (平静を装う)
  4. <L. magnus=great+animus=spirit; showing or suggesting a lofty and courageous spirit; be magnanimous toward one's enemies (敵に対し寛大)
  5. <L. pusillus=very small+animus=spirit; lacking courage and resolution;臆病・小心

>Top Ante

  1. ante
  2. anterior
  3. antecedent
  4. antedate
  5. antebellum
  6. antediluvian
  1. a poker stake usually put up before the deal to build the pot; 最初の賭け金
  2. situated before or toward the front
  3. <L. ante=from+cedere=to go; what precedes; an antecedent event to this one (先立つ事件)
  4. to date as of a time prior to that of execution; 先行、日時を早める
  5. <L. before the war; in antebellum days
  6. <L. ante+diluvium=flood; of or relating to the period before the food described in the Bible; antediluvian ideas ( )

>Top Anthro/Andr
man, human

  1. anthropology
  2. android
  3. misanthrope
  4. philanthropy
  5. anthropomorphic
  6. philander
  7. androgynous
  1. <L. anthrop+logia; the science of human beings
  2. <G. andr+oeidas=old; a mobile robot usually with a human form
  3. <G. misein=to hate+ anthrapos; a person who hates or distrusts humankind; 厭世家
  4. <G. phil+anthrapos; goodwill to fellowmen; 人類愛
  5. <G. anthrap+morphos; described or thought of as having a human form or human attributes; 人間に似た; anthropomorhic fantasies (動物に人間の姿を取らせる空想)
  6. of a man: to have casual or illicit sexual relations with many women.
  7. andr+gyna=woman; having he characteristics or nature of both male and female; 両性具有の; androgynous clothing (男女共用の服)


  1. annual
  2. anniversary
  3. biannual
  4. biennial
  5. centennial
  6. annuity
  7. perennial
  8. annals
  1. covering the period of a year
  2. <L. annus+vertere=to turn; the annual recurrence of a date marking a notable event
  3. occurring twice a year
  4. a 100th anniversary of its celebration
  5. a sum of money payable yearly or at other regular intervals; a terminable (perpetual) annuity (有期(永続)年金)
  6. to live over from one growing season to another; 永続的な、多年生の;her perennial beauty
  7. historical records; 年代記; the annals of war (戦史)

>Top Anti

  1. antidote
  2. antiseptic
  3. antipathy
  1. <L. anti+didonai=to give; a remedy to counteract the effects of poison; 解毒剤
  2. <G. anti+saptikos=putrefying; 殺菌の; antiseptic finish (防腐加工)
  3. <G. anti+pathos=experience; opposition in feeling; ↔sympathy; 反感; racial antipathy

>Top Apo

  1. apology
  2. apostle
  3. apocalypse
  4. apogee
  5. apocryphal
  6. apotheosis
  7. apostasy
  1. <G. apo+logos=speech; a formal justification; 陳謝・弁明; an apology for being late
  2. <G. apo+stellein=to send; One sent on a mission; 使徒; the Apostles (キリストの十二使徒)
  3. <G. apo+kalyptein=to cover; one of the jewish and Christian writing; 黙示録; the apocalypse of nuclear war (核戦争の前面的破壊)
  4. <G. apo+gaia=earth; the point in the orbit of a satellite most distant from the center of the earth, 遠地点; ↔perigee
  5. of doubtful authenticity; 著作者・典拠の疑わしい、聖書外典
  6. <G. apo+theos=god; elevation to divine status; 神格化=deification
  7. <G. apo+histasthai=to stand; renunciation of a religious faith; 背教・変節・脱党

>Top Apt/Ept
skill, fitness, ability


  1. adapt
  2. aptitude
  3. apt
  4. inept
  5. adept
  1. to make fit
  2. <L. aptitude=fitness; inclination, tendency; an aptitude for nocturnal activity (夜行性)
  3. unusually fitted or qualified; having a tendency
  4. in+aptus=apt; lacking in fitness or aptitude; be inept at dealing with people
  5. a highly skilled or well-trained individual; an adept juggler (熟達の手品師)

>Top Arch/Archi
chief, principal

  1. architect
  2. archenemy
  3. archetype
  4. archipelago
  1. <G. archi=master, tektan=builder; a person who designs buildings and advises in their construction
  2. a principal enemy
  3. <G. archein+typos=type; the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies; prototype
  4. <G. archi+pelagos=sea <Aigaion pelagos; an expanse of water with many scattered islands

>Top Archy

  1. monarchy
  2. matriarch
  3. patriarchy
  4. anarchy
  5. hierarchy
  6. oligarchy
  1. undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person
  2. a woman who rules or dominates a family, group, or state; ↔Patriarch
  3. social organization marked by the supremacy of the father in the clan or family.
  4. <G. an+archos=ruler; a state of lawlessness or political disorder due to the absence of governmental authority
  5. a ruling body of clergy organized into orders or ranks each subordinate to the one above it
  6. a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes; Cf: polyarchy

>Top Art
skill, craft

  1. art
  2. artificial
  3. artifice
  4. artisan
  5. artifact
  6. artful
  7. artless
  1. skill acquired by experience, study, or observation
  2. humanly contrived often on a natural model
  3. cleaver or artful skill
  4. a worker who practices a trade or handicraft
  5. <L. arte+facere=to do; something created by humans usually for a practical purpose
  6. performed with or showing art or skill; an artful choice of metaphors and similes
  7. lacking art, knowledge, or skill; an artless child

>Top Aug/Auc/Aux
to increase

  1. auction
  2. auxiliary
  3. augment
  4. august
  1. <L. augae=to increase; a sale of property to the highest bidder
  2. offering or providing help; functioning in a subsidiary capacity
  3. to make greater, more numerous, larger, or more intense
  4. marked by majestic dignity or grandeur; your august father (ご尊父)

>Top Auto

  1. automatic
  2. autopsy
  3. autocrat
  4. autonomy
  1. largely or wholly involuntary; acting or done spontaneously or unconsciously
  2. <G. aut+osis=sight; an examination of a body after death to determine the cause of death
  3. <G. aut+karats=ruling; a person (as a monarch) ruling with unlimited authority; Cf: dictator
  4. the quality or state of being self-governing; the autonomy of the individual

>Top <B>

>Top Be
to be o have a certain quality


  1. belittle
  2. belated
  3. bemoan
  4. befriend
  5. bewilder
  6. begrudge
  7. bequeath
  8. bespeak
  9. belie
  10. beguile
  11. beset
  12. bemuse
  13. bereft


  1. to speak slightingly of; 過小評価する; belittle oneself (卑下する)
  2. delayed beyond the usual time; 遅れてくる; belated efforts (手遅れの努力)
  3. to express deep grief or distress over; 悲しむ,嘆く; bemoan oneself (身の上を嘆く)
  4. to become or act as a friend to; 友・味方になる
  5. to cause to lose one's bearings; 当惑させる; These shifting attitudes bewilder me. (態度を変えるとまごつく)
  6. to give or concede reluctantly or with displeasure; うらやむ,ねたむ; She did not begrudge the money spent on her children's education. (教育に出し惜しみしない)
  7. to give or leave by will; 遺贈する; bequeath a large sum of money to him. (彼に多額の金を遺贈する)
  8. order or reseerve something in advance; 予め頼む; bespeak the reader's patience (前もって読者の辛抱を願っておく)
  9. to give a false impression of: 偽る,隠す; His cruelty belied his kind words. (彼の残酷な行為で親切な言葉がうそであることがばれた)
  10. to lead by deception; 人をだます,欺く; be beguiled into consenting (騙されて承諾する)
  11. to attack from all sides; 包囲攻撃する; a fort beset with guerrillas (ゲリラに包囲された砦)
  12. to make confused; 困惑させる
  13. to deprive of something; 奪われて,失って; They are bereft of their senses. (正気を失っている)

>Top Bel/Bell

  1. rebel
  2. belligerent
  3. bellicose
  4. antebellum
  1. <L. re+bellum=war; opposing or taking arms against a government or ruler
  2. <L. bellum+gerere=to wage; inclined or eager to fight; hostile or aggressive; a belligerent tone (けんか腰)
  3. favoring or inclined to start quarrels or wars
  4. existing before a war; 戦前の

>Top Ben

  1. benefit
  2. beneficiary
  3. beneficent
  4. benefactor
  5. benign
  6. benevolent
  7. benediction
  1. something that promotes well-being; advantage
  2. one that benefits from something; the person designated to receive the income of a trust estate
  3. doing or producing good, performing act of kindness and charity
  4. one that confers a benefit; one that makes a gift or bequest; 恩人、寄贈者
  5. of a gentle disposition; gracious; They did it at first for benign reasons. (善意の理由)
  6. marked by or disposed to doing good; a benevolent attitude (好意的態度)
  7. the invocation of a blessing; 祝福、恩寵

>Top Bi
twice, doubly

  1. binoculars
  2. biannual
  3. bigamy
  4. bilateral
  5. bilingual
  6. bipartisan
  1. a handheld optical insturment composed of two telescopes
  2. occurring twice a year
  3. the act of enetring into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another; 重婚
  4. having two sides; 双方の、双務的な; a bilateral treaty (相互条約)
  5. having or expresed in two languages
  6. of, relating to, or involving memebers of two parties; bipartisan diplomacy (超党派外交)

>Top Bri/Brev
brief, short

  1. brief
  2. abbreviate
  3. abridge
  4. brevity
  1. short in duration, extent, or length
  2. to make briefer
  3. to reduce in scope; diminish
  4. shortness of duration; shortness or conciseness of expression; send a telegram in its brevity (簡潔な電報)

>Top <C>:

>Top Cad/Cid
to fall, to happen by chance


  1. accident
  2. coincide
  3. decadent
  4. cascade
  5. recidivism
  6. cadence


  1. <L. ad=from+cadere=to fall; an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance
  2. to occupy the same place in space or time
  3. marked by decay or decline; one of a group of late 19C French and English writers tending toward artificial and unconventional subjects and subtilized style.
  4. a steep usually small fall of water
  5. a convictd criminal who reoffends repeatedly; 常習的な悪行
  6. a rhythmic sequence or flow of sounds in language, as of poetry or oratory; 律動的な流れ、調子、リズム; The chorus line danced in rapid cadence.

>Top Cand
to burn

  1. candle
  2. incandescent
  3. candor
  1. a usually molded or dipped mass of wax containing a wick that may be burned
  2. <L. candare=to glow; white, glowing, or luminous with intense heat
  3. <L. candere=to shine; whiteness, brilliance; unreserved, honest, or sincere expression; The candor of the speech impressed the audience. (率直な演説)

>Top Cant/Cent
to sing

  1. chant
  2. enchant
  3. accent
  4. recant
  5. incantation
  6. incentive
  1. <L. canere=to sing; to make melodic sounds with the voice
  2. to influence by or as if by charms and incantation
  3. an articulative effort giving prominence to one syllable over adjacent syllable
  4. <L. recantare=to revoke<re+cantere; to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly; 撤回する; Galileo was forced to recant his assertion that the earth orbited the sun.
  5. a use of spells or verbal charms spoken or sung as a part of ritual of magic; 呪文; an incantation to raise the dead.
  6. something that incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action

>Top Cap/Cip/Cept
to take, to get

  1. capture
  2. anticipate
  3. intercept
  4. susceptible
  5. emancipate
  6. recipient
  7. incipient
  8. percipient
  9. precept
  1. an act of catching, winning, or gaining control by force, stratagem, or guile
  2. <L. ante+capere=to take; to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to
  3. to stop, seize, or interrupt in progress or course or before arrival
  4. capable of submitting to an action, process, or operation; 余地がある、動かされやすい; susceptible to illness (病気にかかりやすい)
  5. <L. manus=hand+capere=to take; to free from restraint, control, or the power of another; to free from bondage; 解放する; emancipate the mind from prejudice (偏見をなくす)
  6. one that receives; receiver
  7. beginning to come into being or to become apparent; 初期の、発端の; the incipient stage of cancer (癌の初期段階)
  8. one that perceives; 知覚する、鑑識力のある; a percipient choice of wines (選りすぐりのワイン)
  9. a command or principle intended especially as a general rule of action; 教訓、命令書; Example is much stronger than precept. (実例は教訓に勝る)

>Top Capit/Cipit
head, headlong

  1. capital
  2. cape
  3. captain
  4. disciple
  5. principle
  6. principal
  7. precipice
  8. precipitate
  9. capitulate
  10. capitalism
  11. precipitation
  12. caption
  13. recapitulate
  1. <L. capit=head; the uppermost member of a column or pilaster
  2. a point or extension of land jutting out into water as a peninsula
  3. a military leader; the commander of a unit or a body of troops
  4. one who accepts and assists in spreading the doctrines of another
  5. <L. princip=initiator; a comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption
  6. most important, consequential, or influential; chief
  7. a very steep or overhanging place; stand on the brink on a precipice (崖っぷち)
  8. to throw violently; hurl; precipitate the country into a crisis (国家の危機)
  9. <L. capitulare=to distinguish by heads; to surrender often after negotiation of terms
  10. an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods
  11. the quality or state of being precipitate; hastiness; 墜落、促進、性急; act with precipitation (軽はずみ)
  12. the heading especially of an article or document; title; 題目、表題、字幕
  13. to restate briefly; summarize; The general procedure was then briefly recapitulated. (簡潔に要約)

>Top Card/Cord/Cour

  1. cardiac
  2. courage
  3. encourage
  4. concord
  5. discord
  6. accord
  7. concordance
  8. cordial
  1. <G. kardikos=heart; of, relating to, or acting on the heart; cardiac transplantation (心臓移植)
  2. <L. cor=heart; mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty
  3. to inspire with courage, spirit, or hope; hearten;
  4. a state of agreement; harmony
  5. lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas)
  6. to bring into agreement; reconcile; ↔conflict; His practice does not accord with his principles. (主義との不一致)
  7. concord; an alphabetical index of the principal words in a book; 一致、用語索引
  8. of or relating to the heart; vital; a cordial medicine (強壮剤)

>Top Cast/Chast

  1. caste
  2. castigate
  3. chastise
  4. chaste
  1. one of the hereditary social classes in Hinduism; カースト制度
  2. to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism; 酷評、懲戒; be castigated for one's wrong doing. (不品行で折檻される)
  3. to inflict punishment on as by whipping; to censure severely; 体罰によって懲らしめる
  4. innocent of unlawful sexual intercourse; 貞淑な、処女の、質素な; have a chaste meal

>Top Caust
to burn

  1. caustic
  2. holocaust
  1. <G. kaiein=to burn; capable of destoying; corrosive; 腐食性、苛性の; caustic alkali
  2. a sacrifice consumed by fire; a thorough destruction; genocide; 大虐殺; avoid nuclear holocaust; the Final Solution

>Top Ced/Ceed
to go , to yield, to stop

  1. exceed
  2. precede
  3. recess
  4. concede
  5. cede
  6. access
  7. predecessor
  8. precedent
  9. antecedent
  10. recede
  11. abscess
  12. cessation
  13. incessant
  1. <L. ex+cedere=to go; to extend outside of; exceed the speed limit
  2. <L. pre+cedere=to go; to surpass in rank, dignity, or importance; に優先する; The solution to this probelem precedes all other things. (この問題の解決はすべてに優先する)
  3. the action of receding; recession; a suspension of business or procedure oftern for rest; 休業、休会、凹部、隠れ場所; Congress is now in recess. (議会は休会中)
  4. <L. comLcedere=to yield; to grant as a right or privilege; 容認、認める、許す; He finally conceded that she was right.
  5. <L. cedere=to go, withdraw; to yield or grant typically by treaty; cede territory (領土を割譲する)
  6. to get at; gain access to
  7. one that precedes; a person who has previously occuied a potition or office; 前任者↔successor; one's predecessors in office (役所の前任者たち)
  8. an earlier occurrence of something similar; somethign done or said that may serve as an example or rule to authorize; 先例; according to precedent (前例に従って)
  9. preceding; 先行・優先する; Little is known about his birth and antecedents. (出生と前歴は分かっていない)
  10. to move back or away; withdraw; the recedubg tude (引き潮)

>Top Centr

  1. central
  2. concentrate
  3. eccentric
  4. centrifuge
  5. egocentric
  1. <L. centrum=center; containing or constituting a center; essential, principal
  2. to bring or direct toward a common center or objective; focus
  3. deviating from an established or usual pattern or style
  4. centrifugal force
  5. concerned with the individual rather than society

>Top Cern/Cert/
to sparate, to judge, to distinguish, to decide

  1. concern
  2. critic
  3. secret
  4. crime
  5. discreet
  6. ascertain
  7. certitude
  8. hypocrite
  9. discriminate
  10. criterion
  11. discern
  12. recrimination
  1. <L. com+cernere=to sift; to relate to; be abut; involve
  2. <G. kritikos=able to discern or judge; one who expresses a reasoned opinion on any matter especially involving a judgment of its value, truth, righteousness.
  3. <L. se=apart+cernere=to sift; kept from knowledge or view; hidden
  4. an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by a public law.
  5. <L. discernere=to separate, distinguish; having or showing discernment or good judgment in conduct and especially in speech; prudent; a discreet silence (慎重さを示す沈黙)
  6. to make certain, exact, or precise
  7. the state of being or feeling certain; certainty
  8. <G. hypokritas=actor; a person who puts on a false appearance of virtue or religion; hypocrisy; play the hypocrite (猫をかぶる)
  9. <L. discernere=to distinguish; to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of; discriminate between things (正確に見分ける)
  10. <G. krinein=to judge; a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based
  11. <L. dis=apart+cernere=to sift; to detect with the eyes; She sought to discern his innermost thoughts. (心底を見極める)
  12. <L. re+criminari=to accuse; a retaliatory accusation; 避難し返す、反訴する; endless recrimination

>Top Chron

  1. synchronize
  2. chronicle
  3. chronology
  4. chronic
  5. anachronism
  6. chronometer
  1. to happen at the same time
  2. an historical account of events arranged in order of time; 年代記、編年史
  3. the science that deals with measuring time by regular divisions; a chronological table
  4. marked by long duration or frequent recurrence; not acute; a chronic state of civil war (うち続く内戦)
  5. an error in chronology; a person or a thing that is chronologically out of place; 時代錯誤
  6. one designed to keep time with great accuracy

>Top Circu
around, on all sides

> cirkuli

  1. circle
  2. circumference
  3. circumstances
  4. circuit
  5. circumspect
  6. circumvent
  7. circumnavigate
  8. circumambulate
  9. circumlocution
  10. circumscribe
  11. circuitous
  12. circumcenter
  1. <L ciruculus (circus輪 +ule 指小辞=小さな輪
  2. <L. circum+ferre=to carry; perimeter of a circle; the eternal boundary or surface of a figure or object
  3. 状況、環境、要因, a condition, fact, or event accompanying, conditioning, or determining another; an essential or inevitable concomitant; ¶according to circumstances (臨機応変に)
  4. <L. circum+ire=to go; a usually circular line encompassing an area
  5. 熟慮する, careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences; prudent
  6. <L. circum+venire=to come; to hem in; to make a circuit around; 迂回、回避; circumvent the real issues (真の問題を回避する)
  7. to go completely around especially by water; bypass; 迂回、遠回り; circumnavigate the heavy downtown traffic (交通渋滞を回避)
  8. <L. circum+ambulare=to walk; to circle on foot especially ritualistically
  9. <L. circum+locutio=speech; the use of unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea; evasion in speech; 遠回し、婉曲、饒舌
  10. <L. circum+scribere=to write; to constrict the range or activity of definitely and clearly; 限界内に封じ込める、制限する; Her social activities are circumscribed by school regulations. (社会的活動は厳しく制限)
  11. having a circular or winding course; a circuitous argument (回りくどい議論)
  12. the point at which perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle intersect and which is equidistant from the three vertices; 外心 ↔incenter

>Top Cis
to cut

  1. scissor
  2. precise
  3. exorcise
  4. excise
  5. incision
  6. incisive
  7. concise
  1. to cut or cut off with scissors or shear
  2. <L. prae=from+caedere=to cut; exactly or sharply defined or stated
  3. to expel an evil spirit by adjuration; to get rid of something troublesome; 魔除け、厄除けする; exorcise a demon out of a house (厄払い)
  4. an internal tax levied on the manufacture, sale, or consumption; 消費税
  5. a wound made especially in surgery by incising the body; 切開
  6. impressively direct nd decisive as in manner or presentation; 鋭い、痛烈な; an incisive criticism; 辛辣な批評
  7. <L. com+caedere=to cut; marked by brevity of expression or statement; free from all elaboration and superfluous detail; 簡潔な

>Top Cit
to set in motion

  1. excite
  2. incite
  3. solicit
  4. solicitous
  1. <L. ex+citare=to rouse; to call to activity; to rouse to an emotional response
  2. <L. in=from+citare=to put in motion; stir up; 扇動、誘発する; incite anger
  3. <L. sollicitus=anxious+ciare=to move; to make petition to; entreat; 嘆願する; solicit a person to do (せがむ)
  4. manifesting or expressing solicitude; 気にかける; a solicitous parent (子供を案じる親)

>Top Clam/Claim
to shout, to cry out

  1. exclaim
  2. proclaim
  3. acclaim
  4. clamor
  5. disclaim
  6. reclaim
  7. declaim
  1. <L. ex+clamare=to cry; to cry out or speak in strong or sudden emotion
  2. <L. pro=before+clamare; to declare publicly, typically insistently, proudly, or defiantly
  3. <L. ad=from+clamare; applaud, praise; 喝采、賞賛する; acclaim the conquering heroes (歓呼の声)
  4. noisy shouting; a loud continuous noise; a rising public clamor for reform (改革を求めて高まる民衆の声)
  5. to renounce a legal claim to; deny, disavow; 否認、放棄する; disclaim all participation (一切の関与を否定)
  6. to recall from wrong or improper conduct; reform; 再生、矯正、改善する; reclaim a person from crime (罪からの更正)
  7. to speak rhetorically; specifically; 美辞麗句、修辞; declaim a speech

>Top Cla/Clo/Clu
shut, close

  1. closet
  2. enclose
  3. conclude
  4. claustrophobia
  5. disclose
  6. exclude
  7. recluse
  8. preclude
  9. seclude
  10. cloister
  11. foreclose
  1. <L. clos=enclosure; an apartment or small room for privacy; retire to one's closet (小室、密室に引きこもる)
  2. to close in; surround; to fence off for individual use; confine; a garden enclosed with a hedge
  3. to shut up; to bring to an end especially in a particular way; conclude a speech with a quotation from the Bible
  4. abnormal dread of being in closed or narrow spaces; 閉所恐怖症↔agoraphobia
  5. to open up; to expose to view; reveal;
  6. to prevent or restrict the entrance of; ↔include
  7. a person who leads a secluded or solitary life; 遁世者
  8. to make impossible by necessary consequence; rule out in advance; 排除する; The insufficiency of the evidence precludes a conviction (証拠不十分で無罪)
  9. <L. se=apart+claudere=to close; to exclude from a privilege, rank or dignity; debar; 孤立、隔離、閉め出す; seclude oneself from society (社会から隠遁)
  10. <L. claudee=to close; an area within a monastery or convent to which the religious are normally restricted; 回廊; He cloistered himself in his laboratory. (彼は実験室に閉じこもった)
  11. <L. fors=outside+clore=to close; to shut out; preclude; to subject to foreclosure proceedings 抵当権請け戻し権喪失; to foreclose a mortgage (担保権を行使する)

>Top Cli
to lean toward

  1. decline
  2. incline
  3. recline
  4. climax
  5. proclivity
  6. disinclination
  1. <L. de=from+clinare=to incline; to turn from a straight course; stray; stop slope downward; descend; Decline and Fall (衰亡)
  2. to bend the head or body forward; bow; 傾斜する、気が向く; We incline to rest and relaxation these days.
  3. to cause or permit to incline backwards; to lean; 寄りかかる、休む; recline too much on one's parents' support
  4. <G. klimax=ladder; a figure of speech in which a series of phrases or sentences is arranged in ascending order of rhetorical forcefulness; the highest point; culmination; 最高潮、漸層法 ↔anticlimax (竜頭蛇尾) ; Cf. preclimax, subclimax
  5. an inclination or predisposition toward something; 性向・性癖; a proclivity to meticulousness (細かいことに気になる性分)
  6. a preference for avoiding something; slight aversion; 気乗り薄、嫌気; have a disinclination for work

>Top Co/Col/Com/
with, together

  1. connect
  2. confide
  3. concede
  4. coerce
  5. cohesion
  6. cohort
  7. confederate
  8. collaborate
  9. compatible
  10. coherent
  11. comply
  12. conjugal
  13. connubial
  14. congenial
  15. convivial
  16. coalesce
  17. coalition
  18. contrite
  19. conciliate
  20. conclave
  21. commensurate
  1. <L. com+nectere=to bind; to become joined
  2. <L. com+fidere=to trust; to have confidence; trust
  3. <L. com+cedere=to yield; to grant as a right or privilege; to accept as true, valid
  4. <L. co+arcare=to shut up; to restrain or dominate by force; coerce obedience (力ずくで服従させる)
  5. the act or state of sticking together tightly; unity; adhesion; 団結、凝縮力
  6. a group of individuals having a statistical factor in common; band, group; 群れ、同齢集団
  7. united in a league; allied; Confederate States of America (南部連合国)
  8. to work jointly with others especially in an intellectual endeavor
  9. capable of existing together in harmony
  10. logically or aesthetically ordered or integrated; consistent
  11. to conform, submit, or adapt as required
  12. <L. con+jugum=yoke; of or relating to the married state; a conjugal life
  13. <L. co+nubere=to marry; or or relating to the married state; conjugal
  14. having the same nature, disposition, or tastes; kindred; congenial companions
  15. <L. com+vivere=to live; relating to or fond of feasting, drinking, and good company
  16. <L co+alescere=to grow; to grow together; to unite into a whole; fuse; 合体・癒着する; The two lakes coalesced into one.
  17. the act of coalescing; union
  18. <L. com+terere=to rub; feeling or showing sorrow and remorse for a sin or shortcoming; 悔恨; a contrite heart (悔いる心)
  19. to gain as goodwill by pleasing acts; to make compatible; reconcile: conciliate an angry competitor (競争相手を懐柔する)
  20. <L. com+clavis=key; a private meeting or secret assembly; a meeting of Roman Catholic cardinals choosing a pope.
  21. <L. com+mensurare=to measure; equal in measure or extent; coextensive; 量・程度が同等の; Your paycheck should be commensurate with the amount of time you worked. (給料は働いた時間相応にすべき)

>Top Crat/Cracy
to govern

  1. bureaucracy
  2. democracy
  3. aristocracy
  4. theocracy
  5. plutocracy
  6. autocracy
  1. <L. burra=desk<cloth-covered desk; a body of nonelective government officials; an administrative policy-making group
  2. <G. demos=people; government by the people, especially rule of the majority;
  3. <G. aristocratia=rule of the best-born; government by a small privileged class
  4. <G. theos=god; government by official who are regarded as divinely guided
  5. <G ploutos=wealth; government by the wealthy
  6. <G. autokrateia; government in which one person possesses unlimited power

>Top Cre/Cresc/Cret
to grow

  1. creation
  2. increase
  3. crescendo
  4. increment
  5. accretion
  6. accrue
  1. the act of creating; the act of making, inventing or producing
  2. <L. in+crescere=to grow; to become progressively greater s in size, amount, number, or intensity
  3. <L. crescere=to grow; a gradual increase (in volume of a musical passage)
  4. the act or process of increasing especially in quantity or value; enlargement; 増加、増額、増分
  5. the process of growth or enlargement by a gradual buildup; 成長・添加による増大; The last part of the legend is a later accretion. (伝説の最後は後世に付け足したもの)
  6. to come about as a natural growth, increase, or advantage; 自然に、結果として生じる; Interest accrues. (利子がつく)

>Top Cred
to believe, to trust

  1. incredible
  2. credentials
  3. credit
  4. creed
  5. credence
  6. credulity
  7. incredulous
  1. too extraordinary and improbable to be believed
  2. testimonials or certified documents showing that person is entitled to credit or has aright to exercise official power; 信任状、保証書
  3. reliance on the truth or reality of something
  4. <L. credere=to believe; a brief authoritative formula of religious belief
  5. mental acceptance as true or real; 真実性に対する信頼・信用; a story almost beyond credence (ほとんど信じられない話)
  6. mental acceptance as true or real; 軽信性、だまされやすさ; live on the credulity of the public (世間の信じやすさにつけ込んで暮らす)
  7. unwilling to admit or accept what is offered as true; not credulous; skeptical; 懐疑的; an incredulous smile (疑わしげな笑い)

>Top Cryp

  1. crypt
  2. cryptic
  3. apocryphal
  4. cryptography
  1. <L. crypta=hidden; a chamber as a vault wholly or partly undergroud
  2. secret, occult; having or seemign to have a hiden or ambiguous meaning; mysterious; a cryptic message (謎めいた伝言)
  3. of doubtful authenticity; spurious ↔genuine; 偽造の、疑わしい

>Top Culp

  1. culprit
  2. culpable
  3. exculpate
  4. inculpate
  1. <F. culpabale=guilty+prest=ready; one accused of or charged with a crime; 罪人、刑事被告人
  2. <L. culpare=to blame; guilty, criminal; meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful; merit reward (punishment) 報酬(罰)に値する
  3. <L. ex+culpa=blame; to clear from alleged fault or guilt; 無罪にする; exculpate oneself from a charge of theft (窃盗罪容疑が晴れる)
  4. incriminate; 有罪とする; ↔exculpate

>Top Cur/cour
running, a course

  1. occur
  2. recur
  3. current
  4. curriculum
  5. courier
  6. cursive
  7. excursion
  8. concur
  9. incur
  10. incursion
  11. discourse
  12. discursive
  13. precursor
  14. recourse
  15. cursory
  1. <L. ob+currer=to run; to be found or met with; appear
  2. to have recourse; resort; 再発; The idea kept recurring. (絶えず浮かぶ)
  3. running, flowing
  4. the courses offered by an educational institution
  5. messenger; a member of a diplomatic service entrusted with bearing messages; 急使、特使、密使
  6. running , coursing as of writing; flowing often with the strokes of successive characters jointed and the angles rounded; cursive characters (筆記体の文字)
  7. a going out or forth; expedition, a usually brief pleasure trip
  8. operating or occurring at the same time; convergent, specifically meeting or intersecting in a point
  9. to become liable or subject to; bring down upon oneself; 好ましくないものに陥る、招く、背負い込む
  10. a hostile entrance into a territory; raid; 侵入、侵略、浸食; The bandits made brief incursions on the village. (山賊が村を急襲)
  11. verbal interchange of ideas; conversation; 言葉による思想の伝達・談話; earnest and intelligent discourse (真面目で知的な会話)
  12. moving from topic to topic without order; rambling; 支離滅裂、脱線する; a discursive talk (とりとめのない話)
  13. one that precedes and indicates the approach of another; predecessor; 先駆者、前兆; a precursor of revolution (革命の先駆者)
  14. a turning to someone or something for help or protection; a source of help or strength; resort; 依頼、頼みの綱; have recourse to the courts for justice (正義を求めて提訴)
  15. rapidly and often superficially performed or produced; hasty; 通り一遍の、ぞんざいな; give a cursory glance at a newspaper article (新聞にざっと目を通す)

>Top Cub/Cumb
to lie down

  1. cubicle
  2. succumb
  3. incubate
  4. incumbent
  5. recumbent
  1. <L. cubare=to lie, recline; a sleeping compartment partitioned off from a large room; carrel; 小小室、寝室、書庫内読書席(carrel)
  2. to yield to superior strength or force or overpowering appeal or desire; 屈する、倒れる、負ける; succumb to disease (病に倒れる)
  3. to sit on eggs to as to hatch by the warmth of the body; 抱卵、孵化、保育する
  4. the holder of an office; one that occupies a particular position or place
  5. suggestive or repose; leaning, resting; 横臥、不活発、怠惰; in a recumbent posture (横たわった姿勢)

>Top <D>:

away, off, down, completely, reversal


  1. descend
  2. detract
  3. decipher
  4. deface
  5. defile
  6. defraud
  7. deplete
  8. denounce
  9. decry
  10. defer
  11. defame
  12. delineate
  13. deference


  1. <L. de+scandere=to climb; to pass from a higher place or level to a lower one
  2. <L. detrahere=to pull down; to speak ill of; to take away; 減じる、損なう; This may detract from his popularity. (このことで人気が落ちるかも)
  3. <Ar. sifr=zero; cipher=zero, code; 解読、判読する
  4. to mar the appearance of; impair; disfigure; 醜くする、汚す、損なう、面子を失わせる
  5. to make unclean or impure; debase; 汚す、傷つける、不潔にする、完璧さを損なう; clothes defiled with paint (ペンキで汚れた)
  6. to deprive of something by deception or fraud; だまし取る、詐取する; He was defrauded of his investment. (出資金をだまし取られた)
  7. <L. de+plare=to fill; to empty of a principal substance; 枯渇、瀉血する; a depleted mine
  8. <L. de+nuntiare=to report; to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil; 避難、糾弾する; censure>denounce>condemn の順
  9. to depreciate officially or publicly; to express strong disapproval of; 使用を禁ずる、罵倒する
  10. put off; delay; defer payment (a visit) (支払い(訪問)を延期)
  11. <L. dis+fama=reputation, fame; disgrace; 中傷、誹謗する; The newspaper editorial defamed the politician. (新聞社説はその政治家を中傷した)
  12. to indicate or represent by drawn or painted lines; to mark the outline of; 輪郭を描く、概説する She delineated the city plan with great care. (都市計画を念入りに説明)
  13. respect and esteem due a superior or an elder; honor; 服従、経緯; blind deference (盲従)

>Top Dem

  1. democracy
  2. epidemic
  3. endemic
  4. demagogue
  5. demographics
  6. pandemic
  1. <G. damos=people; government by the people
  2. <G. epi+damos; affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time; 流行性の、蔓延した; An epidemic of influenza swept the school. (流感が蔓延した)
  3. belonging or native to a particular people or country; 土地固有の、風土性; endemic folk beliefs (その地方固有の信仰)
  4. a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power.
  5. the statistical characteristics of human populations used to identify markets; 人口統計
  6. occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population; pandemic malaria

>Top Di/Dia
apart, through

  1. dialogue
  2. diagnose
  3. diameter
  4. dilate
  5. digress
  6. dilatory
  7. diaphanous
  8. dichotomy
  9. dialectic
  1. <L. dia=from+legein=to speak; a written composition in which two or more characters are represented as conversing; 対話、対談
  2. to recognize as a disease by signs and symptoms
  3. the length of a straight line through the center of an object
  4. <L. dis+latus=wide; to describe or set forth at length or in detail; distend, widen; 拡げる、膨張させる; The drug dilates the pupils of the eyes. (瞳孔を拡げる)
  5. <L. dis+gradi=to step; to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument; 主題から外れる、脱線する; I will at this point digress briefly to that topic.
  6. <L. differre=differ; tending or intended to cause delay; 遅れがちの、時間稼ぎの; a dilatory strategy (引き延ばし戦略)
  7. <L. dia+phinein=to show; characterized by such fineness of texture as to permit seeing through; 半透明の; diaphanous lace (透き通ったレース)
  8. <G. dialektos=conversation; discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; the Socratic techniques; 弁証法、論法

>Top Dic/Dict/Dit
to say, to tell, to use words

  1. dictionary
  2. dictate
  3. predict
  4. contradict
  5. verdict
  6. abdicate
  7. edict
  8. dictum
  9. malediction
  10. benediction
  1. <L. dictio=word; a reference source in print or electronic form containing words usually alphabetically arranged
  2. <L. dictare=to assert, dictate; to give dictation; to speak or read for a person to transcribe or for a machine to record
  3. <L. pre+dicere=to say; to declare or indicate in advance; predict the weather
  4. to asset the contrary of; deny; contradict a report flatly (報告をきっぱり否定)
  5. the finding or decision of a jury on the matter submitted to it in trial; judgment; accept a guilty verdict (有罪評決を受ける)
  6. to cast off; discard; to relinquish as sovereign power formally; 退位、辞任、放棄する; abdicate the throne (退位する)
  7. a proclamation having the force of law; order, command; 布告、勅令; anti-Christian edicts (キリスト教禁止令)
  8. a noteworthy statement as a formal pronouncement of a principle, proposition, or opinion; 断言、言明、一家言、格言
  9. <L. male=badly+dicere=to speak; curse, execration; 呪い、中傷、悪口(slander)
  10. the invocation of a blessing, especially the short blessing with which public worship is concluded; 祝福、祝祷; give the benediction (祝祷を捧げる)

>Top Dign

  1. dignity
  2. dignitary
  3. dignify
  4. deign
  5. indignant
  6. condign
  7. disdain
  1. <L. dignus=worthy; to give distinction to ; ennoble; 威厳、荘重; lower one's dignity (品位を下げる)
  2. one who possesses exalted rank or holds a position of dignity or honor; 高位高官、高僧
  3. to give distinction to; ennoble; 威厳をつける; dignify pedantry by calling it scholarship (衒学をもったいぶって学識という)
  4. to condescend reluctantly and with a strong sense of the affront to one's superiority that is involved; stoop; 身をかがめる、恥をしのんで
  5. filled with or marked by indignation; 憤慨、憤りを感じる; I am indignant about the way he treated me. (処遇には腹立つ)
  6. deserved appropriate; 適切、妥当、至当な
  7. a feeling of contempt for someone or something regarded as unworthy or inferior; scorn; disdain a man for his snobbishness (俗物根性を軽蔑する)

>Top Dis/Dif
away from, apart, reversal, not

  1. disperse
  2. disseminate
  3. dissipate
  4. dissuade
  5. diffuse
  1. <L. dis+spargere=to scatter; to cause to break up, or spread widely; disperse a crowd (大衆を追い散らす)
  2. <L. dis+seminare=to sow; to spread abroad as though sowing seed
  3. <L. dis+supare=to throw; to break up and drive off as a crowd; to cue to spread thin or scatter and gradually vanish; scatter; dissipate a suspicion (疑念を払拭する)
  4. <L. dis+suadare=to urge; to advise against something; ↔persuade; dissuade a person from suicide (思いとどまらせる、諫止する)
  5. <L. dis+fundere=to pour; not concentrated or localized; to pour out and cause to spread freely; 放散、普及、流布する

>Top Doc/Dac
to teach

  1. doctor
  2. doctrine
  3. indoctrinate
  4. doctrinaire
  5. docile
  6. didactic
  1. <L. docare=to teach; a learned or authoritative teacher
  2. something that is taught; the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief; dogma
  3. to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments; to imbue with a usually partisan or sectarian opinion or principle; 吹き込む、洗脳する; indoctrinate a person with an idea
  4. one who attempts to put into effect an abstract doctrine or theory with little regard for practical difficulties; 空論家; a doctrinaire preacher (狂信的説教師)
  5. <L. docare=to teach; easily taught; 扱いやすい、従順な; a docile pupil
  6. <G. didaskein=to teach; designed or intended to teach; 教訓的な、勧善懲悪、人に教えたがる、知ったかぶりの; didactic poetry (教訓詩)

>Top Dog/Dox

  1. orthodox
  2. paradox
  3. dogma
  1. <G. orth+dox=opinion; conforming to established doctrine especially in religion; conventional
  2. a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true; 自己矛盾を含む言葉; the paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty (豊かさの中の貧困という矛盾)
  3. something held as an established opinion

>Top Dol
suffer, pain


  1. condolence
  2. indolent
  3. doleful
  4. dolorous
  1. sympathy with another in sorrow; 哀悼、弔辞; express one's condolences to (弔意を述べる)
  2. <L. in+dolare=to feel pain; causing little or no pain; averse to activity, effort, or movement; habitually lazy; 怠惰な、無精な; an indolent tumor (無痛性腫瘍)
  3. causing grief or affliction; 悲嘆に暮れた; a doleful look on her face (哀しみに沈んだ顔つき)
  4. causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief; a dolorous melody (悲しげなメロディー)

>Top Don/Dot/Dow
to give

  1. donate
  2. donor
  3. pardon
  4. condone
  5. antidote
  6. anecdote
  7. endow
  8. dowry
  1. to make a gift of; to contribute to a public or charitable cause
  2. one that gives, donates, or presents something
  3. indulgence; the excusing of an offense without exacting a penalty; special (general) pardon (特赦 (大赦))
  4. to regard or treat as acceptale, forgivable, or harmless; 大目に見る、容赦する; By his silence, he seemed to condone their behavior. (沈黙によって彼らの行為を認めている様子)
  5. <G. anti+didonai=to give; a remedy to counteract the effects of poison; something that relieves, prevents, or counteracts; 解毒剤; Good jobs are the best antidote to teenage crime. (良い仕事が十台の犯罪への最良の矯正手段)

>Top Dub

  1. doubt
  2. dubious
  3. dubiety
  4. indubitable
  1. fear; suspect; to lack confidence in; distrust
  2. giving rise to uncertainty; of doubtful promise or outcome; dubious plan
  3. a usually hesitant uncertainty or doubt that tends to cause vacillation
  4. too evident to be doubted; 疑う余地のない、明白な

>Top Duc/Duct
to lead

  1. conduct
  2. abduct
  3. conductive
  4. seduce
  5. induct
  6. induce
  7. ductile
  1. to bring by or as if by leading; guide
  2. to seize and take away as a person by force
  3. having conductivity relating to conduction as of electricity; 伝導性のある
  4. to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty; attract; lure
  5. to put in formal possession as of a benefice or office; install; 就任、任命する; be inducted into the office of mayor (市長に就任する)
  6. to move by persuasion or influence; induce a person to ann action (行動を起こす気にさせる)
  7. capable of being drawn out into wire or thread; 展性のある; ductile iron

>Top Dur

  1. endure
  2. durable
  3. duress
  4. dour
  5. obdurate
  1. <L. in+durare=to harden; to undergo as a hardship without giving in; suffer
  2. able to exist for a long time without significant deterioration
  3. forcible restraint or restriction; compulsion by threat; 強制、強迫、威圧; under the duress of dictatorship (独裁政権の圧政)
  4. stern, harsh; 不機嫌な、気むずかしい、厳格な; a dour warning (厳しい警告)

>Top <E>:

  • Epi


  1. epidemic
  2. epilogue
  3. epidermis
  4. epistle
  5. epitome
  6. eigram
  7. epithet
  8. epitaph


  1. <G. epi=from+damos~=people; affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population at the same time; typhoid was epidemic
  2. <G. epi+legein=to say; a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work; 終章、結び; ↔prologue
  3. <G. epi+derma=skin; the outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of vertebrates, covering the dermis; 表皮
  4. <G. epi+stellein=to send; one of the letters adopted as books of the New Testament; 手紙、書簡、The Epistle to the Galatians (ガラテア人への手紙、パウロ書簡の1つ)
  5. <G. epi+temnein=to cut; a summary of a written work; 典型、要約
  6. a concise, clever, often paradoxical statement; 警句、短い風刺詩
  7. <G. epi+tithenal=to put; a term used to characterize a person or thing; 形容辞、添え名
  8. <G. epi+taphos=tomb; an inscription on or at a tomb or a grave in memory of the one buried there; 墓碑銘、碑文

>Top Equ
equal, even

  1. equation
  2. adequate
  3. equivalent
  4. equilibrium
  5. equable
  6. equidistant
  7. equity
  8. iniquity
  9. equanimity
  10. equivocate
  1. the act or process of equating or of being equated; 均等化、均衡
  2. sufficient for a specific requirement; 適切、妥当な; Being adequate is not good enough (まずまずでは十分とは言えない)
  3. <L. aequi+valare=to be strong; equal in force, amount, or value
  4. <L. aequi+libra=weight; a state of intellectual or emotional balance; poise
  5. marked by lack of variation or change; uniform; an equable temper (穏やかな気性)
  6. equally distant
  7. justice according to natural law or right; freedom from bias or favoritism; 公平、更正、衡平
  8. gross injustice; wickedness; 邪悪、非道; the iniquity of bribery (贈賄という不正)
  9. evenness of mind under stress; right disposition; balance; 冷静沈着; He accepted the defeat with equanimity. (その敗北を冷静に受入れた)
  10. to use equivocal language with intent to deceive; 曖昧な言葉を遣う、言葉を濁す;

>Top Err
to wander

  1. err
  2. error
  3. erratic
  4. erroneous
  5. errant
  6. arrant
  7. aberrant
  1. formal be mistaken or incorrect; stray; The judge had erred in ruling.
  2. <L. errare=to wonder; an act, an assertion, or a belief that unintentionally deviates from what is correct, right, or true
  3. not even or regular in pattern or movement; unpredictalbe; とっぴな、奇矯な; Her breathing was erratic.
  4. containing or derived from error; mistaken; erroneous conclusions (間違った結論)
  5. traveling or given to traveling; knight-errant (遊歴の騎士)
  6. being notoriously without moderation; extreme; an arrant fool (大ばか)
  7. straying from the right or normal way; 常道を踏み外した; an aberrant form (異常形)

>Top Esce

  1. adolescence
  2. obsolescent
  3. iridescent
  4. luminescent
  5. coalesce
  6. quiescent
  7. acquiesce
  8. effervescent
  9. incandescent
  10. evanescent
  11. convalescent
  12. reminiscence
  1. the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity; 青春期
  2. going out of use; becoming obsolete; 廃れつつある; obsolescent opinions (時代遅れの意見)
  3. <G irid=iris=rainbow; producing a display of lustrous, rainbowlike colors; 虹色の、玉虫色の; the iridescent wings of the dragonfly (トンボの虹色の羽)
  4. <L. lumen+escent; capable of, suitable for, or exhibiting luminescence; 冷光を発する; her cold, luminescent beauty
  5. <L. co+alescere=to grow; to grow together, fuse; to come together so as to form one whole; 合体、融合する; The rebel units coalesced into one army to fight the invaders.
  6. <L. quies=quiet; in a stat or period of inactivity or dormancy; 静かな、静止中の; Strikes were headed by groups of workers who had previously been quiescent.
  7. <L. ad+quiescere=to rest; accept something reluctantly but without protest; 黙認する、消極的に同意する; acquiesce halfheartedly in a business plan (事業計画にしぶしぶ従う)
  8. (of a liquid) giving off bubbles; fizzy; 発泡性の; effervescent drinks
  9. emitting visible light as a result of being heated;
  10. <L. evanescere=vanish; vanishing like vapor; quickly fading or disappearing; evanescent beauty (移ろいやすい美)
  11. recovering from an illness or medical treatment; a convalescent hospital (予後保養所)
  12. the act or process of recollecting past experiences or events; have a vivid reminiscence of what he lived through (体験を生々しく覚えている)

>Top Ex/E/Ef
out, out of, from, former, completely

  1. evade
  2. exclude
  3. extricate
  4. exonerate
  5. extort
  6. exhort
  7. expire
  8. effervesce
  9. extenuate
  10. efface
  11. effuse
  12. egregious
  1. escape or avoid by cleverness or deceit; 巧みに逃れる; evade capture (逮捕を逃れる)
  2. to prevent from entering; keep out bar; exclude outside air.
  3. to release from an entanglement or difficulty; disengage; extricate oneself out of a dilemma (窮地から抜け出す)
  4. to free from blame; 解放する、無実の罪を晴らす; exonerate oneself from a charge of theft
  5. <L. ex+torquere=to twist; obtain by force, threat, or other unfair means; extort bribes from a person (賄賂を強要する)
  6. <L. ex+hortari=to urge; to urge by strong, often stirring argument, admonition, advice; 強く勧告する; exhort a person to enter college.
  7. to come to an end; terminate
  8. to emit small bubbles of gas as a carbonated or fermenting liquid
  9. <L. ex+tenuare=to make thin; to lessen or attempt to lessen the magnitude or seriousness of; 軽くする、情状酌量する; Don't extenuate the difficulties of the accident. (事故を軽く見てはならない)
  10. to rub or wipe out; erase; ぬぐい去る; efface one's unhappy memories.
  11. <L. ex+fundere=to pour; to pour out a liquid; to radiate; diffuse
  12. conspicuously bad or offensive; an egregious mistake (とんでもない間違い)

>Top Eu
good, well

  1. euphoria
  2. euphemism
  3. eulogy
  4. eugenics
  5. euthanasia
  6. euphony
  1. a feeling of great happiness or well-being; 多幸症、陶酔感
  2. a mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt; 婉曲語法; To pass away is a euphemism for to die.
  3. <G. eu+logia=logy; high prase or commendation; 賛辞、死者への頌徳; He delivered a eulogy on the late Dr. Smith.
  4. <G. eu+genos=race; the study of hereditary improvement of the human grade; 優生学
  5. <G. eu+thanatos=death; the act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition; 安楽死 (mercy killing); voluntary euthanasia (尊厳死)
  6. agreeable sound, especially in the phonetic quality of words; 音調の良さ; the majestic euphony of Milton's poetry (ミルトン詩の荘重で快い語調)

>Top Extra
outside of, beyond

  1. extraordinary
  2. extrasensory
  3. extraneous
  4. extrapolate
  1. beyond what is ordinary or usual; extraordinary plumage of the male
  2. being outside the normal range or bounds of the senses; 超感覚的な

>Top <F>:



  1. fable
  2. fabulous
  3. affable
  4. fame
  5. famous
  6. defame
  7. infamous
  8. nefarious


  1. a short story, typically with animals as characters, conveying a moral
  2. barely credible, astonishing; the fabulous endurance of a marathon runner
  3. easy and pleasant to speak to; 気さくな; an affable and agreeable companion
  4. great renown; seek fame as an opera singer
  5. well or widely known
  6. <L. dis+fama=rumor; to damage the reputation, character; 名誉毀損、中傷誹謗する; The newspaper editorial defamed the politician.
  7. having an exceedingly bad reputation; notorious; an infamous TV show
  8. infamous by way of being extremely wicked; nefarious deeds (不埒な行為)

>Top Fac/Fic/Fig
to do, to make

  1. factory
  2. facsimile
  3. benefactor
  4. facile
  5. faction
  6. fiction
  7. efficient
  8. deficient
  9. proficient
  10. munificent
  11. prolific
  12. soporific
  13. figure
  14. figment
  15. configuration
  16. effigy
  1. a building where goods are manufactured or assembled
  2. a exact copy or reproduction as of a document
  3. one that gives aid, especially financial aid; 恩人、寄贈者
  4. ignoring the true complexities of an issue; superficial; a man of facile and shallow intellect
  5. <L. facere=to do; a group of persons forming a cohesive, usually contentious minority within a large group; the left-wing faction of the party
  6. literature in the form of prose, especially novels, that describes imaginary events and people
  7. achieving maximus productivity with minimum wasted effort
  8. lacking an essential quality or element; this diet is deficient in vitamin B
  9. having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning; a proficient violinist
  10. characterized by or displaying great generosity; 気前の良い; ↔niggardly
  11. producing offspring or fruit in great abundance; fertile; a prolific year for tomatoes (トマトの当たり年)
  12. inducing or tending to induce sleep; drowsy; Some medicine made her soporific.
  13. a written symbol representing something other than a letter, especially a number
  14. something invented, made up, or fabricated; 想像の産物; The noises in the attic were just a figment of his imagination (屋根裏部屋の物音は気のせい)
  15. arrangement of parts or elements in a particular form; 各要素の相対的配列; electron configuration
  16. a sculpture or model of a person; a bronze effigy on a cornerstone

>Top Fer
to bring, to carry, to bear

  1. offer
  2. transfer
  3. confer
  4. referendum
  5. infer
  6. fertile
  7. proffer
  8. defer
  9. proliferate
  10. vociferous
  1. to present for acceptance or rejection; proffer; offered me a drink
  2. to convey or cause to pass from one place, person, or thing to another
  3. to bestow an honor; grant; 授与する; conferred medal on the hero
  4. <L. referre=to refer; a general vote by the electorate on a single political question; 国民投票
  5. deduce or conclude from evidence and reasoning; (前提・証拠から)推論する; Your silence infers consent. (沈黙は同意ということになる)
  6. capable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction
  7. to offer for acceptance, tender; He proffered a hint to me. (ヒントを与えた)
  8. to put off, postpone
  9. to increase or spread at a rapid rate
  10. making, given to,or marked by noisy and vehement outcry; やかましい; be vociferous against raising taxes. (増税に猛反対する)

>Top Ferv
to boil, bo bubble, to burn

  1. fervor
  2. ferment
  3. fervid
  4. effervescent
  1. great warmth and intensity of emotion; religious fervor (宗教的熱情)
  2. something, such as a yeast, a bacterium, a mould, or an enzyme, that causes fermentation; agitation and excitement among a group of people
  3. <L. fervere=to boil; marked by great passion or zeal; a fervid orator (熱烈な弁士)
  4. of a liquid giving off bubbles; fizzy; effervescent powder (発泡粉末)

>Top Fid
faith, trust

  1. confide
  2. confident
  3. confidant
  4. affidavit
  5. diffident
  6. fidelity
  7. perfidy
  1. to tell something in confidence; She confides in no one but her husband.
  2. <L. confidere=to rely on; marked by assurance, as of success
  3. one to whom secrets or private matters are disclosed; 腹心の友
  4. <L. af+fidere=to trust; 宣誓供述書; a written declaration made under oath; swear an affidavit
  5. lacking or marked by a lack of self-confidence; shy and timid; 臆病な内気な
  6. faithfulness to obligations, duties, or observances; fidelity to one's country
  7. <L. per+fides=faith (信頼を通り過ぎて); deliberate breach of faith; calculated violation of trust; treachery; 背信行為、裏切り

>Top Fin

  1. final
  2. finale
  3. confine
  4. define
  5. infinite
  6. affinity
  7. infinitesimal
  1. forming or occurring at the end
  2. <L. finalis=final; the concluding part, especially of a musical composition
  3. <L. coma+finis=border; to keep within bounds; restrict; Confine yourself to finishing the book. (努力を集中)
  4. to state the precise meaning of a word
  5. having no boundaries or limits;
  6. a natural attraction or feeling of kinship; a semantic affinity between two words
  7. immeasurably or incalculably minute; capable of having values approaching zero as a limit; infinitesimal calculus

>Top Flag/Flam
to burn

  1. flame
  2. flamboyant
  3. flammable
  4. inflammatory
  5. flagrant
  6. conflagration
  1. a hot glowing body of ignited gas; 炎; open flames (裸火)
  2. highly elaborate; ornate; richly colored; 派手な、けばけばしい; flamboyant idol of international society
  3. easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; inflammable
  4. relating to or arousing inflammation of a part of the body; 扇動的、炎症性の; an inflammatory fever (炎症熱)
  5. conspicuously bad, offensive; 嘘、誤りがひどく目につく; a flagrant lie (真っ赤なうそ)
  6. <L. conflagrare=to burn up; a large, destructive fire; 大火災; a conflagration that raged through the town (町中なめ尽くした大火事)

>Top Flect/Flex
to bend

  1. deflect
  2. flexible
  3. inflect
  4. reflect
  5. genuflect
  1. <L. de+flectere=to bend; to turn aside or cause to turn aside; bend or deviate; 問題などをそらす; deflect a stream from its original course
  2. capable of being bent or flexed; pliable; 可撓性; a flexible lamp
  3. to alter the voice in tone or pitch; modulate; 変調、語を活用させる;
  4. to throw or bend back light from a surface; 反射、反響する
  5. <L. genu=knee+flectere=to bend; to bend the knee or touch one knee to the floor or ground, as in worship; 片膝を折る

>Top Flict
to strike

  1. afflict
  2. inflict
  3. conflict
  4. profligate
  1. cause pain or trouble to; affect adversely; be afflicted with arthritis (関節炎に悩む)
  2. cause something unpleasant or paint to be suffered by someone; 刑罰を科す; inflict punishment (罰を加える)
  3. a state of open, often prolonged fighting; a battle or war
  4. <L. pro+fligere=to strike; recklessly extravagant or wasteful in the use of resources; 放蕩、浪費する; profligate consumers of energy

>Top Flu, Flux
to flow

  1. fluid
  2. influence
  3. fluent
  4. affluent
  5. fluctuation
  6. influx
  7. effluence
  8. confluence
  9. superfluous
  10. mellifluous
  1. a substance that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure; a gas or a liquid; 流動体;
  2. a power affecting a person, thing, or course of events
  3. <L. fluere=to flow; able to express oneself readily and effortlessly
  4. generously supplied with money, property, or possessions; plentiful
  5. an irregular rising and falling in number or amount; a variation
  6. a flowing in; an influx of foreign capital
  7. the act or an instance of flowing out; 流出、放出、発散
  8. a flowing together of two or more streams; 合流
  9. being beyond what is required or sufficient; overflow
  10. flowing with sweetness or honey; her low mellifluous voice

>Top Fore

  1. foresight
  2. foreshadow
  3. forestall
  4. forego
  5. forebear
  1. perception of the significance and nature of events; 先見の明、洞察力; a man of foresight (見通しの利く人)
  2. to present an indication or a suggestion of beforehand; presage; 予示、前兆となる; Political upheavals foreshadowed war. (政変は戦争の前兆)
  3. to delay, hinder, or prevent by taking precautionary measures beforehand; prevent; 未然に防ぐ、先手を打つ; forestall the enemy (機先を制する)
  4. to precede in time or place; 先行、先立つ; go without
  5. a person from whom one is descended; an ancestor

>Top Fort

  1. fortune
  2. fortunate
  3. fortuitous
  1. the chance happening of fortunate or adverse events; 富貴、財産: an inherited fortune (相続財産)
  2. <L. fortuna=chance; bringing something good and unforeseen; auspicious
  3. happening by accident or chance; accidental; 偶然性の; a fortuitous encounter (偶然の出会い)

>Top Fra/Frac/Frag
to break

  1. fracture
  2. fraction
  3. fragment
  4. fragile
  5. refraction
  6. fractious
  7. infraction
  8. refractory
  1. <L. frangere=to break; cracking or breaking of a hard object; suffer a fracture (骨折する)
  2. an expression that indicates the quotient of two quantities; 分数、割合、端数; What fraction of foot is 3 inches?
  3. a small part broken off or detached; 断片; scattered fragments of the broken vase
  4. easily broken, damaged, or destroyed, frail; a fragile ceramic container
  5. the turning or bending of any wave, such as a light or sound wave, when it passes from one medium into another; 屈折; an angle of refraction
  6. inclined to make trouble, unruly; 手に負えない、怒りっぽい; a fractious child
  7. the act or an instance of infringing; a violation; 違反、侵害、侵犯; an infraction of the rules
  8. obstinately resistant to authority or control; a refractory disease (難病)

>Top Fruit/Frug
fruit, produce

  1. fruitful
  2. fruition
  3. frugal
  1. producing fruit; conductive to productivity
  2. realization of something desired or worked for; accomplishment; 達成、成就; the fruition of one's hopes (希望の実現)
  3. practicing or marked by economy, as in the expediture of money or the use of material resouces; at sparing; 節約する; a grugal housewife (慎ましい妻)

>Top Fund/Found

  1. foundation
  2. fundamental
  3. founder
  4. profound
  1. the act of founding, especially the establishment of an institution with provisions for futre mainenance; 基礎、基盤、土台; a statement wholly devoid of fundation (根拠のない陳述)
  2. of or relating to the foundation or base
  3. <L. fundus=bottom; to sink below the water; The ship struck a reef and foundered
  4. <L. pro+fundus=bottom; situated at, extending to, or coming from a great depth; 知的な深みのある、深淵な; a profound insight 深い洞察力

>Top Fus
to pour

  1. confuse
  2. transfuse
  3. profuse
  4. effusive
  5. diffuse
  6. suffuse
  1. <L. confundere=to mix together; to cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; throw off ; 狼狽させる、論点を曖昧にする; The flood of questions confused me.
  2. to pour out of one vessel into another; 吹き込む、浸透させる; transfuse a love of nature to one's students
  3. very plentiful; abundant; a field profuse with wildflowers
  4. unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression; おおぎょうな; effusive greetings
  5. to pur out and cause to spread freely
  6. to spread through or over, as with liquid, color, or light; 覆われる; Her face was suffused with blushes. (顔を一面に紅潮させていた)

>Top <G>:

birth, creation, race, kind


  1. generous
  2. generate
  3. genetics
  4. photogenic
  5. degenerate
  6. homogeneous
  7. genealogy
  8. gender
  9. genre
  10. genesis
  11. carcinogenic
  12. genial
  13. congenial
  14. ingenuous
  15. ingenue
  16. indigenous
  17. congenital
  18. progeny
  19. engender


  1. <L. genus=birth; liberal in giving or sharing; 物惜しみしない、利己的でない; She is generous with her time. (時間を惜しげもなく割く)
  2. to bring into being; give rise to; produce or create; He generate some good ideas. (良案を出す)
  3. the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics; 遺伝学
  4. attractive as a subject for photography
  5. having lost the physical, mental, or moral qualities considered normal and desirable; 衰退、退廃: The morale of the soldiers degenerated. (士気低下)
  6. <G. homo+genos=kind; of the same or similar nature or kind
  7. a record or table of the descent of a person, family or group from an ancestor; 系図、系統
  8. the state of being male or female used with reference to social and cultural differences
  9. a style or category or art, music, or literature
  10. the coming into being of something; the origin
  11. <G. karkinos=cancer; having the potential to cause cancer
  12. having a pleasant or friendly disposition or manner; cordial and kindly
  13. having the same taste, habits, or temperament; sympathetic; 性分にあった; a climate congenial to one's health
  14. lacking in sophistication or worldliness; artiness; 率直、純真な; an astoundingly ingenuous girl
  15. <F. ingenu; an artless, innocent girl or young woman; 純情娘
  16. originating and growing or living in an area or environment; 固有、原産の; indigenous workers (現地人労働者)
  17. existing at or before birth; innate; ↔acquired; 先天的な; a congenital defect
  18. one born of; begotten by, or derived from another; 子孫、所産; Art is the parent, not the progeny of science. (芸術が科学を生み出した)
  19. to bring into existence; 生む、生じさせる; Hatred engenders violence. (憎しみが暴力を生む)

>Top Gn/Gno/Gn

  1. ignore
  2. ignoramus
  3. recognize
  4. incognito
  5. diagnose
  6. prognosis
  7. agnostic
  8. cognition
  9. cognoscenti
  10. cognizant
  1. to refuse to pay attention to ; disregard; ignore insulting remarks (侮辱的な意見を無視する)
  2. an ignorant person; incorrigible ignoramuses (懲りないほど無知な人々)
  3. to identify from having encountered them before; I recognized the name instantly. (名前の主が分かった)
  4. <L in+congnoscere=to recognize; one whose identify is disguised or concealed; 匿名、変名、お忍びの
  5. to distinguish or identify (a disease) by diagnosis
  6. the likely course of a medical condition; 予後、回復の見込み; It is very difficult to make an accurate prognosis.
  7. one who believes that there can be no proof of the existence of God bud does not deny the possibility that God exists.; 不可知論者
  8. the mental process or faculty of knowing, including awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgement; 認識、認識作用
  9. people who are especially well informed about a particular subject; 鑑定家、目利き、批評家
  10. having knowledge or awareness; He was cognizant of the difficulty. (その難しさを知っていた)

>Top Grand

  1. grand
  2. grandeur
  3. grandiose
  4. aggrandize
  5. grandiloquent
  1. large and impressive in size, scope, or extent
  2. the quality or condition of being grand; magnificence
  3. characterized by greatness of scope or intent; grand
  4. to increase the scope of; extend; to make greater in power
  5. pompous or extravagant in language, style, or manner; 仰々しい

>Top Greg

  1. congregation
  2. segregation
  3. aggregation
  4. gregarious
  5. egregious
  1. the act of assembling; 集会、信徒協会
  2. the act or process of segregating or the condition of being segregated
  3. a whole formed by combining several separate elements; 集団、集合
  4. seeking and enjoying the company of others; sociable; 社交的な; sociable and gregarious (社交的で付き合い好き)
  5. conspicuously bad or offensive; 悪名高い; an egregious liar (大嘘つき)

>Top Gress/Grad
to step

  1. progress
  2. graduate
  3. aggressive
  4. regress
  5. degrade
  6. retrograde
  7. transgress
  8. digress
  9. egress
  1. movement, as toward a goal; advance
  2. to change gradually or by degrees
  3. inclined to behave in a hostile fashion
  4. to go back, move backward; 後退、後戻り、退行する; the child regresses to early infancy through the pleasure of thumb-sucking. (幼児期への退行)
  5. to reduce in grade, rank, or status; demote
  6. moving or tending backward; opposite to the usual order; inverted or reversed; 退行、反動、逆行する; a retrograde people (堕落しやすい人々)
  7. to go beyond or over; exceed or overstep; 超える、逸脱する; transgress the bounds of prudence (分別の域を超える)
  8. to turn aside, especially from the main subject in writing or speaking; swerve; 主題から外れる、脱線する; I will at this point digress briefly to that topic. (ここで脱線してその話題に触れる)
  9. the act of coming or going out; emergence; 囲いから出て行くこと; a way of egress from the building (建物からの出口)

>Top Grat

  1. grateful
  2. ingrate
  3. ingratiate
  4. gratuity
  5. gratuitous
  1. appreciative of benefits received; thankful
  2. <L. in+gratus=pleasing; an ungrateful person;
  3. to bring oneself into the favor or good graces of another; 取り入る、おもねる
  4. a favor or gift, usually in the form of money; 心付け、祝儀、tipの改まった表現
  5. given a granted without return or recompense; unearned; 無報酬の; gratuitous serve (無料奉仕)

>Top <H>:

to sitck


  1. coherent
  2. cohesive
  3. adhesive
  4. adherent
  5. inherent


  1. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically; (of waves) having a constant phase relationship
  2. a cohesive agent (粘着剤)
  3. tending to adhere sticky
  4. a supporter, as of a cause or an individual; follower; 追従者、支持者
  5. existing as an essential constituent or characteristic; intrinsic; 固有の、持ち前の; inherent rights (生得権)

>Top Hetero

  1. heterosexual
  2. heterogeneous
  3. heterodox
  1. sexually oriented to persons of the opposite sex
  2. consisting of dissimilar elements or parts; not homogeneous
  3. <G. hetero+doxa=opinion; not in agreement with accepted beliefs, especially in church doctrine or dogma; 非正統説の、異端の

>Top Hom

  1. homogeneous
  2. homonym
  3. anomaly
  4. homeostasis
  1. of the same or similar nature or kind
  2. one of two or more words that have the same sound but differ in meaning; 同音同綴異義語
  3. deviation or departure from the normal or common order, form or rule
  4. the ability or tendency of an organization or a cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.

>Top Hyper
over, excessive

  1. hyperactive
  2. hyperbole
  1. highly or excessively active; the child's hyperactive imagination (並外れて活発な想像力)
  2. <G. hyper+bollein=to throw=a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; 誇張法

>Top Hypo
under, beneath, less than

  1. hypodermic
  2. hypochondria
  3. hypothesis
  4. hypocrisy
  1. of a relating to the layer just beneath the epidermis; 皮下の; hypodermic injection (皮下注射)
  2. the persistent neurotic conviction that one is or is likely to become ill; 心気症、気病み
  3. a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation; a theory; 仮説; hypothesis testing (仮説検証)
  4. <G. hupokrisis=acting on the stage; the practice of professing beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not hold or possess; falseness; 偽善的行為、見せかけ

>Top <I>:

one's own


  1. idiot
  2. idiom
  3. idiosyncrasy


  1. <G. idios=own; a foolish or stupid person
  2. a speech from or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meaning of its elements; 慣用句、熟語
  3. <G. idio+sunkrasis=mixture; a structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or a group; eccentricity; 特異性、性癖、特異体質

>Top n/Im/En/Em
in, into

  1. embrace
  2. enclose
  3. ingratiate
  4. intrinsic
  5. influx
  6. incarnate
  7. implicit
  8. indigenous
  1. to clasp or hold close with the arms, usually as an expression of affection
  2. to surround on all sides; close in
  3. <L. in gratiam; to bring oneself into the favor or good graces of another; 取り入る、機嫌を取る、おもねる; He ingratiated himself with all the guests.
  4. of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent; 固有の
  5. <L. influere=to flow in; a flowing in; an influx of foreign capital
  6. <L. incarnare=to make flesh; invested with bodily nature and form; 肉体化された、化身した; a devil incarnate
  7. <L. implicare=to entangle; implied or understood though nor directly expressed;
  8. <L. indigena; a native; originating and growing or living in an area or environment; native

>Top In/Im
not, without

  1. inactive
  2. indifferent
  3. innocuous
  4. insipid
  5. indolence
  6. impartial
  7. inept
  8. indigent
  1. not active or tending to be active
  2. characterized by a lack of partiality; having no marked feeling for or against; be indifferent to dress
  3. having no adverse effect; harmless; 無害の; an innocuous insect
  4. lacking flavor or zest; not tasty; ぴりっとしない、風味がない; an insipid personality (面白みのない性格)
  5. avoidance of activity or exertion; laziness; My failure is probably due to my own indolence.
  6. not partial or biased; unprejudiced; fair; 公平な、えこひいきしない; an impartial judge
  7. not apt or fitting; inappropriate; 不向きの、不器用な; He is inept at mechanical tasks. (機械仕事に不向き)
  8. <L. in+egere=to need; experiencing want or need; impoverished; poor; 窮乏した、必要なものが不足している

>Top < J >:

to throw, to throw down

< J >:

  1. inject
  2. trajectory
  3. conjecture
  4. dejected
  5. abject

< J >:

  1. to force or drive a fluid into something; inject fuel into an engine cylinder
  2. <L. traiicere=to throw across; the path of a projectile or other moving body through space; 起動、弾道
  3. inference or judgement baed on inconclusive or incomplete evidence; guesswork; 推量・憶測; a matter of conjecture (推測の域をでない事柄)
  4. being in low spirits; depressed; 意気消沈した; ↔happy
  5. <L ab=from+iacere=to throw; brought low in condition or status; mean; 絶望的、屈辱的、飛散; abject poverty (赤貧)

to meet, to join

  1. junction
  2. joint
  3. adjoin
  4. subjugate
  5. juxtapose
  6. injunction
  7. rejoinder
  8. conjugal
  1. the act or process of joining or the condition of being joined; 連結・結合
  2. a place or part at which two or more things are joined; 継ぎ目・接合点・関節
  3. to be next to; be contiguous to; 隣接する、孵化する; adjoin two families by marriage
  4. <L. sub+jugum=yoke; to bring under control; conquer; defeat; 征服・隷属・服従させる
  5. to place side by side, especially for comprison or contrast; 並列・併置する
  6. an answer, especially to a reply; 返答・応答; a remark in rejoinder to your reply

>Top <K>:



>Top <L>:

to select, to choose


  1. collect
  2. elect
  3. select
  4. elective
  5. predilection
  6. eclectic


  1. to bring together in a group or mass; gather
  2. to select by vote for an office or for membership
  3. to take as a choice from among several; pick out
  4. of or relating to a selection by vote
  5. <L. pre+diligere=to love; a partiality or disposition in favor of something; a preference; 偏愛・えこひいき; He had a predilection for opera.
  6. <G. eklektos=to select; selecting or employing individual elements from a variety of sources, systems; 種々の材料から取捨選択する; an eclectic reader (作品を吟味する読者)

lift, light, rise

  1. elevator
  2. relieve
  3. lever
  4. alleviate
  5. levitate
  6. relevant
  7. levee
  8. levity
  1. a platform or an enclosure raised and lowered in a vertical shaft to transport people or freight
  2. <L. re+levare=to raise; to cause a lessening or alleviation of; 軽減・緩和する
  3. a simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted on a fixed point and used to transmit force, as in raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down on the other.
  4. to make (pain) more bearable: a drug that alleviates cold symptoms
  5. to rise or cause to rise into the air and float in apparent defiance of gravity; 空中浮揚する
  6. having a bearing on or connection with the matter at hand
  7. an embarkment raised to prevent a river from; overflowing; 堤防・土手
  8. lightness of manner or speech, especially when inappropriate; frivolity; 軽薄・軽率


  1. illustrate
  2. illuminate
  3. luminous
  4. luminescent
  5. illustrious
  6. lackluster
  7. translucent
  8. lucid
  9. elucidate
  1. <L. in+lustrare=to make bright; to clarify, as by use of examples or comparisons; 図解・例示する
  2. to provide or brighten with light
  3. emitting light, especially emitting self-generated light
  4. capable of, suitable for, or exhibiting luminescence
  5. <L. illustrare=to give glory to; well known and very distinguished eminent; 傑出・著名な; an illustrious leader (傑出した指導者)
  6. lacking brightness, luster, or vitality; a lackluster stare (生気のない眼差し)
  7. transmitting light but causing sufficient diffusion to prevent perception of distinct images; 半透明の、曇った
  8. easily understood; intelligible; 明快・明晰な; a lucid explanation
  9. to make clear or plain, especially by explanation; clarify; 明瞭・鮮明にする; elucidate the nature of the universe (宇宙の本質を解明する)

work, speech

  1. dialogue
  2. eloquent
  3. interlocutor
  4. prologue
  5. epilogue
  6. soliloquy
  7. eulogy
  8. colloquial
  9. grandiloquent
  10. philology
  11. neologism
  12. tautology
  13. loquacious
  1. a conversation between two or more people
  2. <L. eloqui=to speak out; characterized by persuasive, powerful discourse; an eloquent speaker
  3. <L. inter+loqui=to speak; someone who takes part in a conversation, often formally or officially; 対話・対談者、代弁者
  4. <G. pro=before+logos=speech; an introduction or a preface, especially a poem recited to introduce a play
  5. a short poem or speech spoken directly to the audience following the conclusion of a play
  6. a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character reveals his or her thoughts when alone or unaware of the presence of other characters; 劇の独白
  7. a laudatory speech or written tribute, especially one praising someone who has died; 頌徳・追悼演説
  8. characteristic of or appropriate to the spoken language or to writing that seeks the effect of speech; informal; 口語的、くだけた
  9. pompous or extravagant in language, style, or manner; the grandiloquent acceptance speech (仰々しい受諾演説)
  10. literary study or classical scholarship; 言語学(linguistics)
  11. a newly coined word, expression, or usage; 新語・新表現
  12. needless repetition of the same sense in different words; redundancy; 類語反復; widow woman; 同語反復文; This candidate will win or not win.
  13. very talkative; garrulous; 多弁・饒舌の; a loquacious dinner guest (おしゃべりな晩餐会の客)
  • Lud/Lus
    to play
  • >Top
  1. illusion
  2. ludicrous
  3. delude
  4. elude
  5. elusive
  6. allude
  7. collusion
  1. an erroneous perception of reality
  2. laughable or hilarious because of obvious absurdity or incongruity
  3. <L. de+ludere=to play; to deceive the mind or judgement of; 惑わす、だます; He was deluded by her pretty face.
  4. <L. e, ex+ludere=to play; to evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skill; 危険・義務を避ける、免れる; elude the law
  5. tending to elude capture, perception, comprehension, or memory; 捉え所のない、表現しにくい; an elusive concept (分かりにくい概念)
  6. to make an indirect reference; 言及する、ほのめかす; The letter alludes to something now forgotten. (手紙は今では忘れたことに言及している)
  • lut/lug/luv
    to wash
  • >Top
  1. lavatory
  2. dilute
  3. pollute
  4. deluge
  5. antediluvian
  1. <L. lavare=to wash; a room equipped with washing and often toilet facilities; a bathroom
  2. <L. dis+luere=to wash; to make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
  3. to make unfit for or harmful to living things, especially by addition of waste matter; contaminate; 汚染する
  4. a great flood; a heavy downpour; 大洪水・豪雨; After us the deluge. (後は野となれ山となれ)
  5. <L ante+diluvium=flood; belonging to the time before the biblical Flood; gigantic bones of antediluvian animals

>Top <M>:



  1. magnify
  2. magnitude
  3. major
  4. maximum
  5. majestic
  6. magnanimous
  7. magnate
  8. maxim
  9. magniloquent


  1. to make greater in size; enlarge
  2. greatness of rank or position;
  3. greater than others in importance or rank
  4. the greatest possible quantity or degree
  5. having or showing lofty dignity or nobility; stately; 威厳、堂々とした
  6. <L. meg+animus=soul; generous or forgiving, especially towards a rival or less powerful person; She should be magnanimous in victory.
  7. a powerful or influential person, especially in business or industry; 有力者・実力者; a railroad magnate (鉄道王)
  8. a short, pithy statement expressing a general truth or rule of conduct; 格言・金言・処世訓; the maxim that actions speak louder than words.
  9. lofty and extravagant in speech; grandiloquent

bad, ill, evil, wrong

  1. malfunction
  2. malodorous
  3. malicious
  4. malcontent
  5. malign
  6. malaise
  7. dismal
  8. malapropism
  9. maladroit
  10. malevolent
  11. malinger
  12. malfeasance
  13. malefactor
  14. malediction
  1. to fail to function; 機能不全・誤動作
  2. having a bad odor; foul;
  3. having the nature of or resulting from malice; deliberately harmful; 悪意・敵意のある; with malicious intent (悪意を抱いて)
  4. dissatisfied with existing conditions; 現体制に批判的・造反的な; political malcontents (政治的不平分子)
  5. to make evil, harmful, and often untrue statement about; 中傷する・有害な; His face maligns him (顔つきで損をしている)
  6. a vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness; 病気の前兆である不快・倦怠感; a society afflicted by a deep cultural malaise.
  7. causing gloom or depression; dreary; 陰鬱・憂鬱・荒涼とした; the dismal weather made the late afternoon seem like evening.
  8. the mistaken use of a word in place of a similar-sounding one, often with an amusing effect (e.g.: dance a flamingo instead of flamenco); 音が類似した語のこっけいな誤用
  9. <F. mal+a+droit=direct; inefficient or inept; clumsy; 不器用・要領の悪い
  10. <L. male=ill+volent=wishing; having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious; 悪意・意地の悪い; His failures made him malevolent toward those who were successful.
  11. <F. malingre=sickly; to pretend to be ill in order to escape duty or work; 仮病を使う
  12. <L. mal+facere=to do; misconduct or wrongdoing, especially by a public official; (特に公務員の)不正・背任行為
  13. one that has committed a crime; a criminal
  14. <L. male+dicere=to speak=the calling down of a curse; 呪い・中傷


  1. manual
  2. manufacture
  3. emancipate
  4. manifest
  5. mandate
  1. of or relating to the hands; manual skill
  2. to make pro process a raw material into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation
  3. <L. ex+mancipium=ownership; to free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate
  4. to show or demonstrate plainly; reveal
  5. <l. mandare=to order; an authoritative command or instruction

woman, mother

  1. matrimony
  2. maternal
  3. maternity
  4. matriculate
  5. matriarch
  1. <L. mater, matr=mother; the act or state of being married
  2. relating to or characteristic of a mother or motherhood or motherly
  3. the state of being a mother; a maternity ward (分娩室)
  4. <L. matricula=list<matrix; to admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college; 入学を許す
  5. a woman who rules a family, clan, or tribe; 家母長、母家長

to project, to hang over

  1. eminent
  2. imminent
  3. prominent
  4. preeminent
  1. <L. eminere=to stand out; towering or standing out above others; prominent; 著名な、顕職の; eminent statesmen (有名な政治家たち)
  2. <L. in+minere=to threaten; about to occur; impending; 差し迫った、一色創発の; Her death is imminent. (今にも死にそう)
  3. <L. prominere=jutting out; projecting outward; noticeable; a man with big, prominent eyes like a lobster's.
  4. <L. pre+eminere=to stand out; superior to or notable above all others; outstanding;

to warn

  1. monument
  2. monitor
  3. summons
  4. admonish
  5. remonstrate
  1. a structure, such as a building or sculpture, erected as a memorial
  2. a device used for observing, checking, or keeping a continuous record of something; a heart monitor
  3. a call by an authority to appear
  4. to advise or urge someone earnestly; She admonished him to drink no more than one glass of wine.
  5. <L. re+monstrare=to show; to say or plead in protest, objection , or reproof; 抗議する、諫める; remonstrate that he is too selfish. (利己的過ぎると抗議)


  1. immortal
  2. morgue
  3. morbid
  4. moribund
  5. mortify
  1. not subject to death; immortal deities
  2. <F. a building in Paris when bodies were kept until identified; mortuary; 死体公示所
  3. of, relating to, or caused by disease; pathological or diseased; 精神病的な、過敏な; a morbid interest in death (死に対する病的な興味)
  4. <L. mori=to die; approaching death; about to die; 瀕死の、絶滅寸前の; The patient was in a moribund state. (病人は瀕死の状態)
  5. <L. mortificare=to kill; to cause to experience shame, humiliation, or wounded pride; 屈辱を感じさせる、克服する; modify the flesh by fasting (断食苦行)


  1. amorphous
  2. metamorphosis
  3. polymorphous
  4. anthropomorphic
  1. lacking definite from; shapeless; 無定型の、散漫な; the amorphous clouds
  2. a marked change in appearance, character, condition, or function; 変態、著しい変化; Frankfurt is going through a metamorphosis. (変貌しつつある)
  3. the occurrence of something in server different forms; 多形性の、多形の
  4. relating to or characterized by anthropomorphism (擬人化)


  1. commuter
  2. mutation
  3. mutant
  4. immutable
  5. transmutation
  6. permutation
  1. one that travels regularly from one place to another, as from suburb to city and back
  2. <L. mutare=to change; the act or process of being altered or changed;
  3. an individual, an organism, or a new genetic character arising or resulting from mutation; 突然変異による;
  4. not subject or susceptible to change; 不変の; immutable laws
  5. the act or an instance of transmuting; 変形・変性・変化; transmutation of fortune (栄枯盛衰)
  6. a complete change; a transformation; 変更・変形;置換・順列 (an ordered arrangement of the elements of a set)

>Top <N>:

to be born


  1. natural
  2. native
  3. naive
  4. cognate
  5. nascent
  6. innate
  7. renaissance


  1. present in or produced by nature; 自然に存在する; ↔artificial
  2. existing in or belonging to one by nature; innate; 生まれた、生得の
  3. lacking wordiness and sophistication; artless; 無邪気・天真爛漫な
  4. related by blood, having a common ancestor; 同血族、同語属、同質の
  5. coming into existence; emerging; 発生期の、初期の
  6. possessed at birth; inborn; 生来・生得の; one's innate musical talent (生来の音楽の才能)
  7. the humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in 14C and later spread throughout Europe

rule, order

  1. astronomy
  2. economy
  3. autonomy
  1. the scientific study which deals with celestial objects, space and physical universe as a whole
  2. the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money
  3. the right or condition of self-government


  1. synonym
  2. anonymous
  3. nominate
  4. pseudonym
  5. misnomer
  6. nomenclature
  7. acronym
  8. homonym
  9. nominal
  10. ignominy
  1. a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word in a language
  2. having an unknown or unacknowledged name
  3. to propose by name as a candidate, especially for election
  4. <G. pseudo+onuma=name; a factious name assumed by an author, a pen name
  5. an error in naming a person or place; 誤称・人名誤記
  6. a system of names used in an art or a science; the nomenclature of mineralogy
  7. a word formed from the initial letter of a name
  8. one of two or more words that have the same sound and often the same spelling ut differ in meaning
  9. of, resembling relating to, or consisting of a name or names
  10. <L. in+nomen=name; great personal dishonor or humiliation; disgrace

harm, death

  1. innocent
  2. noxious
  3. obnoxious
  4. pernicious
  5. internecine
  6. innocuous
  7. necromancy
  1. uncorrupted by evil, malice, or wrongdoing; sinless; not guilty of a specific crime or offense
  2. <L. noxa=damage; harmful to living things injurious to health; noxious nuclear wastes
  3. very objectionable; odious; hateful; 不快・嫌悪; obnoxious behavior
  4. tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly; a pernicious virus
  5. <L. inter+nex=death; of or relating to struggle within a nation, an organization, or a group; 内輪げんか、共倒れ、相互破壊的; an internecine feud among proxy holders (代理権所有者同士の内輪もめ)
  6. <L. in+nocere=to harm; having no adverse effect; harmless; 無害・無毒の; innocuous phrases (不快の念を与えない言い回し)
  7. <G. nek+manteia=divination; the supposed practice of communication with the dead; black magic; 降霊術, 魔術


  1. novice
  2. novel
  3. novelty
  4. renovate
  5. innovate
  6. neologism
  7. neophyte
  1. a person new to a field or activity; a beginner; 新参者、初学者;新改宗者
  2. a fictional prose narrative of considerable length
  3. the quality of being novel; newness
  4. to restore to an earlier condition, as by repairing or remodeling
  5. to begin or introduce something new for or as if for the first time
  6. a newly coined word, expression, or usage; 新造語、新表現;新教説
  7. <G. neo+phutos=planted; a recent convert to a belief; a proselyte; 初学者、新参者;新改宗者

>Top <O>:

forward, to , against, completely, over


  1. obese
  2. object
  3. obstruct
  4. obstinate
  5. obscure
  6. obtrude
  7. oblique
  8. oblivious
  9. obnoxious
  10. obstreperous
  11. abuse
  12. opprobrium
  13. obsequious
  14. obfuscate


  1. <L ob=away+edere=to eat; extremely fat; grossly overweight;
  2. <L. ob=before+jacere=to throw; something perceptible by one or more of the senses, especially by vision or touch; a material thing; 五感で知覚し得る物体
  3. <L. ob+stuere=to pile up; to block or fill with obstacles; ふさぐ; Debris obstructed the road. (残骸が道をふさぐ)
  4. stubbornly adhering to an attitude, an opinion; difficult to manage, control
  5. <L. ob+scrus=covered; deficient in light; dark; 不明瞭な; an obscure meaning
  6. <L. ob+trudere=to thrust; to impose oneself on others with undue insistence or without invitation; 無理強いする、押しつける; obtrude one's opinions upon others. (自説を他人に押しつける)
  7. having a slanting or sloping direction, course, or position; inclined; 斜めの、斜角の、45度角の斜行進
  8. <L. oblivisci=forget; lacking all memory; forgetful; lacking conscious awareness; 眼中にない、記憶にない; They are oblivious of my former failure. (以前の失敗を覚えていない)
  9. <L. ob+noxa=injury; very objectionable; odious; hateful; 嫌悪・醜悪、鼻持ちならない; He is known to be obnoxious.
  10. noisy and stubbornly defiant; obstreperous children
  11. to use wrongly or improperly; misuse; 濫用・逆用する; abuse one's authority
  12. disgrace arising from exceedingly shameful conduct; ignominy; disgrace; 不名誉・恥辱・名折れ
  13. <L. ob+sequi=to follow; full of or exhibiting servile compliance; fawning; こびへつらい、追従的; a man obsequious to his superiors (上司におもねる卑屈な男)
  14. <L. ob+fuscare=to darken; to make so confused or opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand; 暗くする、不明瞭にする、分かりにくくする


  1. omnipresent
  2. omniscient
  3. omnipotent
  1. present everywhere simultaneously; widely or constantly encountered; the omnipresent threat of natural disasters
  2. having total knowledge; knowing everything; an omniscient deity
  3. having unlimited or universal power, authority, or force; 全能の; the Omnipotent Deity (全能の神)

>Top <P>:



  1. peace
  2. appease
  3. pacify
  4. pacifist
  5. pacifier
  6. pact


  1. the absence of war or other hostilities
  2. <L. ad+pais=peace; to bring peace, quiet, or calm to; to pacify; soothe; 慰める、鎮める
  3. to ease the anger or agitation of
  4. a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable
  5. a rubber or plastic nipple or teething ring for a baby to suck or chew on; なだめる人・物、おしゃぶり
  6. <L. pacisci=to agree; a formal agreement, such as one between nations; a treaty


  1. panorama
  2. panacea
  3. panegyric
  4. pantheon
  5. panoply
  6. pandemic
  7. panopticon
  1. an unbroken view of an entire surrounding area
  2. <G. panakes=all-healing<pan+akos=remedy; a remedy of all diseases, evils, or difficulties; a cure-all; 医神、Aesculapiusの娘・古代ギリシアの治療の女神
  3. <G. pan+egyris=assembly; a formal eulogistic composition intended as a public compliment; 賛辞・頌徳
  4. <G. pan+theos=god; a circular temple in Rome completed in 27BC.; 万神殿
  5. <G. pan+hopla=armor; a splendid or striking array; 壮観・壮麗
  6. <G. pan+demos=people; widespread; general; pandemic influenza
  7. <G. pan+optikos=optic; a circular prison with cells arranged around a center well, fro which prisoners could at all times be observed; 一望監視施設


  1. par
  2. parity
  3. apartheid
  4. disparity
  5. disparate
  6. disparage
  1. an amount or a level considered to be average; a standard
  2. equality, as in amount, status, or value
  3. an official policy of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa
  4. the condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference; 不等・不同・相違・格差; disparities between men and women
  5. <L. dis+parare=to prepare; fundamentally distinct or different in kind; entirely dissimilar; 異種の、本質的に異なる、比較不可能なもの; They inhabit disparate worlds of thought.
  6. <F. desparagier=marry someone of unequal rank; to speak of in a slighting way; belittle; decry; 軽んじる、見くびる

next to, beside

  1. parallel
  2. paraphrase
  3. parasite
  4. paradox
  5. parody
  6. paragon
  7. parable
  8. paradigm
  1. being an equal distance apart everywhere; of two or more straight coplanar lines that do not intersect.
  2. <G. para=alongside+phrazein=to show; a restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning; 言い換え
  3. <G. para=beside+sitos=grain; an organism which lives in or on another organism and benefits by deriving nutrients a the others's expense; 寄生者
  4. <G. para=beyond+doxa=opinion; a seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true; 逆説; The paradox that standing is more tiring than walking.
  5. <G. para+oide=song; a literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule; caricature; 風刺・もじり詩文;替え歌
  6. <F. para=alongside+akone=whetstone; a model of excellence or perfection of a king; 模範・典型・手本; a paragon of beauty
  7. <G. para=beside+ballein=to throw; a simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson; 寓話、比喩
  8. <G. para=alongside+deiknunai=to show; an example that serves as pattern or model; 理論的枠組み、規範;語形変化表

feeling, suffering, disease

  1. apathy
  2. sympathy
  3. empathy
  4. antipathy
  5. passionate
  6. compassion
  7. compatible
  8. dispassionate
  9. impassive
  10. pathos
  11. pathology
  12. sociopath
  1. <G. a=without+pathos~feeling; lack of interest or concern; regarding matters of general importance or appeal; indifference; 無感動・無感情
  2. a relationship or an affinity between people or things
  3. <D. Einfühlung; identification with and understanding of another's situation, feeling; pity; 感情移入・共感・代体験
  4. a strong feeling of aversion or repugnance; enmity; 反感・嫌悪・毛嫌い; a mutual antipathy (互いの反感)
  5. capable of, having, or dominated by powerful emotion; passionate attachment (強い愛着)
  6. deep awareness of the suffering of another coupled with the wish to relieve it; sympathy; 思いやり、深い同情
  7. capable of existing or performing in harmonious, agreeable, or congenial combination with another or others; 気が合う、睦まじい
  8. devoid of or unaffected by passion, emotion, or bias; 先入観のない、冷静・公平な; a dispassionate critic (公平な批評家)
  9. devoid of or not subject to emotion; 無感動・無感情の
  10. <G. pathos=emotion, suffering; a quality, as of an experience or a work of art, that arouses feelings of pity, sympathy,, tenderness, or sorrow.
  11. <G. pathologia=study of disease; the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences; 病理学
  12. one who is affected with a personality disorder marked by aggressive, antisocial behavior; 社会病質人格

father, support

  1. patron
  2. patronize
  3. paternal
  4. paternalism
  5. expatriate
  6. patrimony
  7. patriarch
  8. patrician
  1. one that supports, protects, or champions someone or something, such as an institution, an event, or a cause; a sponsor or benefactor; 顧客・常連・ひいき; the patrons of a pub (パブの常連)
  2. to act as a patron to; support or sponsor
  3. relating to or characteristic of a father or fatherhood
  4. a policy or practice of treating or governing people in a fatherly manner; 父子。家族主義、温情主義; The employes objected to the paternalism of the old president. (老社長の家族主義経営に反対)
  5. to send into exile; to remove from residence in one's native land; 故国を去る、移住する
  6. an inheritance from a father or other ancestor; 世襲財産、親譲りの性質
  7. a man who rules a family, clan, or tribe; 家父長、族長
  8. a person of refined upbringing, manners, and tastes; 高位・貴族・名門の士

few, little, poor

  1. poor
  2. poverty
  3. paucity
  4. pauper
  5. impoverish
  6. puerile
  7. pusillanimous
  1. having little or no wealth and few or no possessions.
  2. the state of being poor, lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts.
  3. smallness of number; fewness; a country with a paucity of resources (資源小国)
  4. <L. in forma pauperis; one who is extremely poor; 貧窮者; He died a pauper.
  5. to reduce to poverty; make poor; 貧乏・疲弊させる; c country impoverished by war (戦争で疲弊した国)
  6. <L. puer=child; belonging to childhood; juvenile; childishly silly and immature; a puerile argument
  7. <L. pusillus=weak; lacking courage, cowardly; 臆病・小心・意気地のない


  1. pedal
  2. pedestal
  3. pedestrian
  4. podiatrist
  5. expedite
  6. expedient
  7. impede
  8. impediment
  9. impedance
  1. a foot-operated lever used for actuating or controlling a mechanism
  2. an architectural support or base, as for a column or statue; 台座、柱脚
  3. a person traveling on foot; a walker
  4. chiropodist (足専門医)
  5. <L. exped; to free from entanglements, make ready; to speed up the progress of; facilitate; 促進する、早める; expedite a plan
  6. <L. expedire=to make ready; appropriate to a purpose; 役立つ、適切な、当を得た; What is expedient is not always right. (好都合必ずしも正しからず)
  7. <L. Im+ped=foot <shackle the feet of; to retard or obstruct the progress of ; hinder
  8. something that impedes; a hindrance or an obstruction;
  9. the effective resistance of an electric circuit or component to alternating current; 妨害・障害・支障; an impediment to progress
  • Pend/Pens
    to hang, to weigh, to pay
  • >Top
  1. depend
  2. dispense
  3. expend
  4. stipend
  5. spend
  6. expenditure
  7. suspense
  8. compensate
  9. propensity
  10. pensive
  11. indispensable
  12. impend
  13. pendulum
  14. appendix
  15. append
  16. appendage
  17. ponderous
  18. pendant
  1. to rely, especially for support or maintenance
  2. to deal out in parts or portions; distribute; 分配する; dispene alms to the poor (貧者に施し)
  3. to lay out; spend; She expended energy, time and care on her work.
  4. <L. stip=a small payment+pendera=to weigh; a fixed and regular paymnet, such as a salary ofr serviced rendered or an allowance
  5. to use up or put out expend
  6. the act or process of expending; outlay
  7. the condition of being physically suspended; the state or quality of being undecide, uncertain, or doubtful
  8. to offset; counterbalance in recognition of loss,
  9. <L. propendere=to be inclined; an innate inclination; a tendency; 傾向・性向; a propensity for getting into accidents (事故を起こしやすい癖)
  10. deeply, oftern wistfully or dreamly thoughtful; 思案・物思いに沈んだ; a pensive soul (憂いに沈んだ心)
  11. not be dispensed with; essential; unavoidable; things indispensable to life
  12. <L. in=over+pendere=to hang; to be about to take place; 切迫している; an impednig storm (差し迫った嵐)
  13. a body suspended from a fixed support so that it swings freely back and forth under the influence of gravity; 振り子
  14. a collection of supplementary material, at the en of a book; 補遺・付録
  15. to add as a supplement or an appendix
  16. something added or attached to an entity of greater importance or size; an adjunct; 添加・付加物・従属物
  17. having great weight; lackign grace or fluency; 大きくて重たい、荷厄介な; speak in a ponderous manner (だらだらと話す)
  18. something suspended from something else, especially an ornament or a piece of jewelry attached to a neclace or bracelet

to pay, to compensate

  1. penal
  2. penalty
  3. punitive
  4. repent
  5. penance
  6. penitent
  7. penitentiary
  8. repine
  9. impunity

completely, wrong

  1. persistent
  2. perforate
  3. perplex
  4. perspire
  5. peruse
  6. pervade
  7. perjury
  8. perturb
  9. perfunctory
  10. perspicacious
  11. permeate
  12. pernicious
  13. perennial
  14. peremptory
  15. pertinacious


  1. perimeter
  2. periscope
  3. peripheral
  4. peripatetic

to go, to seek, to strive

  1. appetite
  2. compete
  3. petitio
  4. perpetual
  5. impetuous
  6. petulant
  7. propitious


  1. perimeter
  2. periscope
  3. peripheral
  4. peripatetic

to go, to seek, to strive

  1. appetite
  2. compete
  3. petitio
  4. perpetual
  5. impetuous
  6. petulant
  7. propitious


  1. philosophy
  2. philanthropy
  3. philatelist
  4. philology
  5. bibliophile


  1. telephone
  2. symphony
  3. megaphone
  4. euphony
  5. cacophony
  • Plac
    to please
  • >Top
  1. placid
  2. placebo
  3. placate
  4. implacable
  5. complacent
  6. complaisant
  1. complete
  2. deplete
  3. complement
  4. implement
  5. plethora
  6. replete

to fold, to twist, to tangle, to bend

  1. complex
  2. complexion
  3. complicate
  4. duplex
  5. replica
  6. ply
  7. comply
  8. implicit
  9. implicat4e
  10. explicit
  11. duplicity
  12. complicity
  13. supplicate

>Top Pon/Pos/Pound
to put, to place

  1. component
  2. compound
  3. deposit
  4. dispose
  5. expose
  6. exposition
  7. expound
  8. juxtapose
  9. depose
  10. proponent
  11. repository
  12. transpose
  13. superimpose

>Top Port
to carry

  1. import
  2. portable
  3. porter
  4. portfolio
  5. deport
  6. deportment
  7. export
  8. portmanteau
  9. portly purport
  10. disport
  11. importune

>Top Prehend/Prise
to take, to get, to seize

  1. surprise
  2. comprehend
  3. enterprise
  4. impregnable
  5. reprehensible
  6. apprehension
  7. comprise
  8. apprise
  9. apprehend
  10. comprehensive

>Top Pro
much, for, a lot

  1. prolific
  2. profuse
  3. propitious
  4. prodigious
  5. profligate
  6. prodigal
  7. protracted
  8. proclivity
  9. proliferate
  10. propensity
  11. prodigy
  12. proselytize
  13. propound
  14. provident
  15. prolix

>Top Prob
to prove, to test

  1. probe
  2. probation
  3. approbation
  4. probity
  5. opprobrium
  6. reprobate

>Top Punc/Pung/
to point, to pric

  1. point
  2. puncture
  3. punctual
  4. punctuate
  5. pungent
  6. poignant
  7. compunction
  8. expunge
  9. punctilious

>Top <Q>:

to seek


  1. acquire
  2. acquisition
  3. exquisite
  4. acquisitive
  5. request
  6. conquest
  7. inquire
  8. inquisitive
  9. inquest
  10. query
  11. querulous
  12. perquisite


>Top Qui

  1. quiet
  2. disquiet
  3. tranquil
  4. acquiesce
  5. quiescent

>Top <R>:

to laugh


  1. ridicule
  2. derision
  3. risible


>Top <S>:

to leap, to jump


  1. insult
  2. assault
  3. somersault
  4. insult
  5. salient
  6. resilient
  7. insolent
  8. desultory
  9. exult


  1. to treat with gross insensitivity, insolence, or contemptuous rudeness; offend; 侮辱する、無礼を働く; insult a stature by spitting on it.
  2. make a physical attack on; 襲撃、急襲
  3. <L. salire=to leap; an acrobatic stunt in which the body rolls in a complete circle, heels over head; とんぼ返り、宙返り; a double somersault (連続二回宙返り)
  4. to treat with gross insensitivity, insolence, or contemptuous rudeness; offend; 侮辱・愚弄する
  5. projecting or jutting beyond a line or surface; protruding; 顕著な、部脱;突き出た; a salient angle (凸角)
  6. marked by the ability to recover readily, as from misfortune; 弾む、弾性体の、すぐ元気になる; He is of a resilient temper (立ち直りが早い性質)
  7. <L. in=not+solere=to be accustomed; presumptuous and insulting in manner or speech; arrogant; 横柄・傲慢・無礼な; an insolent reply (無礼な返事)
  8. moving or jumping from one thing to another; 気まぐれな、漫然とした; desultory conversation (取り留めのない会話)
  9. to rejoice greatly; be jubilant or triumphant; 歓喜・狂喜する: They exulted over their victory. (勝利に狂喜した)

>Top Sanct/Sacr

  1. sacred
  2. sacrifice
  3. sanctuary
  4. sanctify
  5. execrable
  6. sacrament
  7. sacrilege
  1. dedicated to or set apart for the worship of a deity
  2. the act of offering something to a deity in propitiation or homage, especially the ritul slaughter of an animal or a person; 生け贄、犠牲; make the supreme sacrifice (一身を犠牲にする)
  3. a sacred place, such as a church, temple, or mosque
  4. to set apart for sacred use; consecrate; purify; 神聖・浄化する; God blessed the seventh day, and sactified it. (第七の日を祝福し、聖別された)
  5. deserving of execration; hateful; 嫌悪すべき、忌まわしい、呪うべき; excrable crimes (憎むべき犯罪)
  6. <L. sacrare=to consecrate; a visible form of invisibel grac; 恩寵; 洗礼(baptism)&聖餐(the Lord's Supper)
  7. <L. sacer=sacred+legere=to gather; desecration, profanation, misuse, or theft of something sacred; 涜聖、神聖なものを汚す; a sacrilege to the dead (死者への冒涜)

>Top Sci
to know

  1. science
  2. conscious
  3. conscience
  4. unconscionable
  5. omniscient
  6. prescience
  1. <L. scire=to know; the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment
  2. having an awareness of one's environment and one's own existence, sensations, and thoughts; aware
  3. the awareness of a moral or ethical aspect to one's conduct together with the urge to prefer right over wrong; 良心、道義心、分別; follow the dictates of conscience (良心の命ずるままに)
  4. not restrained by conscience
  5. having total knowledge, knowing everything
  6. knowledge of actions or events before they occur; foresight; 予知、先見

>Top Sol
to loosen, to free

  1. dissolve
  2. soluble
  3. solve
  4. resolution
  5. irresolute
  6. solvent
  7. dissolution
  8. absolution
  1. to cause to pass into solution; dissolve salt in water
  2. that can be dissolved, especially easily dissolved
  3. to find a solution to
  4. the state or quality of being resolute; firm determination
  5. unsure of how to act or proceed; undecided; 優柔不断の
  6. capable of meeting financial obligations; capable of dissolving another substance
  7. decomposition into fragment or parts; disintegration
  8. the formal remission of sin imparted by a priest; 免除、赦免、罪の許し

>Top Sta
to stand, to be in a place

  1. static
  2. stationary
  3. destitute
  4. obstinate
  5. obstacle
  6. stalwart
  7. stagnant
  8. steadfasts
  9. constitute
  10. constant
  11. stasis
  12. homeostasis
  13. apostasy

>Top Sua

  1. suave
  2. assuage
  3. persuade
  4. dissuade


  1. select
  2. separate
  3. seduce
  4. seclude
  5. segregate
  6. secede
  7. sequester
  8. section

>Top Scribe/Scrip
to write

  1. scribble
  2. describe
  3. script
  4. postscript
  5. prescribe
  6. proscribe
  7. ascribe
  8. inscribe
  9. conscription
  10. scripture
  11. transcript
  12. circumscribe
  13. manuscript
  14. scribe
  15. scripture

>Top Sec/Sequ
to follow

  1. second
  2. prosecute
  3. sequel
  4. sequence
  5. consequence
  6. inconsequential
  7. obsequious
  8. non sequitur

to feel, to be aware

  1. sense
  2. sensual
  3. sensory
  4. sentiment
  5. resent
  6. consent
  7. dissent
  8. assent
  9. consensus
  10. sentinel
  11. insensate
  12. dissent
  13. sentient

>Top Sed /Sess
to sit, to be still, to plan, to plot

  1. preside
  2. resident
  3. sediment
  4. session
  5. dissident
  6. obsession
  7. residue
  8. sedate
  9. subside
  10. subsidy
  11. subsidiary
  12. sedentary
  13. dissident
  14. insidious
  15. assiduous
  16. sedulous
  1. to hold the positon of authority; 議長を務める、主宰する; preside at a meeting (会の議長を務める)
  2. a physician serving a period of residency; 居住者、在留人;Japanese residentrs in English (在英日本人)
  3. <L. sedere=to sit; material that settles to the bottom of a liquid; lees; deposit
  4. a meeting of a legislative or judicial body for the purpose of transaction business; 開廷・開会していること; a morning session (株式取引所の前場)
  5. <L. dis=apart+sedere=to sit; disagreeing, as in opinion or belief; 反対、反体制の人
  6. compulsive preoccupation with a fixed idea or an unwanted feeling or emotion, oten accompanied by symptoms of anxiety; 強迫観念、妄想; Money is his obsession. (金のことが頭から離れない)
  7. <L. residere=to remain behind; the remainder of something after removal of parts or a part; remainder; 残余、残留物; for the residue (その他について言えば)
  8. <L. sedare=to settle; serenely deliberate, composed, and dignified in character or manner; 穏やかな、落ち着いた、地味な; a sedate costume
  9. to sink to a lower or normal level

>Top Spec/Spic
to look, to see

  1. perspective
  2. aspect
  3. spectator
  4. specter
  5. spectacles
  6. speculation
  7. suspicious
  8. auspicious
  9. spectrum
  10. specimen
  11. interception
  12. retrospective
  13. perspective
  14. perspicacious
  15. circumspect
  16. conspicuous
  17. respite
  18. specious

>Top Sub/Sup

  1. submissive
  2. subsidiary
  3. subjugate
  4. subliminal
  5. subdue
  6. sublime
  7. subtle
  8. subversive
  9. subterfuge
  10. subordinate
  11. suppress
  12. supposition

>Top Super/Sur

  1. surpass
  2. supercilious
  3. superstition
  4. superfluous
  5. superlative
  6. supersede
  7. superficial
  8. surmount
  9. surveillance
  10. survey

>Top <T>:

to hold


  1. contain
  2. detain
  3. pertain
  4. pertinacious
  5. tenacious
  6. abstention
  7. sustain
  8. tenure
  9. pertinent
  10. tenant
  11. tenable
  12. tenet
  13. sustenance


  1. <L. com+tenere=to hold; to have within; hold; to be exactly divisible by; 含有・包含する;数が割りきれる; Ten contains five.
  2. <L. d+tenere=to hold; to keep from proceeding; delay or retard; delay; 引き留める、留置する; detain a suspect for further examination. (さらに尋問するために留置する)
  3. to have reference; relate; 関係がある、付随する; The destruction pertaining to the war
  4. holding tenaciously to a purpose, belief, opinion, or course of action; obstinate; 固守する、粘り強い、頑固な; a pertinacious salesman
  5. holding or tending to hold persistently to something; 固持・固執する; Food habits are tenacious. (食習慣はなかなか変えられない)
  6. <L. abstinere=to hold back; the act or habit of deliberate self-denial; 節制・自制; abstention from drink
  7. to keep in existence; maintain; sustain a burden
  8. the act, fact, or condition of holding something in one's possession, as real estate or an office, occupation; 保有・保持・財産; during one's tenure of office (在職中に)
  9. having logical, precise relevance to the matter at hand; relevant; 関係がある、適切・妥当な; Their style is pertinent to the subject. (彼らの文体はテーマにぴったり)
  10. one that pays rent to use or occupy land, a building, or other property owned by another; 借地・借家人
  11. capable of being maintained in argument; rationally defensible; 防御し得る、維持できる、筋の通った; a tenable theory (批判に耐えられる理論)
  12. <L. <he holds<tenere=to hold; an opinion, doctrine, or principle held as being true by a person or by an organization; doctrine; 教義
  13. the act of sustaining; 滋養物、生計の手段

>Top Tac/Tic
to be silent

  1. reticent
  2. tacit
  3. taciturn
  1. <L. re+tacere=to be silent; inclined to keep one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs to oneself; silent; 寡黙・無口の; be reticent of one's opinions
  2. <L. tacere=to be silent; not spoken; indicated tacit approval by smiling and winking.
  3. habitually intalkative; silent

>Top Theo

  1. atheist
  2. apotheosis
  3. theocracy
  1. one that disbelieves or denies the existence of God
  2. not spoken; implied by or inferred fro actions or statements
  3. habitually untalkative; silent; 寡黙な; taciturn misanthropy (陰気な人間嫌い)

>Top Tend/Tens/
to stretch, to thin

  1. tension
  2. extend
  3. tendency
  4. tendon
  5. tent
  6. tentative
  7. contend
  8. contention
  9. tendentious
  10. tenuous
  11. distend
  12. attenuate
  13. extenuating
  1. the act or process of stretching something tight
  2. to open or straighten out
  3. movement or prevailing movement in a given direction
  4. <L. tendere=to stretch; a band of tough, inelastic fibrous tissue that connects a muscle with its bony attachment; 腱; Achilles's tendon (アキレス腱)
  5. a portable shelter, as of canvas, stretched over a supporting framework of poles with ropes and pegs
  6. not fully worked out, concluded, or agreed on; provisional
  7. to strive in opposition or against difficulties; struggle; She had to contend with his uncertain temper.
  8. the act or an instance of striving in controversy or debate; 闘争、喧嘩、論争
  9. <L. tendentia=tendency; marked by a strong implicit point of view; 偏向的な、宣伝的な
  10. long and thin; slender; 細長い、か細い; tenuous letters (細い字)
  11. swell out or expand from or a if from internal pressure; 膨張させる、誇張する
  12. <L. ad+tenuare=to make thin; to make slender, fine, or small; 稀薄化、減じる、弱める; attenuate desire (欲望を弱める)
  13. to lessen or attempt to lessen the magnitude or seriousness; 情状酌量する、軽視する; Do not extenuate the difficulties we are in. (困難な状況を見くびるな)

>Top Tract
to drag, to pull, to draw

  1. tractor
  2. attract
  3. contract
  4. detract
  5. tract
  6. tractable
  7. intractable
  8. protract
  1. a vehicle having large heavily treaded tires, and used in mowing, farming
  2. to cause to draw near or adhere
  3. <L. com+trahere=to draw; an agreement between two or more parties
  4. <L. detrahere=to take away; to draw or take away; divert
  5. an expanse of land or water; 地域、区域、地方; vast tracts of desert land (広大な砂漠地帯)
  6. easily managed or controlled; governable
  7. difficult to manage or govern; stubborn
  8. to draw out or lengthen in time; prolong; 延長する; protract one's debate (討論を長引かせる)

>Top Trans

  1. transfer
  2. transaction
  3. transparent
  4. transport
  5. transition
  6. transitory
  7. transient
  8. transgress
  9. transcendent
  10. intransigent
  11. traduce
  12. translucent
  1. to convey or cause to pass from one place, person to another
  2. the act of transacting or the fact of being transacted
  3. capable of transmitting light so that objects or images can be seen as if there were no intervening material
  4. to carry from one place to another; convey
  5. passage from one form, state, style to another
  6. existing or lasting only a short time, or temporary
  7. passing with time; transitory; the transient beauty of youth
  8. to go beyond or over a limit or boundary; exceed or overstep; 法などに背く、逸脱する
  9. surpassing others; preeminent or supreme; 並外れた、超越的な; the search for a transcendent level of knowledge
  10. refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising; 妥協しない、自説に固執する、政治的にぶれない
  11. <L. trans+ducere=to lead; to cause humiliation or disgrace to by making malicious and false statements; 中傷、名誉毀損する
  12. transmitting light but causing sufficient diffusion to prevent perception of distinct images; 半透明の、曇った; Frosted window glass in translucent but not transparent. (光は通すが透明ではない)

>Top <U>:

to use


  1. abuse
  2. usage
  3. utensil
  4. usurp
  5. utility
  6. utilitarian


  1. to use wrongly or improperly; misuse; 悪用、濫用する; abuse one's authority (職権濫用)
  2. the act, manner, or amount of using; use
  3. an instrument, an implement, or a container used domestically, especially in a kitchen; 家庭用品; kitchen utensils (台所道具)
  4. to seize and hold the power of anther by force and without legal authority; 強奪する、不正使用する; The pretender tried to usurp the throne.
  5. the quality or condition of being useful; usefulness; 有用、有益、実用; This chemical has no utility as an agricultural fertilizer. (農業用肥料としては役立たない)
  6. of, relating to, or in the interests of utility; of advocating utilitarianism; 有用性に関する; utilitarian economic theories (功利主義経済理論)

>Top <V>:

to come, to move foward


  1. adventure
  2. convene
  3. convenient
  4. event
  5. venturesome
  6. avenue
  7. intervene
  8. advent
  9. contravene
  10. circumvent


  1. an undertaking or enterprise of a hazardous nature
  2. to come together usually for an official or public purpose; assemble formally; 公目的のために集まる、召集する
  3. suited or favorable to one's comfort, purpose, or needs
  4. something that takes place; an occurrence
  5. disposed to venture or to take risks, daring; adventurous; 冒険好きな、大胆な; a venturesome investor (大胆な投資家)
  6. a wide street or throughfare
  7. to come, appear, or lie between two things; 中に入る、調停する
  8. the coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
  9. to act or be counter to ; violate; 衝突する、逆らう、破る; contravene a statement (声明書に反駁する)
  10. to surround an enemy; enclose or entrap; 迂回する

>Top Ver

  1. verdict
  2. verify
  3. veracious
  4. verisimilitude
  5. aver
  1. an expressed conclusion; a judgement or an opinion; 評決
  2. to prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony; 立証する; The deed verified that the estate belonged to them. (証書は不動産が彼のものであることを証明)
  3. honest, truthful; a veracious witness (正直な証人)
  4. the quality of appearing to be true or real; 本当らしさ; The play lacked verisimilitude. (芝居は真実味に欠けていた)
  5. <L. ad+verus=true; to affirm positively; declare; 真実であると断言する

>Top Vers/Vert
to turn

  1. controversy
  2. revert
  3. subvert
  4. invert
  5. divert
  6. diverse
  7. aversion
  8. extrovert
  9. introvert
  10. inadvertent
  11. versatile
  12. traverse
  13. covert
  14. overt
  1. a dispute, especially a public one, between sides holding opposin views; argument
  2. to return to a former condtion, practice, subject, or belief; 元へ戻る、逆戻りする; They reverted to the ways of their forefathers. (先祖の生き方に逆戻りした)
  3. <L. sub+vertere=to turn; to destroy completely; ruin; 転覆、破滅、堕落させる; an attempt to subvert democratic government.
  4. to turn inside out or upside down; invert an hourglass
  5. to turn aside from a course or direction; 脇にそらす、方向転換する; divert the course of a stream
  6. differing one from another
  7. a fixed, intense dislike; repugnance; 嫌悪、反感; have a strong aversion to snakes and spiders
  8. an outgoing, socially confident person; 外向的な、陽気な人
  9. a shy, reticent person; 内向性の人
  10. not resulting from or achieved through deliberate planning; 故意でない; He was pardoned for inadvertent manslaughter.
  11. capable of doing many things competently; 多芸多才の; a versatile writer (何でももの書き)
  12. to travel or pass across, over, or through; 横断する; a path traverses the range of lofty hills.
  13. not openly acknowledged or displayed; 隠された、秘密の; ↔overt
  14. open and observable, not hiden, or secret

>Top Vi

  1. vivid
  2. vicarious
  3. convivial
  4. viable
  5. vivacity
  1. perceived as bright and distinct
  2. <L. vicarius=a substitute; felt or undergone as if one were taking part in the experience or feelings of another; 身代わりの; vicarious authorship (代作)
  3. fond of feasting, drinking, and good company; sociable
  4. capable of living, developing, or germinating under favorable conditions; a viable alternative (実行可能な代案)
  5. the quality or condition of being vivacious; liveliness; 活発な性質; a people noted for their vivacity (陽気さで知られる国民)

to see

  1. evident
  2. television
  3. video
  4. vision
  5. provision
  6. adviser
  7. provident
  8. survey
  9. vista
  10. visionary
  11. visage
  1. <L. ex+videre=to see; easily seen or understood; obvious
  2. The transmission of visual images
  3. of or relating to videotaped production, equipment and technology
  4. the faculty of sight; eyesight
  5. the act of supplying or fitting out; 条項、規定
  6. one that advises, such as a person or firm that offers official or professional advice to clients
  7. providing for future needs or events; 将来に備える、用心深い; provident care (将来に対しての配慮)
  8. to examine or look at in a comprehensive way; to inspect carefully
  9. a distant view or prospect, especially one seen through an opening; 展望、眺望; a vista of the church (協会を見通せる眺め)
  10. characterized by vision or foresight
  11. the face or facial expression of a person; countenance

>Top Voc/Vok
to call

  1. vocabulary
  2. vocal
  3. provocative
  4. advocate
  5. equivocate
  6. vocation
  7. avocation
  8. convoke
  9. vociferous
  10. irrevocable
  11. evocative
  12. revoke
  13. convoke
  14. invoke
  1. the sum of words used by, understood by
  2. of or relating to the voice
  3. causing anger or another strong reaction; a provocative article
  4. to speak, plead, or argue in favor of; support; He advocated that changes be made.
  5. to use ambiguous language so as to conceal the truth or avoid committing oneself
  6. a strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation; 天職、使命感
  7. an activity taken up in addition to one's regular work or profession, usually for enjoyment; a hobby; 楽しみのための副業、内職
  8. to cause to assemble in a meeting; convene; 召集
  9. making, given to or marked by noisy and vehement outcry; 大声で叫ぶ; be vociferous against rasing taxes (増税に猛反対)
  10. impossible to retract or revoke
  11. tending or having the power to evoke; 喚起する; The perfume was evocative of spring. (春を思い起こさせる芳香)
  12. to void or annul by recalling withdrawing, or reversing; 取消、撤回する; revoke a driving license
  13. <L. con+vocare=to call; to cause to assemble in a meeting; convene
  14. to call on a higher power for assistance, support, or inspiration; 祈願する; invoke one's right to veto (拒否権を行使)

>Top Vol
to wish

  1. voluntary
  2. volunteer
  3. volition
  4. malevolent
  5. benevolent
  1. arising from or acting on one's won free will
  2. a person who performs a service of his or her own free will.
  3. the act or an instance of making a conscious choice or decision; 意欲、意志; She left of her own volition. (自発的に去った)
  4. having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious
  5. characterized by or suggestive of doing good; a benevolent fund

>Top <W>:



>Top <X>:



>Top <Y>:



>Top <Z>:




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