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Royal English Grammar - Note

Cat: LAN
Pub: 2008
#: 1530n

Kanzo Kobayashi

up 15y30


>Top <A>:

  1. agglutinative language
  2. anaphoric
  3. antecedent


  1. 膠着語
  2. 照応的
  3. 先行詞

>Top <B>:

  1. but
    然而 rán'ér; 但是 dànshì


  1. conjunction: 1 used to introduce a phrase or clause contrasting with what has already been mentioned: he stumbled but didn't fall | this is one principle, but it is not the only one | the food is cheap but delicious | the problem is not that they are cutting down trees, but that they are doing it in a predatory way.
    2 [ with negative or in questions ] used to indicate the impossibility of anything other than what is being stated: one cannot but sympathize | there was nothing they could do but swallow their pride | they had no alternative but to follow.
    3 used to introduce a response expressing a feeling such as surprise or anger: but that's an incredible saving! | but why?
    4 used after an expression of apology for what one is about to say: I'm sorry, but I can't pay you.
    5 [ with negative ] archaic without it being the case that: it never rains but it pours.

>Top <C>:

  1. can
    可能 kěnéng; 可以 kěyǐ
  2. coordinate conjunction
  3. conjunctive mood
  4. could


  1. 1 be able to: they can run fast | I could hear footsteps | he can't afford it.
    • be able to through acquired knowledge or skill: I can speak Italian.
    • have the opportunity or possibility to: there are many ways holidaymakers can take money abroad.
    • [ with negative or in questions ] used to express doubt or surprise about the possibility of something's being the case: he can't have finished | where can she have gone?
    • used to indicate that something is typically the case: antique clocks can seem out of place in modern homes | he could be very moody.
    2 be permitted to: you can use the phone if you want to | nobody could legally drink on the premises.
    3 used to request someone to do something: can you open the window? | can't you leave me alone?
    • used to make a suggestion or offer: we can have another drink if you like. [<OE, cunnan, know]
  2. 等位接続詞
  3. 接続法; cf: optative mood
  4. • used to indicate possibility: they could be right | I would go if I could afford it.
    • used in making suggestions or polite requests: you could always ring him up | could I use the phone?
    • used to indicate annoyance because of something that has not been done: they could have told me!
    • used to indicate a strong inclination to do something: he irritates me so much that I could scream.

>Top <D>:

  1. dare
    敢 gǎn
  2. declension


  1. 1 (as modal usu. with infinitive with or without to often with negative) have the courage to do something: a story he dare not write down | she leaned forward as far as she dared.
    • (how dare you) used to express indignation at something: how dare you talk to me like that!
    • (don't you dare) used to order someone threateningly not to do something: don't you dare touch me.
    2 [ with obj. and infinitive ] defy or challenge (someone) to do something: she was daring him to disagree | [ with obj. ] : swap with me, I dare you.
    3 [ with obj. ] literary take the risk of; brave: few dared his wrath.
  2. 曲用; inflectionof nous, pronous, adjective, & articles to indicate number (sigular/plural), case (nominative/sujective/genitive/possessive/etc) , and gender. Cf: Latin declension: homo (nominative, as subject)/hominem (accusative, as direct object)/hominis (genitive, as a possessor)/ hominī (dative, as indirect object)/homine (ablative)/Quo vadis, domine? (vocative0)/(locative)[<F. to decline]

>Top <E>:


>Top <F>:


>Top <G>:

  1. i


>Top <H>:

  1. have to


  1. (have to or have got to do something) be obliged or find it necessary to do the specified thing: you don't have to accept this situation | sorry, we've got to dash.
    • be strongly recommended to do something: if you think that place is great, you have to try our summer house.
    • be certain or inevitable to happen or be the case: there has to be a catch.

>Top < I >:

  1. infection
  2. Indo-European

< I >:

  1. 屈折, 語形変化; the process of infecting or the state of being infected: strict hygiene will limit the risk of infection | a reddening of the skin at the site of infection. [<infect]
  2. Proto-Indo-European. PIE; 印欧祖語

>Top < J >:

< J >:

>Top <K>:


>Top <L>:


>Top <M>:

  1. may
    可能 kěnéng; 可以 kěyǐ
  2. might
  3. must
    必须 bìxū; 得 děi


  1. 1 expressing possibility: that may be true | he may well win.
    • used when admitting that something is so before making another, more important point: they may have been old-fashioned but they were excellent teachers.
    2 used to ask for or to give permission: you may confirm my identity with your Case Officer, if you wish | may I ask a few questions?
    3 expressing a wish or hope: may she rest in peace. [<OE, have power;might]
  2. • in reported speech, to express possibility or permission: he said he might be late.
    • expressing a possibility based on an unfulfilled condition: we might have won if we'd played better.
    • expressing annoyance about something that someone has not done: you might have told me!
    • expressing purpose: he avoided social engagements so that he might work.
    2 used to tentatively ask permission or express a polite request: might I just ask one question? | you might just call me Jane, if you don't mind.
    • asking for information, especially condescendingly: and who might you be?
    3 used to express possibility or make a suggestion: this might be true | you might try pain relievers.
  3. 1 be obliged to; should (expressing necessity):
    • expressing insistence: you must try some of this fish | if you must smoke you could at least go in the living room.
    • used in ironic questions expressing irritation: Charlotte, must you put spanners in the works?
    2 expressing an opinion about something that is logically very likely: there must be something wrong | you must be tired. [< OE, past tense of may]

>Top <N>:

  1. need
    必须 bìxū; 需要 xūyào;
  2. neither


  1. 1 require (something) because it is essential or very important rather than just desirable: I need help now | [ with present participle ] : this shirt needs washing | [ with infinitive ] : they need to win tomorrow.
    • (not need something) not want to be subjected to something: I don't need your sarcasm.
    2 [ as modal verb ] [ with negative or in questions ] expressing necessity or obligation: need I say more? | all you need bring are sheets.
    3 [ no obj. ] archaic be necessary. lest you, even more than needs, embitter our parting.
  2. not the one nor the other of two people or things; not either: [ as determiner ] : neither side of the brain is dominant over the other | [ as pronoun ] : neither of us believes it.
    1 used before the first of two (or occasionally more) alternatives (the others being introduced by ‘nor’) to indicate that they are each untrue or each does not happen: I am neither a liberal nor a conservative.
    2 used to introduce a further negative statement: he didn't remember, and neither did I.

>Top <O>:

  1. ought


  1. 1 used to indicate duty or correctness, typically when criticizing someone's actions: they ought to respect the law | thanks for your letter which I ought to have answered sooner.
    • used to indicate a desirable or expected state: he ought to be able to take the initiative.
    • used to give or ask for advice: you ought to go | what ought I to do?
    2 used to indicate something that is probable: five minutes ought to be enough time. [< past of owe]

>Top <P>:


>Top <Q>:


>Top <R>:

  1. relative pronoun


  1. 関係代名詞 ; marks a relative clause, having the same referent in the main cause that the ralativ clause modifies. In the sentence "This is the house which Jack built", 'which' has an anophric relationship to its anteceden 'house' in the main clause.

>Top <S>:

  1. seem
    好像 hǎoxiàng
  2. shall
    将 jiāng
  3. should
  4. subjuntive mode


  1. 1 give the impression of being something or having a particular quality: [ with complement ] : Dawn seemed annoyed | it seemed a dismal town | [ with infinitive ] : there seems to be plenty to eat | [ with clause ] : it seemed that he was determined to oppose her.
    • [ with infinitive ] used to make a statement less forceful: I seem to remember giving you very precise instructions.
    • [ with clause ] (it seems or it would seem) used to suggest in a cautious or polite way that something is the case: it would seem that he has been fooling us all.
    2 (cannot seem to do something) be unable to do something, despite having tried: he couldn't seem to remember his lines.
  2. 1 (in the first person) expressing the future tense: this time next week I shall be in Scotland | we shan't be gone long.
    2 expressing a strong assertion or intention: they shall succeed | you shall not frighten me out of this.
    3 expressing an instruction, command, or obligation: every employer shall take all practicable steps to ensure the safety of employees | you shall not steal.
    4 used in questions indicating offers or suggestions: shall I send you the book? | shall we go? [<OE, owe]
  3. 1 used to indicate obligation, duty, or correctness, typically when criticizing someone's actions: he should have been careful | I think we should trust our people more | you shouldn't have gone.
    • indicating a desirable or expected state: by now pupils should be able to read with a large degree of independence.
    • used to give or ask advice or suggestions: you should go back to bed | what should I wear?
    • (I should) used to give advice: I should hold out if I were you.
    2 used to indicate what is probable: £348 m should be enough to buy him out | the bus should arrive in a few minutes.
    3 formal expressing the conditional mood:
    • (in the first person) indicating the consequence of an imagined event: if I were to obey my first impulse, I should spend my days writing letters.
    • referring to a possible event or situation: if you should change your mind, I'll be at the hotel | should anyone arrive late, admission is likely to be refused.
    4 used in a clause with ‘that’ after a main clause describing feelings: it is astonishing that we should find violence here.
    5 used in a clause with ‘that’ expressing purpose: in order that training should be effective it must be planned systematically.
    6 (in the first person) expressing a polite request or acceptance: I should like some more, if I may | we should be grateful for your advice.
    7 (in the first person) expressing a conjecture or hope: he'll have a sore head, I should imagine | ‘It won't happen again.’ ‘I should hope not.’.
    8 used to emphasize to a listener how striking an event is or was: you should have seen Marge's face.
    • (who/what should —— but) emphasizing how surprising an event was: I was in this shop when who should I see across the street but Tobias.
  4. 仮定法, SJV: A grammatical mood; express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility judgment, ipinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; an irrealis mood (one that does not refer directly to what is necessarily real), contrasted with the indicative, wich is a realis mood. Subjunctives occur in subordinate clauses (that-clauses). It is sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood.

>Top <T>:

  1. that


  1. 1 used to identify a specific person or thing observed or heard by the speaker: that's his wife over there | hello, is that Ben?
    • referring to the more distant of two things near to the speaker (the other, if specified, being identified by ‘this’): this is stronger than that.
    2 referring to a specific thing previously mentioned, known, or understood: that's a good idea | what are we going to do about that?
    3 [ often with clause ] used in singling out someone or something and ascribing a distinctive feature to them: it is part of human nature to be attracted to that which is aesthetically pleasing | his appearance was that of someone used to sleeping on the streets.
    4 informal, chiefly Brit. expressing strong agreement with a description just given: ‘He's a fussy man.’ ‘He is that.’.
    5 (pl.that) [ relative pronoun ] used to introduce a defining clause, especially one essential to identification:
    • instead of ‘which’, ‘who’, or ‘whom’: the woman that owns the place.
    • instead of ‘when’ after an expression of time: the year that Anna was born.

>Top <U>:

  1. used to


  1. 3 |juːst| [ in past, with infinitive ] (used to) describing an action or situation that was done repeatedly or existed for a period in the past: this road used to be a dirt track | I used to give him lifts home.
    4 |juːst| (be/get used to) be or become familiar with (someone or something) through experience: she was used to getting what she wanted | he's weird, but you just have to get used to him.

>Top <V>:


>Top <W>:

  1. what
  2. will
  3. would


  1. [ relative pronoun ] the thing or things that (used in specifying something): what we need is a commitment.
    • (referring to the whole of an amount) whatever: I want to do what I can to make a difference.
  2. 1 expressing the future tense: you will regret it when you are older.
    • expressing a strong intention or assertion about the future: come what may, I will succeed.
    2 expressing inevitable events: accidents will happen.
    3 expressing a request: will you stop here, please.
    • expressing desire, consent, or willingness: will you have a cognac?
    4 expressing facts about ability or capacity: a rock so light that it will float on water | your tank will hold about 26 gallons.
    5 expressing habitual behaviour: she will dance for hours.
    • (pronounced stressing ‘will’) indicating annoyance about the habitual behaviour described: he will keep intruding.
    6 expressing probability or expectation about something in the present: they will be miles away by now. [< will]
  3. 1 past of will1, in various senses: he said he would be away for a couple of days | she wouldn't leave | the windows would not close.
    2 (expressing the conditional mood) indicating the consequence of an imagined event or situation: he would lose his job if he were identified.
    • (I would) used to give advice: I wouldn't drink that if I were you.
    3 expressing a desire or inclination: I would love to work in America | would you like some water?
    4 expressing a polite request: would you pour the wine, please?
    • expressing willingness or consent: who would live here?
    5 expressing a conjecture, opinion, or hope: I would imagine that they're home by now | I guess some people would consider it brutal | I would have to agree.
    6 chiefly ironic used to make a comment about behaviour that is typical: they would say that, wouldn't they?
    7 [ with clause ] literary expressing a wish or regret: would that he had lived to finish it.

>Top <X>:


>Top <Y>:


>Top <Z>:


  • a
  • a

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