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>1530 Royal Eng-G
>1304 Hornby
>1209 Egawa Eng-G
>1008 Eng Idiom
> 0712 UK E-Idiom
>0513 Yamatei

Royal English Grammar - Résumé

Cat: LAN
Pub: 2000

Yo Watanuki (綿貫 陽) et al.

up 5y22
  • Here is a résumé from the grammatical books with some additional explanations.
  • Royal English Grammar with complete examples of usage, etc.
  • Shogakukan Progressive English-Japanese Dictionary, 2nd edition
  • etc.
  • 以下、英文法のレジメである。
  • ロイヤル英文法 (旺文社 2000)
  • 小学館プログレッシブ英和中辞典

A: 挨拶文 B: 文の転換§389-395;文型; 分詞§231-244; C: D: 代名詞§82-97; 動名詞§245-252; 動詞§162-180; E: F: 不定代名詞§98-108; 不定詞§213-230; G: 疑問詞§109-113; H: 比較§146-161; 否定語句§372-377; I: J: 時制の一致§350-371; 助動詞§196-212; K: ; 可算/非可算; 関係詞§298-317; 冠詞§73-80; 仮定法§254-270; 句動詞§178-180&277; L: M: 名詞 ; 名詞(数量) N: O: P: Q: R: S: ; 接続詞§288-297; T: U: V: W: X: Y: Z: 前置詞§318-342;

English samples & Remarks

>Top <A>:


  • [I wish you a ] good morning.
  • [I wish you a ] good luck/Merry Chiristman/Happy new year/happy birthday.
  • [I wish you] have a nice weekend.

>Top <B>:





名詞 動詞 名詞 名詞 形容詞
代名詞 代名詞 形容詞


  1. S: The book I read yesterday was interesting.
  2. O: I lost the book I read yesterday.
  3. C: This is the book I read yesterday.
  4. ○ That is the office I work in. × That is my working office.

>Top 文の転換

«Conversion of sentence»

§389 複文と単文の転換
  1. [名詞節複文⇔単文]
    1. [to不定詞を用いる]
      1. We've decided that we will sell our farm. (複雑な文用)
        →○ We've decided to sell our farm. (口語的)
      2. I expect that you will do a good job.
        →I expect you to do a good job.
      3. Jane persuaded him that he (should) see her parents.
        →Jane persuaded him to see her parents.
      4. It is strange that he should be late. He's usually on time. (話手の感情)
        →It it strange for him to be late. He's usually on time.
      5. It seems that he made a mistake in the address.
        →He seems to have made a mistake in the address.
      6. It is not likely that John forgot to mail the letter.
        →John is not likely to have forgotten to mail the letter.
    2. [動名詞を用いる]
      1. He denied that he knew anything about the missing jewels.
        →He denied knowing anything about the missing jewels.
      2. I can't insist that you should come early.
        →I can't insist on your coming early.
      3. There's no possibility that the criminal will be found.
        →there's no possibility of the criminal('s) being found.
    3. [前置詞+抽象名詞を用いる]
      1. We are certain that he is innocent.
        →We are certain of his innocence.
      2. Please tell me when you will arrive.
        →Please tell me the time of your arrival.
    4. [SVO+to be〜]
      1. I found that the problem was difficult.
        →I found the problem (to be) difficult.
      2. He believes that she is a good pianist. (口語的)
        →He believes her to be a good pianist.
    5. [疑問詞+to不定詞]
      1. I don't know what I should do.
        →I don't know what to do.
      2. Please tell me how I should operate this machine.
        →Please tell me how to operate this machine.
  2. [形容詞節複文⇔単文]
    1. [to不定詞]
      1. We still have a few more matters (which) we must dal with.
        →We still have a few more matters to deal with.
      2. The way you should start it is to give it a push.
        →The way to start it is to give it a push.
    2. [分詞を用いる]
      1. The lighter which is lying on the table belongs to Bob.
        →The lighter lying on the table belongs to Bob.
      2. Books that are published in paperback editions are usually cheaper.
        →Books published in paperback editions are usually cheaper.
    3. [動名詞を用いる]
      1. He was caught in a trap (which) he made himself.
        →He was caught in a trap of his own making. (慣用的)
      2. Give me one good reason why you did that.
        →Give me one good reason for having done that.
    4. [形容詞句]
      1. That girl who has red hair is very pretty.
        →That girl with red hair is very pretty.
      2. Do you see a ma who is wearing slippers over there?
        →Do you see a man in slippers over there?
      3. She doesn't want to marry a man who has no money.
        →She doesn't want to marry a man without any money.
  3. [副詞節複文⇔単文]
    1. [to不定詞]
      1. When I arrived, I found him gone.
        →I arrived to find him gone.
      2. You're crazy that you should take his word.
        →You're crazy to take his word.
      3. Bob listened intently so that he would not miss the news.
        →Bob listened intently so as not to miss the news.
      4. He decided to learn to swim in order that he might overcome his fear of water. (文語的)
        →He decided to learn to swim in order to overcome his fear of water.
    2. [分詞を用いる]
      1. After he had taken off his shoes, he crept up the stairs.
        →Having taken off his shoes, he crept up the stairs.
      2. Because I felt tired, I went to bed early.
        feeling tired, I went to bed early.
      3. Because I had seen the movie twice, I didn't want to see it again.
        →Having seen the movie twice, I didn't want to see it again.
      4. If it is examined carefully, it will turn out to be groundless.
        →(If) Examined carefully, it will turn out to be groundless. (If付きが普通)
      5. Although I admit what you said, I still think you are wrong.
        →(While) Admitting what you said I still think you are wrong. (While付きが普通)
    3. [動名詞を用いる]
      1. before I went out, I called his apartment.
        →Before going out, I called his apartment.
      2. As soon as he saw her, he fell in love with her.
        →On seeing her, he fell in love with her. (同一主語なら動名詞の主語は不要)
      3. Their enterprise failed because they didn't have enough funds.
        →Their enterprise failed through their not having enough funds. (through 原因)
      4. He worked hard ay and night so that he might become rich.
        →He worked hard day and night for the purpose of becoming rich. (文語的)
      5. I won't go out today in case I catch cold.
        →I won't go out today for fear of catching cold. (文語的)
    4. [前置詞+名詞]
      1. He died when he was eight-five years old.
        →He died at the age of eight-five.
      2. There was an accident because the bridge was narrow.
        →There was an accident because of the narrow bridge.
      3. The kidnapped child returned home safe and sound, so that his parents were very glad.
        →The kidnapped child returned home safe and sound, to his parents' great joy.
      4. Sam lost his job thought his attendance record was good.
        →Sam lost his job in spite of his good attendance record.
      5. Although he is wealthy, he is not happy.
        →For all his wealth, he is not happy. (with allの方が口語的)
      6. If his teacher had advised him, he would not have failed.
        →With his teacher's advice, he would not have failed.
      7. As far as I know, he has never been abroad.
        →To (the best of) my knowledge, he has never been abroad.
§390 重文と単文
  1. [to不定詞]
    1. The man took advantage of her poor knowledge of jewels and sold her an imitation diamond.
      →The man took advantage of her poor knowledge of jewels to sell her an imitation diamond.
    2. I intended to buy a new car, but I couldn't.
      →I had intended to buy a new car. (非実現の完了不定詞は頻度低い)
    3. I went to the museum, but I found it was closed.
      →I went to the museum (only) to find it closed. (,onlyとはしない)
    4. He left his home town and never returned there.
      →He left his home town never to return there.
    5. This land is very poor, so crops don't grow well.
      →This land is too poor for crops to grow well.
    6. The ice is quite thick, so we can walk on it.
      →The ice is thick enough to walk on.
  2. [分詞構文を用いる]
    1. Robert hoped to finish college in three years and worked very hard.
      →Hoping to finish college in three years, Robert worked very hard.
    2. Sue did all her shopping and then w¥she went for a cup of coffee.
      →Having done all her shopping, Sue went for a cup of coffee.
  3. [前置詞+名詞・動名詞を用いる]
    1. He didn't say goodby to us, but went away hurriedly.
      →Without saying goodby to us, he went away hurriedly.
    2. Our teacher not only works in school but gives music lessons after school hours.
      {→Besides working in school, our teacher gives music lessons after school hours.
    3. It was raining, but we decided to walk on.
      →In spite of the rain, we decided to walk on.
    4. The child did not do his homework, but watched television.
      →The child watched television instead of doing his homework.
  4. [無生物主語構文]
    1. I walked for an hour up the hill, and came to the top.
      →An hour's walk up the hill took me to the top.
    2. Bombs were exploding on all sides, and the inhabitants feared for their lives.
      →The explosion of bombs on all sides made the inhabitants fear for their lives.
§391 重文と複文
  1. [〜and, 〜but⇔複文]
    1. [and, so]
      1. The tires felt rather soft, and she put more air in them.
        →Because the tires felt rather soft, she put more air in hem.
      2. Cold weather settle in, and seagulls often come inland for food.
        →When cold weather settle in, seagulls often come inland for food.
      3. The woman was very unhappy, so she drowned herself.
        →The woman was so unhappy that she drowned herself.
    2. [but]
      1. Anna lived alone, but she did not feel lonely.
        →Although Anna lived alone, she did not feel lonely
      2. I tried very hard, but the nail would not come out.[
        →No matter how hard I tried, the nail would not come out.
    3. [or]
      1. She must have been dreaming, or she wouldn't have woken up shouting.
        →If she hadn't been dreaming, she wouldn't have woken up shouting.
      2. She is really sick; otherwise she wouldn't go to the doctor.
        →If she were not really sick, she wouldn't go to the doctor.
  2. [命令文+and⇔条件文]
    1. Tell the police the truth, and they will believe you.
      →If you tell the police the truth, they will believe you.
    2. A little more capital, and they would have succeeded.
      →If they had had a little more capital, they would have succeeded.
  3. [命令文+or⇔条件文]
    1. Watch your step, or you'll tumble down the stairs.
      →Unless you watch your step, you'll tumble down the stairs.
    2. Keep your promise, or you'll lose your friends.
      →If you don't keep your promise, you'll lose your friends.
§392 修辞疑問文
  1. [肯定疑問文]
    1. Can anyone deny the blessings of the sun?
      →No one can deny the blessings of the sun.
  2. [否定疑問文]
    1. Isn't the answer obvious?
      →Surely the answer is obvious.
  3. [疑問詞を含む肯定疑問文]
    1. Who knows what may happen?
      →Nobody knows what may happen.
    2. How can I help laughing at his jokes?
      →I cannot help laughing at his jokes.
    3. Who doesn't love heir own home?
      →Everybody loves their own home.
§393 平叙文と
  1. [How+形容詞[副詞]+SV]
    1. You are very nagughty.
      →How naught (you are)!
    2. She dances so gracefully!
      →How gracefully she dances!
  2. [What a+形容詞+名詞+SV]
    1. this is a very delicious pienapple.
      →What a delicous pienapple (this is)!
    2. It is a concidence that I should meet you here.
      →「What a concidence it it that I should meet you here!
    3. It was very wonderful news.
      →What wonderful news it was!
§394 It主語
  1. [天候・時間・距離のit]
    1. We have a lot of rain in early summer.
      →It rains a lot in early summer.
    2. We can't wait. You ought to give the signal now.
      →We can't wait. It's time for you give the signal.
      →We can't wait. it's time you gave the signal.
    3. The temple lies at a distance of six days' camel journey from here.
      →It is a six-day camel journey from here to the temple.
  2. [It seems that]
    1. The gun seems to have been used very often.
      →It seems that the gun has been used very often.
    2. There seems to be more rain coming.
      →It seems that there will be more rain.
    3. We happened to be indoors when the storm came.
      →It happed that we were indoors when the storm came.
  3. [It is said that]
    1. People say the weather is changing.
      →It is said that the weather is changing.
      →The weather is said to be changing.
    2. People claim that too much meat is bad for your health.
      →It is claimed that too much meat is bad for your health.
      →Too much meat is said to be bad for your health
  4. [It is〜(for)+to不定詞]
    1. I'm able to work faster when I'm not tired.
      →It is possible for me to work faster when I'm not tiered.
    2. There is no need for you to argue like that.
      →It is not necessary for you to argue like that.
    3. There is no use asking her - She doesn't know anything.
      →It's useless to ask her - She doesn't know anything.
    4. There is no knowing what may happen in the future.
      →It is impossible to know what may happen in the future.
    5. The decision is up to you.
      →It' up to you to decide.
  5. [It is〜of +to不定詞]
    1. You are foolish to swim on a full stomach.
      →It is foolish of you to swim on a full stomach.
  6. [It is〜that]
    1. We are sorry that the meeting was canceled.
      →It's a pity that the meeting was canceled.
    2. Do they need to act immediately?
      →Is it necessary that they (should) act immediately?
    3. She'll probably not arrive until tomorrow.
      →It is probable that she will not arrive until tomorrow.
    4. The time of their arrival was not clear to me.
      →It was not clear to me when they would arrive.
    5. Her financial status doesn't matter to us.
      →It is of no importance to us what her financial status is.
§395 無生物主語
  1. [無生物が主語]
    1. Because of the incident, I reflected on my past life.
      →The incident cause me to reflect on my past life.
    2. He is so tall that he stands out in a crowd.
      →His height makes him stand out in a crowd.
    3. They were too proud to accept our offer.
      →Their pride would not allow them to accept our offer.
    4. Thanks to the scholarship, he was able to go to university.
      →The scholarship enabled him to go to university.
    5. We could not see very far because of the mist.
      →The mist prevented us from seeing very far.
    6. You can get the the station if you take this bus.
      →This bus will take you to the station.
    7. If you get moderate exercise, you will get better.
      →Moderate exercise will get you better.
    8. I was unable to get to sleep all night because of the pain.
      →The pain kept me awake all night.
    9. We learn from newspapers what is going on in the world.
      →Newspapers tell us what is going on in the world.
    10. If you drive carelessly, you may lose your life.
      →Careless driving may cost you your life.
    11. If you adopt high technology, you'll be free from all this trouble.
      →High technology will save you all this trouble.
    12. When I look at this picture I remember the good old days.
      →This picture reminds me of the good old days.
    13. If you look at these pictures, you will get a very good idea of life in the desert.
      →These pictures will give you a very good idea of life in the desert.
    14. The next morning the dog was found dead.
      →The next morning found the dog dead.
  2. [疑問詞が主語]
    1. Why does he think he's so wonderful?
      What makes him think he's so wonderful?
    2. Why did you come here so late?
      What brought you here so late?
    3. How did you start the quarrel?
      What brought about the quarrel?
    4. All members have access to these books.
      These books are accessible to all members.
    5. We know his name very well.
      His name is very familiar to us.
    6. Suddenly I hit on a good idea.
      Suddenly a good idea occurred to me.
    7. [無生物主語構文の動詞]
      ☆ admit; bewilder; brighten; delay; discourage; encourage; excite; frighten; help; impress; induce; move; please; prompt; puzzle; refresh; satisfy; surprise

>Top 文型

<Sentence Pattern>

  1. SV+(M): [S]+[Do]+([誰に][何を])+(どのように)(どこ)(いつ)(なぜ);
    Do=いる; 動く
    • [The Sun] [shines.]
  2. SVO+(M): [S]+[Do]+([誰に][何を])+(どのように)(どこ)(いつ)(なぜ);
    Do=思う; 言う
    • [He] [studies] [English] (hard) (these days) (because he's goint to take the test next week).
    • [He] [concluded] [that he would go.]
    • [I] [suggested] [that we go shopping.]
    • [He] [is cooking] [lunch].【SVO】
    • [He] [is] [cooking lunch].【SVO】
    • [We] [are going to have] [lunch]. 【SVO】
    • [We] [are] [going] [to have lunch]. 【SVC的】
  3. SVOO+(M): [S]+[Do]+[誰に]+[何を]+(どのように)(どこ)(いつ)(なぜ);
    Do=与える; 奪うcost, owe, save, spar, take
    • [My Dad] [bought] [me] [a Mac] (on my birthday.)
    • [She] [told] [me] [all the school gossip] (yesterday.)
  4. SVC+(M): [S]+[Be]+([何か][どんなだ])+(誰にとって)(どこ)(いつ)(なぜ);
    • [She] [is] [so kind] (to me.)
    • [She] [became] [a professional golf player] (last year.)
    • [The audience] [remained] [silent] (during the song.)
  5. SVOC+(M): [S]+[Be]+[何が]+[どんなだ]+(どのように)(どこ)(いつ)(なぜ);
    • [He] [made] [her] [angry].


  1. 文型Ⅰ
  2. 文型Ⅱ
  3. 文型Ⅲ
  4. 文型Ⅳ
  5. 文型Ⅴ

<Prgressive E-J Dictionary

  1. 動詞の性質(慣用)によって、目的語Oと補語Cが、義務的 or 任意的要素が決まる。
  2. [S+Vi]
    1. [Ⅰ+] 自動詞だけで意味が完結:
      God is.
      It rains.
      John died.
    2. [Ⅰ+副] 自動詞+副詞句が必要
      Mary lives in London.
      John goes to school.
      I looked for my dog.
      The party consisted of ten girls.
  3. [S+Vi+C]
    1. [Ⅱ+形] 自動詞+形容詞句
      Mary is young.
      The old man looked healthy.;
      John became famous.;
      The balloon grew bigger.;
      He is without wife or child.
    2. [Ⅱ+to do] 自動詞+to不定詞
      We agreed to go out for a walk.
      They came to realize the importance of the matter.
      I hesitated to tell the truth.
      My explanation will serve to make the point clear.
      [Vi+名詞句] 自動詞+前置詞+名詞句
      agree to proposal; come to a conclusion; hesitate at nothing; serve for nothing.
    3. [Ⅱ doing] 自動詞+ing形(動名詞/現在分詞)
      Seeing is believing.
      John came running.
      Mary went shopping.
    4. [Ⅱ+過分] 自動詞+過去分詞; [II+形]と密接な関係あり。また状態受動態
      John got fired.
      I stand accused.
      John is paid well.
      John got hurt. (>II a.)
    5. [Ⅱ+名] 自動詞+名詞句; 自動詞的な他動詞
      Mary is a teacher.
      John became a doctor.;
      Bill remained a bachelor.
    6. [Ⅱ+as] 自動詞+as+名詞句
      John acted as go-between.;
      This will serve as a good excuse.; appear as Hamlet; resign as ambassador
    7. [Ⅱ+that節] 自動詞+that節
      I agree that he is right.
      It appears that he is wise.
      It seemed to me that Mary was sick.
    8. [Ⅱ+wh] 自動詞+wh節 (when what, where, whether, if); 一見[III+wh節]文型と紛らわしい
      John inquired if the library was open.;
      I stopped caring what anybody else thought. ;
      I don't care if I do.
  4. [S+Vt+O]
    1. [Ⅲ+do] 他動詞+toなし不定詞
      John helped solve the problem.
      She made believe that she was ill.
    2. [Ⅲ+to do] 他動詞+to不定詞
      I want to go.; John like to swim.
      We learn to speak English.
      Mary tried to help her mother.
      Mary tried to help her mother.
    3. [Ⅲ+doing] 他動詞+ing形; 動詞によっては[III+to do][III+doing]いずれもとるが意味に差があり得る。
      We all enjoy singing.
      John likes swimming.
      Would you mind opening the window?
      She stopped dancing.
    4. [Ⅲ+名] 他動詞+名詞句
      I want a new house.
      A cat killed a rat.
      John reached the station.
      Mary survived her mother.
    5. [Ⅲ+名+副] 他動詞+名詞句+副詞句
      John put the book on the table.
      Bill gave a ring to Mary.
      I asked the teacher for advice.
      They provided us with food.
      They deprived him of his title.; laugh a person into silence.
    6. [Ⅲ+that節] 他動詞+that節
      I believe that John is honest.
      He said that he was unhappy.
      Bill knows that he is going to fail.
    7. [Ⅲ+wh節 (+to do)] 他動詞+wh節 (またはその縮約形)
      I know who you are.
      He inquired whether I was healthy.
      John forgot what to say.
      I'll explain how to do it.
  5. [S+Vt+O+O]
    1. [Ⅳ+名+名] 他動詞+間接目的語+直接目的語; [III+名+副]の文型と対になる。
      I gave him a book.(=gave him a book to him.)
      I wish you a good luck.
      John bought Mary a new dress.
      I told her a funny story.
      I wish you a good luck.
      I give the door a kick = The door is given a kick. (× A kick is given the door. )
    2. [Ⅳ+名+that節] 他動詞+間接目的語+that節; [IV+名名]と[IV+名副]それぞれに対応
      John told Mary that she was pretty.
      I convinced him that I was innocent.
    3. [Ⅳ+名+wh節 (+to do)] 他動詞+間接目的語+wh節(またはその縮約形); [IV+名名]と[IV+名副]に対応
      Mary informed John when she was coming.;
      I told him what to do.
  6. [S+Vt+O+C]
    1. [Ⅴ+名+形] 他動詞+直接目的語+形容詞
      John thought Mary pretty.;
      I found the book interesting.
      She keeps her room clean.
      I made her happy.; paint the house white; shoot him dead; beat him black; dance oneself weary
    2. [Ⅴ+名+as] 他動詞+直接目的語+as+形容詞
      I regard it as unnecessary.
      We accept it as true.
    3. [Ⅴ+名+do] 他動詞+直接目的語+toなし不定詞
      I saw him go out.
      I let him do it.
      I heard him say so.
      I made him go out.
      I let him do it.
      Mary helped her mother cook.
    4. [Ⅴ+名+to do] 他動詞+直接目的語+to不定詞; O(主語)とC(述語)の関係
      I told him to go out.;
      I asked her to come to the party.
      She like the children to sing.
      She forbids the children to go out alone.
    5. [Ⅴ+名+to be] 基本的には[V+名+to do]と同じ; to beが省略されれば[V+名名] [V+名形]になる。
      I think John to be a fool.
      We believe that story to be true.
    6. [Ⅴ+名+doing] 他動詞+直接目的語+現在分詞
      I saw a dog running around.
      Mary heard her little sister crying.
      He kept me working all day.
      Mother does not like her children playing on the street.
    7. [Ⅴ+名+過分] 他動詞+直接目的語+過去分詞
      I found the house destroyed.
      I can't make myself understood.
      I had may hair cut.
    8. [Ⅴ+名+名] 他動詞+直接目的語+名詞句
      The Queen made him a knight
      I consider John a genius.
      They elected Mary chairperson.
    9. [Ⅴ+名+as] 他動詞+直接目的語+as+名詞句
      We regard the plan as a failure.
      I remember you as a child.
      They chose Bill as reporter.

«Sentence Patterns»

by: The Writing Center, College of Arts & Sciences

  1. S (Subject), V (Verb), and Clause:
    • S: shows who or what is doing the action; some form of noun or pronoun.
      • Compound S: 2 S's relates to the same V.
    • V: shows the action or state of being; like run or seem.
      • Compound V: 2 V's relate to the same S.
      • Compound S with compound V: all the S's in one clause come before all of the V's in the same clause.
    • M (Modification): We usually convey much more information, so we modify the main S and V with other words and phrases.
    • Clause: is the combination of a S and a V.:
      • Independent clause: makes a complete thought.
      • Dependent clause: doesn't make a complete thought; need to be attached to an independent clause.
      • ¶Dogs bark (louder after midnight);
      • ¶Heavy Isotopes react (more slowly than light ones).
  2. Pattern-1: Simple Sentence: One independent clause; SV
  3. Pattern-2: Compound Sentence: two or more independent clauses.;SV and SV; SV, however SV.
    • Dependent marker: because, since, while, although, if, until, when, as, after, then are some
    • Indpenden marker: therefore, moreover, thus, consequently, however, also are some
    • with a comma: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
    • with a semicolon and comma: however, moreover, nevertheless, nontheless, therefore
  4. Pattern-3: Comlex Sentence:
    • Cause/Effect: because, since, so that
    • Comparison/Contrast: although, even though, though, whereas, while
    • Place/Manneer: where, wherever, how, however
    • Possibility/Conditions: if, whether, unless
    • Relation: that, which, who, whom
    • Time: after, as, before, since, when, whenever, while, until
  5. Pattern-4: Compound-Compex Sentence:
    • Two or more independent clauses PLUS one or more independent clauses.;
      (SV, andSV because SV.) or (Because SV, SV, but SV.)

«Examples of sentence pattern»

By: Grammar in English

  1. Subject (S),
    • Verb (V) [Instransitive Verbe (Vi), Transitive (Vt), Verb of being (Vb), Linking Verb (Vl)],
    • Object (O) [Direct Object (DO)(), Indirect Object (IO)(if IO comes after DO, "to..." or "for..."; Pronouns are sually uses as IO (but not always)],
    • Complement (C) [Prediate nominative (noun or pronoun that renames or callsifies S); Predicae adjective (adjective that describe S)],
    • Advergbial (A) [Adverbial of time/place (Atp)]; Adjective (Aj)
    • Noun phrase (N)
  2. S+V+(A):
    • ¶They/will come/later.; S+Vb+Atp
    • ¶My friends/are/at the library; S+Vb+Atp
    • ¶His clear tenor voice/was/quite/lovely.; S+Vb+Aj
    • ¶He/has been/a teacher/for forty years.; S+Vb+N+Atp
    • ¶The cake on the table/looks/delicious.; S+Vl+Aj
    • ¶She/worked/in a second-hand bookshop.
    • ¶They/went/to the market.
    • ¶He/reads/slowly.
    • ¶The noise/faded/away.
  3. (A)+S+V:
    • ¶At a very early age/Joan/became/a Buddhist.; Atp+S+Vl+N
    • ¶In a few weeks/my cousin/will arrive.; Atp+S+vi
    • ¶Soon/we/wake up.
    • ¶Nicely/he/replied.
    • ¶Fondly/she/asked.
    • ¶Yesterday/I/came.
    • ¶Tomorrow/she/leaves.
  4. (A)+V+S:
    • ¶There is/a strange shadow/in the woods.; There Vb/S/Atp
    • ¶There were/no leftovers/after the buffet.; There Vb/S/Atp
  5. S+V+O:
    • ¶I/finishd/the work.; S+Vt+DO
    • ¶I/like/puppies.
    • ¶David/scolded/the boy.
    • ¶The policce/arrested/the thief.
    • ¶Peter/secured/admission.
    • ¶A huntsman/pursued/a wild animal.
  6. S+V+O+(A):
    • ¶The boy/kicks/the ball/with force.
    • ¶She/made/a new dress/yesterday.
    • ¶Th kidnapper/locked/the child/in a lonely house.
    • ¶He/threw/the chair/out.
    • ¶She/invited/the guests/to get in.
    • ¶They/played/the match/in broad daylight.
    • ¶She/lost/her father/last week.
    • ¶She/shot/the tiger/at once.
    • ¶They/want/money/immediately.
    • ¶He/left/the window/open/during the rain storm.; S/Vt/DO/C(object compliment)
      (Object compliment is a word or group of words that renames, describes, or classifies DO.)
    • ¶He/got/his shoes/wet.
    • ¶They/had/their linch/in the late hours.
    • ¶He/felt/a hand/on his shoulder.
  7. (A)+S+V+O:
    • ¶Everyday/she/was/late.
    • ¶Often/Akbar/got/mad.
    • ¶This year/she/is/the captain.
    • ¶During day time/he/is/an honest man.
  8. S+V+O+(A)+(A):
    • ¶I/met/Sarah/at the theatre/yesterday.
    • ¶He/practised/pistol shooting/in the firing range/in London.
    • ¶She/enjoyed/the music recital immensly/yesterday.
    • ¶They/pushed/the bus/from behind/to make it move.
    • ¶I/will close/the shop/early/today.
    • ¶The rider/brought/the news/typed/at night.
    • ¶He/left/the book/on the table/at once.
  9. S+V+IO+DO:
    • ¶We/wish/you/Happy new year.
    • ¶He/gave/her/a watch.
    • ¶She/sold/him/her house.
    • ¶He/sent/us/some foreign stamps.
    • ¶She/offered/me/a firm hand shake.
    • ¶The Headmaster/showed/her/the result.
  10. (A)+S+V+IO+DO:
    • ¶I/sent/her/a birthday present.; S+Vt+IO(pronoun)+DO
    • ¶Last night/she/gave/him/food.
    • ¶Every day/she/teached/them/science.
    • ¶During lunch/I/served/him/ice-cream.
  11. S+V+C:
    • ¶Mother/looks/tired.; S+Vi+C(predicate adjective)
    • ¶Some students in the class/are/engineers.; S+Vi+C(predicate nominative)
    • ¶I/am/an Inian.
    • ¶The leaves/turn/yellow.
    • ¶Her dreams/have come/true.
    • ¶They/worked/hard.
    • ¶The tea/is getting/cold.
    • ¶It/was/a very pleasant talk.
  12. S+V+C+(A):
    • ¶The chil/fell/asleep/soon.
    • ¶You/seem/tried/today.
    • ¶It/is/dark/everywhere.
    • ¶She/became/wise/thereafter.
    • ¶They/reached/home/late.
    • ¶The train/left/the station/on time.
    • ¶She/got/well/soon.
    • ¶He/became/popular/at one.
    • ¶I/am/the principal/here.
    • ¶She/act/well/at all times.
    • ¶Mr. Obama/was elected/(as [to be])/the President/last month.
  13. (A)+S+V+C+(A):
    • ¶In the end,/the judge/declared/the culprit/innocent/after the trial.
    • ¶Yesterday/the man/murdered/a woman/in rags/mercilessly.
    • ¶In ancient times/people/shot/deer/dead/in the forest.
    • ¶Lat month/they/christened/the child,/John/in the Church.
    • ¶Next Sunday/we/will paint/the car/red/in the meeting.
    • ¶Every day/she/notice/the poor,/half dead/in the street corners.
  14. (A)+(A)+S+V+C:
    • ¶In the prayer hall,/during worship/they/are/silent.
    • ¶Every day,/in the hostel,/she/is/asleep.
    • ¶Next week,/in her garden/she/is/at work.
    • ¶Last week,/in Paris,/she/worked/as a professor.
  15. S+V+O+C:
    • ¶They/made/him/captain.
    • ¶They/elected/him/president.
    • ¶She/made/him/happy.
    • ¶She/learnt/music/last year.
    • ¶She/got/her shoes/wet.
    • ¶She/recognised/him/as agenius.
    • ¶The new/made/his name/popular.
    • ¶He/made/his son/a doctor.
  16. S+V+O+C+(A):
    • ¶She/made/her views/clear/at the outset.
    • ¶The company/appointed/him/clerck/last week.
    • ¶They/named/their bay/Sarah/in the church.
    • ¶They/took/the child,/uncounscious/to the hospital.
    • ¶I/lost/my purse/with money/in the bus.
  17. V+O:
    • ¶Person/me.
    • ¶Call/him.
    • ¶Try/it.

>Top 分詞


§231 現在分詞と
  1. [現在分詞 Present participles] 〜ing形では分詞(形容詞的)と動名詞(名詞的)は同形
    1. Looking at the girl nodding in the corner.
    2. Reading good books is a good way to cultivate yourself.
  2. [過去分詞 Past participles]
§232 分詞の完了形
  1. [完了形] having+過去分詞
    1. Mr. Brown, having had a previous appointment, was unable to come to the party.
  2. [進行形] being + 〜ing (ing形の重複で避けられる傾向); having been + 〜ing (用例少ない)
  3. [単純形の受動態] being+過去分詞
    1. The birds, being alarmed by the shot, flew away.
    2. The pickpocket kept being caught.
    3. Several new offices are being built.
  4. [完了形の受動態]
    1. Having been told so beforehand, he was not surprised.
§233 分詞の
  1. [進行形と完了形を作る]
    1. [進行形]
      The ice on the pond is beginning to melt.
      The panda was sleeping.
    2. [完了形]
      The rocket has just taken off
      The cookies are all gone.
  2. [受動態を作る]
    1. Gestures may be misunderstood.
    2. They have been married for three years.
§234 分詞の形容詞的用法と分詞形容詞
  1. [限定修飾の位置]
    1. That was a interesting experience.
    2. He warmed his hands before the burning fire.
    3. He was looking at the fire burning brightly.
  2. [共に用いる語句]
    1. That was a very interesting movie.
    2. That woman dressed in white is a famous actress.
    3. The man driving the car was drunk.
    4. Do you know the bell called Big Ben?
  3. [その他]
    1. We must gain a working knowledge of English. (形容詞は一時的)
    2. It was the sound of a working pump. (分詞は永続的)
    3. I'd like to have a more thrilling experience.
    4. Show looking at the setting Sun.

§235 分詞の限定用法と叙述用法

  1. [分詞の限定用法]
    1. [名詞の前]
      He took a picture f the melting snow.
      They found a hidden treasure.
      The police are now after the escaped prisoner.
    2. [名詞の後]
      The man standing (=who is standing) over there is the owner of the store.
      The is the mansion belonging (=which belongs) to Mr. Smith.
      What is the language spoken (=which is spoken) in Iran?
      The train just arrived at Platform 1 is from New York.
  2. [分詞の叙述用法]
    1. [自動詞の主格補語]
      She sat singing merrily. (現在分詞)
      My mother looked a little surprised at the letter. (過去分詞)
      He stood astonished at the sight of the huge rock. (過去分詞)
    2. [他動詞の目的格補語]
      I can see birds hopping among the branches of a tree. (知覚動詞)
      I saw her carried out of the burning house.
      I can't have you coming home so late. (使役動詞)
      I had a bad tooth pulled out yesterday.
      I'd like my egg boiled.
§236 Have [get]+目的語+過去分詞
  1. [使役]
    1. I had my suitcase carried to my room by a bellboy.
      I'll have the holes in that wall covered tomorrow.
      I'm getting a new house built.
      Get the bedsheets changed. (命令)
  2. [受動被害]
    1. I had my bicycle stolen in the park.
      I got my arm broken while playing soccer.
  3. [完了]
    1. I have a title already chosen.
§237 SVO+分詞
  1. [SVO+現在分詞]
    1. [知覚動詞]
      I saw some koalas eating leaves.
      I saw a salesman enter his house.
      I saw him jump to his feet. (短時間で完結)
      Nancy felt tears running down her cheeks.
      I smelled something burning.
    2. ☆ [現在分詞を補語にとる知覚動詞]
      feel; hear; listen to; look at; notice; observe; see; smell; watch
    3. [使役動詞など]
      He has a car waiting for me.
      He got the engine running.
      His words set me thinking deeply about my future.
      What started you taking an interest in physics?
      She kept us waiting for a long time.
      Don't leave the baby crying in the bed.
    4. [like/wantなど]
      I don't like you speaking with the crowd.
      I don't want you waking me up so early.
  2. [SVO+過去分詞]
    1. [知覚動詞]
      Have you ever heard that song sung in German?
    2. [使役動詞など]
      I managed to make myself understood in English.
      I think you had better leave it unsaid.
      They kept all the doors locked.
    3. [like/wantなど]
    4. I'd like this broken chair repaired.
      We want this problem solved quickly.
    5. I need this jacket mended.
§238 分詞の転用
  1. [名詞用法]
    1. The unexpected has happed.
      The wounded and the dying were lying about.
      The accused were put on trial for robbing the bank.
  2. [副詞用法]
    1. It was burning hot. (焼けるように暑い)
      It is a damned good job. (とても良い仕事)
    2. ☆ [副詞的機能を持った分詞]
      boliling (hot); burning (hot) ; perishing (cold); shocking (bad); sopping (we); tearing (angry); thundering (big)

§239 分詞構文の形

Participal construction; 分詞=動詞+接続詞;

  1. [現在分詞と過去分詞の分詞構文]
    1. Walking along the stream, I met a group of hikers.
    2. Persuaded by his friends, Brutus made up his mind to kill Caesar.
  2. [分詞構文の意味上の主語]
    1. Seeing me, the dog wagged its tail. (=When the dog saw m, it wagged its tail.)
    2. Speaking of cars, what have you done with yours?
    3. The rain begining to fall, we took a taxi. (=Because the rain began to fall, we too a taxi.
  3. [分詞構文の時制]
    1. [述語動詞と同時] Now knowing what to do, she came to ask for my advice.
      (=Because she did not know what to do, she came to ask for my advice.)
    2. [述語動詞より前]
      Having lost all my money, I had to give up my plan.
      (=Because I had lost all my money, I had to give up my plan.)
  4. [受動態の分詞構文]
    1. (Being) Written in a clear hand, this report is easy to read.
    2. (Having been) Born in America, he is proficient in English.
§240 分詞構文の表す意味
  1. [時]
    1. Seeing the police office, he ran away. (=When he saw the police officer, he ran away.)
    2. Left to herself, she began to weep. (=When she was left to herself, she began to weep.)
  2. [原因理由]
    1. Having much to do, she felt depressed. (=Because she had much to do, she felt depressed.)
    2. (Being) Badly injured, she couldn't walk. (=Because she was badly injured, she couldn't walk.)
  3. [付帯状況]
    1. The girls sat on the grass, looking at the setting Sun.
    2. A young man came up to her, asking (=and asked) her to dance with him.
  4. [条件]
    1. Used economically, this tube will last a month. (=If it is used economically, this tube will last a month.)
  5. [譲歩]
    1. Granting this to be true, we still cannot explain it.
      (=Though we grant this to be true, we still cannot explain it.)
§241 分詞構文の位置
  1. [時]
    1. Reading a book, he found a misprint.
    2. Having received their final medical check, the astronauts boarded their spacecraft.
  2. [原因理由]
    1. Being young, he was very energetic.
    2. The teacher, not having heard the chimes, kept on teaching.
    3. She remained silent, not knowing what to do.
  3. [付帯状況]
    1. Someone was standing by the gate, looking at me.
    2. Smiling pleasantly, the stranger turned as if to speak to me.
    3. Entering the room, she switched on the light.
      She entered the room, switching on the light.
    4. This train starts at two, arriving in London at nine.
      This train, starting at two, arrives in London at night.
  4. [条件譲歩]
    1. If travelling north, you must change at Morioka.
    2. While admitting that he was there at that time, he denied that he had killed Mr. Birt.
§242 独立分詞構文
  1. [独立分詞構文]
    1. We will start tomorrow morning, weather permitting.
    2. This done, they next set to clean the room. (=When this was done, they next set to clean the room.)
    3. She ran up to me, her hair flying in the wind.
    4. All the time, they were fast asleep, all of them knowing nothing about what had happened.
  2. [with+独立分詞構文]
    1. The little girl called out to the mother, with tears running down her cheeks.
    2. He sat in the chair with his legs crossed.
§243 独立分詞構文の例外
  1. [懸垂分詞 Dangling particle]
    1. Looking for a theme, a good idea occurred to me.
      (=While I was looking for a theme, a good idea occurred to me.)
    2. Having been Sunday the day before, the hospital was rather crowded.
§244 慣用的な分詞構文
  1. [慣用的な分詞構文] assume; consider; grant; judge; speak; talk
    1. Assuming it rains tomorrow, what shall I do?
    2. Considering his abilities, he should have done better.
    3. Granting that he has enough money to buy the new car, it doesn't mean he's going to do so.
    4. Judging from the look of the sky, we'll have a rain this evening.
    5. Generally speaking, women live longer than men.
    6. Talking of music, which composer do you like best?
    7. Speaking of food, I like a chili hot dog or French fries.
    8. Strictly [Frankly/Roughly] speaking, this is true.
    9. Taking his age into consideration, he did it quite well
  2. [分詞構文由来の接続詞]
    1. ☆ providing [provided] (that) 〜; seeing (that) 〜; supposing (that) 〜
  3. [分詞構文由来の前置詞]
    1. ☆ according to; concerning; excepting; including; regarding;

>Top <C>:


>Top <D>:


>Top 代名詞


§82 代名詞の種類
  1. [人称代名詞] Personal pronoun: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
    1. [所有代名詞] Possesive pronoun: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs
    2. [再帰代名詞] Reflective pronoun: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourseves, themselves
  2. [指示代名詞] Demonstrative pronoun: this that
  3. [不定代名詞] Indefinite pronoun: one, some, all, none
  4. [疑問代名詞] Interrogative pronoun: who, what, which
  5. [関係代名詞] Relative pronoun: who, what, which

§83 代名詞の用法

  1. [代名詞の用法]
    1. [人・物・事]
    2. [文脈推定]
    3. [文]
  2. [代名詞の位置]
    1. [名詞句の後] 原則
    2. [名詞句の前] 例外
      1. She is very kind, Aunt Mary.
      2. What he alway says is this; humanbeings are selfish by naturee.
      3. While he was walking along the steet, Tom saw a strange thing. (従節先行)
      4. It is obvious that she has proken her promise. (形式主語)

§84 人称と格

  Nominative Possesive Objective Nominative Possesive Objective
  Singular Plural (formal)
2nd person thou (you)
thy (your)
thine (your)
thee (you) ye (you)
(you all; y'all; yinz; yous; you ens; you lot; yous lot; you guys; you mob)
G: 1st ich     wir    
G: 2nd du     ihr    
G: 3rd er/sie/Sie; es du   sie/Sie    
ich komme
du kommst
sie kommt

wir kommen
ihr kommt
sie kommen

wilt (will)
shalt (shall)
canst (can)
art (are)
hast (have)
wast [wert] (were)
  1. [thou]
    1. thou shalt not commit adultery.
    2. When thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are. (汝祈るとき偽善者の如くあらざれ)
    3. Thou snail!
    4. Thou shalt not site and watch telvision all evening.
    5. thou knowest (you know); thou drivest (you drive); thou makest (you make);
      thou lovest (you love; L. amas)
    6. thou art, thou beest (you are); thou was, thou wert (you were)
    7. thou hast, thou hadst (you have; G. du hast)
    8. thou dost, thou doest, thou didst (you do)
    9. thou shalt (you shall)
    10. thou wilt (you will)
    11. she hath (she has; G. sie hat)
    12. What hast thou? (What have you?; G. Was hast du?)
    13. What hath she? (What has she?; G. Was hat sie?)
    14. Thou goest (You go; G. Du gehst)
    15. Thou dost (You do; G. Du tust)
    16. Thou art, Thou beest, (You are; G. Du bist)
  2. [ye]
    1. Ye are the salt of the earth. (汝らは地の塩なり)

§85 人称代名詞

  1. [人称の優先順位]
    1. You and John can stay in your room.
    2. You, Mary, and I have already finished. We can go out now.
  2. [iota]
    1. The child lost its way.
    2. Who is it? - It's me.
    3. The bell rang at the door. It was Mr. Smith.
    4. She was happy, as she looked it. (=happy)
  3. [冒頭の代名詞]
    1. It was the first dead body he had ever seen. (小説の冒頭)

§86 人称代名詞の

  1. [2>3>1人称]
    1. You and I had better start at once.
    2. You and she will have to do the work all by yourselves.
    3. I and my husband (Queen Victoria)

§87 人称代名詞の所有格

  1. [own]
    1. This car is my very own.
    2. I want a car of my (very) own.

§88 総称人称

  1. [総称人称]
    1. We ha had lots of rain this year.
    2. You never can tell what will happen
    3. They say that she will marry.
    4. Do you like caviar? - I've never tasted it.
    5. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.

§89 Weの特別用法

  1. [Editorial we]
    1. As we noted above, the medicien has some side effects.
  2. [同乗者]
    1. We were sailing off Guam.
§90 Itの用法
  1. [Impersonal 'it']
    1. It is three years since my sister got married.
    2. How far is it to you school
    3. It is about ten minutes' walk to the station.
    4. It looks like rain.
    5. It was very cold and windy that morning.
    6. It gets dark early at this time of the year.
    7. It took me three days to finish the paper.
  2. [It seem that...]
    1. It seems that he knows the secret.
    2. It happened that he was out when I dropped in.
    3. It chanced that I met him at the airport.
    4. It didn't occur to me that they were twins.
    5. It suddenly struck me that he would have the last word again.
    6. It flashed across my mind that she might be married.
    7. It dawned on me where I'd seen him before.
    8. It later transpired that he had been ill with an incurable disease.
  3. [Situation 'it']
    1. It's all over with him. (彼はもうだめ)
    2. It's my turn.
    3. How is it going with your family?
    4. It would be nice if all children were on an adult's knee, able to ask questions.
    5. How do you like it here? I like it very much.
    6. Take it easy. Everything will be all right.
    7. Do you mean me? - You got it. (その通り)
    8. At last we've made it. (とうとう成功)
    9. You should stick it out. (我慢すべき)
    10. We must fight it out. (最後まで)
    11. thank you very much. - Think nothing of it! (お気遣いなく)
    12. We had a hard time of it. (つらい時を過ごした)
    13. Is this what you've been looking for? - Yes, that's it!
    14. If you want a Venetian glass vase, then this it it! (これがそう)
  4. [anticipatory 'it']
    1. It is a nuisance, this delay.
    2. It's boring, this sort of play.
    3. It is not easy to get out of a bad habit.
    4. It is necessary fro you to start at once.
    5. She does not know what it is to be poor.
    6. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
    7. It wouldn't be any good trying to solve the problem. (無駄だろう)
    8. It's fun working here.
    9. It was clear that something had to be done.
    10. It's a pity that Tanaka could not join our meeting.
    11. Is it true (that) you are going abroad for your holidays?
    12. It is natural (that) she should get angry.
    13. (It is) No wonder (that) she speaks Spanish well.
    14. The boy, it was clear to us, couldn't live much longer.
    15. It doesn't matter who you are or where you live.
    16. It was uncertain whether he would consent.
    17. It makes no difference to me whether she comes or not.
  5. [Formal object]
    1. I thought it my duty to support the chairperson.
    2. What made it difficult for you to come here?
    3. Won't you find it rough walking without your shoes?
    4. I think it dangerous her going there alone at night.
    5. We took it for granted that you would agree.
    6. I'll see to it that there is no such mistake again. (気をつけよう)
  6. [It is〜that強調構文]
    1. It was Wilma who revealed the secret to me.
    2. It is he that is responsible.
    3. It is here that the battle of Waterloo was won.
    4. It was in this year that the war broke out
    5. What was it that he wanted you to do?
    6. It is what Tom says that I don't understand.
    7. It was not until I came to Japan that I learned it.
    8. It was this window Jim broke yesterday.
    9. (It was) Tom (that) lost his watch. (強調構文; 語順が正文)
      Cf: It is a fact that the world is round. (形式主語; 語順が誤文)
§91 所有代名詞
  1. [用法]
    1. Ours is essentially a tragic age. (=our age)
    2. I really like that charming smile of hers.
  2. [所有代名詞の慣用表現]
    1. Yours sincerely.
    2. With best wishes to you and yours. (=your family)
    3. It is yours to take care of the child. (=your duty)
    4. We have received yours of the 10th inst. (=your letter; inst.=instant今月; 古風)
§92 再帰代名詞
  1. [なぜ3人称だけが目的格+selfなのか]
    1. He him self ... → He himself (本来系)。その後1/2人称が所有格+selfになった。
  2. [用法]
    1. You may avail yourself of any book in my library.
    2. He absented himself from the meeting.
    3. He demeaned himself by telling a lie (堅い言い方)
    4. He ingratiated himself with rich people. (機嫌をとる)
    5. She perjured herself in the court. (偽証)
    6. He prided himself on his self-control. (自慢)
    7. bethink oneself; betake oneself (古風)
  3. [省略可能な再帰動詞]
    1. ☆ adjust (oneself) to; dress; hide; shave; wash; worry; behave; identify (oneself) with; prepare (oneself) for; prove (oneself) (to be);
  4. [自動詞を表すのに再帰代名詞を必要とする他動詞]
    1. ☆ content oneself; enjoy oneself; excuse oneself; flatter oneself; occupy oneself; present oneself
    2. She seated herself before the piano. (=sat down)
    3. Raise oneself (=rise); lay oneself (=lie)
    4. The bay cried itself to sleep.
    5. I shouted myself hoarse. (声をからした)
    6. (Please) Help yourself to the cake.
    7. Please sit yourself down.
    8. She applied herself to learning Spanish.
    9. It is true that history repeats itself.
    10. She found herself in front of the shop.
    11. The boy shot himself while he was playing with a gun.
    12. He brought himself a new camera.
    13. China is clearly on a path to modernizing itself.
    14. Jill's mother stared at her in the mirror. (鏡の中のジル)
      Cf: Jill's mother stared at herself in the mirror. (鏡の中の自分)
  5. [前置詞の目的語]
    1. They have been taught to think of themselves as weak.
    2. (Please) Take good care of yourself.
    3. How can she catch the thief by herself? (=alone)
    4. Look up the word in the dictionary for yourself.
    5. But cars are also dangerous in themselves. (本来)
    6. Did the tooth come out of [by] itself, or did you pull it out?
  6. [その他慣用表現]
    1. He was beside himself when he saw the damaged car. (逆上した)
    2. Between ourselves, I think he is rather timid. (ここだけの話)
    3. She came to herself after a while. (意識取り戻した)
    4. I stood up in spite of myself. (思わず)
    5. Those books belong to the library, but this is my own. (再帰代名詞には所有格ないので)
    6. She cooked all the meals by herself. (=alone)
      Cf: She cooked all the meals for herself (for the benefit of oneself)
§93 指示代名詞
  1. [用法]
    1. Who is this [that], please? - This is Peter speaking.
    2. To be or not to be; that is the question.
    3. I've caught a cold - That's too bad.
    4. We see him taking a walk, but this isn't very often.
    5. What I want to say is this. Everyone has a right to live free.
    6. Are you finished, then? = Yes, that's that.
    7. Will this be okay? = Yes, that's all right.
  2. [対語]
    1. She went to this doctor and that.
    2. Work and play are both necessary to health; this gives us rest, and that gives us energy. (後者前者)
  3. [副詞的用法]
    1. I didn't think the task would be this easy.
    2. I didn't know it was getting this late.
    3. I will go that far, but no farther.
  4. [慣用表現]
    1. At this he jumped up. (これを聞くと)
    2. With this he closed the book. (こう言うと)
    3. Do they always dance like this in France?
    4. I'll forgive you this once. (今度だけは)
    5. He makes mistakes, and that very often. (しかも)
    6. It's an idea, and a good one at that. (おまけに)
    7. He kissed her and with that he left. (そうしてから)
    8. He will arrive on May 1st, that is, this day next week.
    9. I'm fed up with school and homework and all that (stuff). (そんなものに)
§94 thatの用法
  1. [繰り返しを避けるthat] =the+名詞; 複数形はthose=the ones
    1. The population of China is larger than that of India.
    2. The feathers of owls are softer than those of other birds.
    3. The dialect spoken in this town is different from that spoken in the next town.
    4. The blonde girl I saw was older than the one [× that] you were dancing with. (人)
    5. Her expression was almost one of grief. (=an expression) (a+名詞)
    6. A house built of bricks is more durable than one [× that] made of wood. (総称名詞)
    7. Elephants in
    8. Africa eat hay, but those in India want sugar cane. (in Indiaで特定; those=the ones)
  2. [that which/ those who] that which (文語的)
    1. That which many people say is not always true.
    2. Lend me that camera (which) you boast of.
    3. Those who want to leave early may do so.
    4. I keep only those books at hand which I want to read again.
    5. The girl was among those chosen.
    6. Those present were all pleased with the news.
§95 suchの用法
  1. [代名詞]
    1. Those who leave parcels on the train cannot expect to recover such.
      (=parcels they leave on the train.
    2. Some reactions to the proposal may be hostile, but there will surely not be many such.
      (=hostile reactions)
    3. I may have hurt your feelings but such was certainly not may intention.
    4. If the firm makes mistakes, the firm deserves to suffer. Such, at least, was his opinion.
    5. Such [This] being the case, the conference was put off for three days.
  2. [慣用表現]
    1. He's a good man and is known as such to everyone. (それ自体は)
    2. They will plant flowers such as roses, sunflowers, etc.
    3. I don't have many samples but I will send you such as I have.
    4. Such was his disgust that he refused to talk.
    5. His condition was such that he could not be moved. (それ程まで)
    6. Hi illness was not such as to cause anxiety.
    7. If they tell you to come on such and such a day, don't agree if it's not convenient.
    8. He won't refuse to give you his help, such as it is. (お粗末ながら9
  3. [形容詞としての用法] such+a+形容詞+名詞
    1. I never thought of such a thing.
    2. The people had never known such a brave man.
    3. I've had such a wonderful time!
    4. Read such books as will benefit.
    5. Life science may advance to such a degree that human beings will be able to live to the age of 150.
    6. I slapped her hand and she got such a shock that she dropped the milk-can.
  4. [all [any/ few] such+名詞]
    1. All such books are useful
    2. They want beer, but don't give them any such thing - tea's good enough.
    3. I said no such thing.
    4. I saw just such another yesterday.
    5. Some of the fish may be poisonous but none such has [have] yet been reported.

§96 so の用法

  1. [代名詞的なsoの用法]
    1. It looks like it's going to rain. - Yes, I thing so, too.
      (so=that it is going to rain)
    2. Is he ill? - I hope not. (not=soの否定=that he is not ill.)
    3. He is going to resign. - So I hear. (素のようですね)
    4. [I hope soの形をとる動詞]
      ☆ be afraid; believe; expect; fancy; fear; guess; hope; imagine; say; speak; suppose; think
  2. [do soの形の代動詞]
    1. IF you want to go alone, you can do so.
    2. Bob hid the knife in the cupboard. - I wonder why hid did so.
    3. I road a camel in Morocco. - I'd love to do that [× so]. (主語が違う)
  3. [補語として名詞・形容詞代わりに]
    1. She is a romantic and he thinks himself so.
    2. Hie is kind to his wife and will remain so for ever.
    3. We hoped the concert would be a success, and so it turned out.
    4. Some are wise and some are otherwise. (soの否定)
    5. How is your father? - Only so-so.
  4. [so+VS/ so+SV]
    1. I am a high-school student. - So am I.
    2. I am not a specialist. Neither [Nor] am I.
    3. I think he is an honest politician. - So he is.
§97 someの用法
  1. [基本的用法]
    1. I said it was a nice day and she said the same.
    2. These two buildings are the same height.
    3. These two words are spelt the same (as each other)
  2. [the same〜as/ the same〜that]
    1. She is wearing the same T-shirt as [that] she had on yesterday.
    2. He uses the same word processor as I (do)
    3. He has made the same mistakes (that) he made last time.
    4. He is the same man who was here yesterday.
    5. She went back to the same place where she had lost the key.
    6. This is the very watch I lost yesterday.
  3. [sameを含む慣用表現]
    1. They eat much the same thing for breakfast every day. (ほとんど)
    2. Daddy-Long-Legs and Mr. Pendleton were one and the same person.
    3. Happy Christmas! - (The) same to you!
    4. Whether you go or stay, it's all [just] the same to me.
    5. He is still young, but I'll vote for him all the same. (それでも)
    6. You may go today or tomorrow; it comes [amounts] to the same thing. (結局同じ)
    7. I'm a stranger her myself. I'm sorry I don't know.
      - I see. thank you just the same. (=Thank you anyway)

>Top 動詞


§162 自動詞と他動詞
  1. [自動詞] Intransitive verb:
    1. 完全自動詞
    2. 不完全自動詞
  2. [他動詞] Transitive verb
    1. 完全他動詞
    2. 不完全他動詞
  3. [識別] 自動詞は前置詞が必要
    1. Jack called on his cousin at three. (自動詞) 訪問
    2. Jack called his cousin at three. (他動詞) 電話
  4. [自動詞にも他動詞にも]
    1. Rice grows in a warm climate.
    2. Young people grow heir hair long these days.
  5. [他動詞が自動詞になる場合] 目的語の省略で自動詞化
    1. ☆ catch (fire); drink (liquor); eat (food); read (books); smoke (cigarettes); wave (one's hand)
    2. We eat to live, not live to eat.
    3. This lighter won't catch. (火がつかない)
  6. [自動詞が他動詞になる場合]
    1. [使役の意味を含む]
      1. The engine runs day and night.
      2. They run the enine day and night.
    2. [母音変化による自動詞・他動詞]
      1. ☆ fall - fell; rise -raise; lie - lay
    3. [結果を示す] 不自然な目的語がくる。
      1. H drank himself sick. (飲み過ぎて)
      2. She smiled her welcome. (にこりとして)
      3. He smiled a wry smile. (苦笑い)
      4. Helen cried her eyes out. (激しく泣く)
§163 自動詞と
  1. [間違えやすい他動詞] 日本語の類推から
    1. × The animal resmebles to a rat.
    2. × We reached to our destination in two days.
    3. × A stranger approached to me and accosted to me.
    4. × a lot of people attended to the funeral.
    5. × Anser to the bell, Jim.
    6. × Everybody stands up when the judge enters into the court.
    7. × My sister married with a bank clerk.
    8. × I discussed about the problem of food with them.
    9. × You must consider about other people's feelings.
§164 他動詞と
  1. [間違えやすい自動詞]
    1. We all hope for your sucess.
    2. I object to her going to the party.
    3. I apologized to him for my rudeness.
    4. He quite agreed with me on that point
    5. We have nothing to compain of.
    6. He looked up at the sky.
    7. Listen carefully to the conversation on the tape.
§165 動作動詞と状態動詞
  1. [look at/ see] 動作動詞は進行形になる。状態動詞は一般に進行形にならない。
    1. What are you looking at?
    2. What do you see?
    3. They were seeing the sights of London. (見物の場合は動作動詞)
  2. [listen to/ hear]
    1. Everybody was listening to the newscast intently.
    2. Do you hear me?
  3. [put on/ wear] put onは身につける、wearは身につけている。
    1. She put on an evening gown and went to the party.
    2. She wore [was wearing] a whie evening gown at the party.
§166 方向性のある
  1. [sell-buy/ lend-borrow]
    1. Jim sold an old motorbike to Bill.
    2. Bill bought an old motorbike from Jim.
    3. My father lent me his camera.
    4. I borrowed a camera from my father.
    5. I leases the house to Mrs. Tayler.
    6. Mrs. Tayler leased the house from me.
  2. [replace - substitute] replace A by B (A→B); substitute A for B (A←B)
    1. You have to replace butter by [with] margarine.
    2. You have to substitute margarine for butter.
§167 名詞順の入替
  1. [自動詞]
    1. Wildlife abounds in the forest.
    2. The forest abounds in [with] wildlife.
    3. Tourists were swarming over the place.
    4. The place was swarming with tourists.
  2. [他動詞]
    1. She piles dishes on the table.
    2. She piled the table with dishes.
    3. Indian women smear pigment on their faces.
    4. Indian women smear their faces with pigment.
§168 日本語と違う
  1. [borrow/ use] bottowは借りて持ち去る。useはその場で使う。
    1. Can I borrow your raincoat, Mommy?
    2. Can I use your bathroom?
  2. [leave/ forget] leaveは物を置き忘れる、forgetは持ってくるのを忘れる。
    1. I forgot my keys.
    2. I left my gloves in your car.
  3. [doubt/ suspect] doubt≒don't think; suspect≒think
    1. I doubt if I'll fish the work by tomorrow.
    2. Doctors suspect smoking has to do with cancer.
  4. [rob/ steal] rob A of B; steal B from A
    1. The burglar robbed her of some jewels.
      (She was robbed of some jewels.)
    2. The burglar stole some jewels from her.
      (She had some jewels stolen./Some jewels were stolen from her.)
  5. [write/ draw/ paint]
    1. She wrote her name in Kanji.
    2. She drew a circle on the blackboard.
    3. Do you like landscapes painted by Turner.
  6. [contain/ comprise/ consist of]
    1. This medicine contains caffeine.
    2. A committee is comprised of local residents.
    3. The university comprises four faculties.
    4. This apartment consists of five rooms.
  7. [その他]
    1. I had a strange dream last night.
    2. She ate soup at lunch.
    3. An opium eater.
    4. I'll go to see him tomorrow.
    5. I'll come to your house tomorrow.
    6. Will you come to the party? (話者は行く)
    7. Will you go to the party? (話者は行かない)
  8. [tell/ show/ teach]
    1. Will you tell me the way to the post office? (showは図示、teachは知識)
  9. [climb/ go up] climbは手足
    1. The police know Sharon went up [× climbed] the mountain on the cable car.
  10. [name/ call]
    1. We were showing a Jessie Mattews film called [× named] Evergreen.
§169 be/do/haveの
  1. [beの用法]
    1. [完全自動詞] =exist; 文語的
      1. God is.
      2. To be, or not to be; that is the question.
      3. Put the tape recorder back where it was.
    2. [不完全自動詞] =become; becomeより口語的
      1. Kanko wants to be a football player.
      2. Kanako will be eleven next month.
      3. When will their wedding be?
    3. [慣用表現] be toで助動詞的
      1. The prime minister is to visit Thailand next month.
  2. [doの用法]
    1. [他動詞]
      1. Have you done your hair? (手入れ)
      2. I do my room every other day. (片付け)
      3. Husbands ought to help wives do the dishes. (皿洗い)
      4. Hi is going to America to do research in economics. (研究のために)
      5. I'm poor at doing sums. (計算に弱い)
      6. I was told to do this English letter into Japanese. (訳す)
      7. We did the sights of Edinburgh yesterday.
      8. Let's go and do the British Museum.
      9. Will £10 do you? (間にあう; 英のみ)
      10. The spaceship has already done two million miles.
      11. My motorcycle does 230 km an hour.
      12. I like my beefsteak well done.
    2. [自動詞]
      1. Which would you like? - Either will do.
      2. This will never do. (ダメ)
      3. Jim is doing very well at school. (成績がいい)
      4. What's doing there. (事が起こる) 口語調
    3. [doを含む慣用句]
      1. I can't do with such a low salary.
      2. What should we do with tis complaint?
      3. I could do with a cup of coffee. (飲みたい!)
      4. We'll have to do without water for a day or two.
      5. The politician has something to do with the scandal.
      6. The accident had nothing to do with the engine.
  3. [haveの用法]
    1. [食べる/飲む]
      1. What did you have for breakfast?
      2. Did you have a good time yesterday?
      3. I have a bad cold.
      4. She almost had an accident on her way home.
    2. [慣用表現]
      1. We have to take work home sometimes.
      2. We've got to stick to it to the last.
      3. It has to be a joke. (〜に違いない)
      4. There has to be something I can do for you.
      5. That has to be the best idea.
      6. I'm just ready to go out and Popeye has to show up.
      7. You have only to wait and see. (〜さえすればよい)
      8. We all have to have seal bets. on.
      9. I had a talk with the president.
      10. She had [took] a quick look at her mother's long letter.
§170 使役動詞
  1. [let] let: 自由放任; make:強制的; have: 手はず
    1. We usually let the kids stay up late at weekends.
    2. He is letting his beard grow.
    3. Let your dog run free in the yard.
    4. Let us know when you will arrive in Tokyo.
    5. Let's watch the ball game on TV.
    6. Let's not talk about it any more.
  2. [make]
    1. Money makes the mare to go. (能動態でもto不定詞の例外; 諺)
    2. I couldn't make myself understood in English.
  3. [have]
    1. [使役] háve
      1. I had my brother sweep the floor.
      2. I'll have him call later. (後ほど電話させます。)
    2. [容認]
      1. I will have my men show due respect for their officers.
      2. I won't have my employees answer me back like that.
      3. I would have you know that I am your boss. (〜してもらいたい; 文語的)
    3. [経験・被害]
      1. we've had this happen may times.
      2. I hád my printer repaired.
      3. Nancy got her hair done by her mother.
  4. [have+目的語+現在分詞]
    1. [使役]
      1. I had my cant feeding on canned food.
      2. The landlady will soon have you cleaning your room
    2. [容認]
      1. I won't have my son wearing his hair long.
    3. [経験・被害]
      1. We had a distant cousin visiting us at that time.
      2. Jim got scolded by his teacher. He had it coming. (当然の報いだ; 米口語調)
  5. [get]
    1. mary got her sister to hel her pack. (to不定詞)
  6. [help/ bid]
    1. My kid brother helped me (to) water the garden.
§171 知覚動詞
  1. [主な知覚動詞] 五感で関知する場合(身体知覚)
    1. ☆ see; look at; observe; notice; watch; perceive; hear overhear; listen to; feel
  2. [see/ watch/ look at]
    1. I saw him cross the street. (= He was seen to cross the street.)
    2. I saw him crossing the street. (=He was seen crossing the street.)
    3. I watched the magician shuffle the cards.
    4. Both looked at some little birds bathing in the puddle.
    5. Did you notice John go upstairs?
    6. Nobody perceived Jamie going out of the room.
    7. I observed someone coming toward me in the dark.
  3. [hear/ listen to]
    1. I heard someone call my name.
    2. I heard someone calling my name.
    3. I heard my name called (by someone).
    4. She listened to her grandma talk about the good old days.
    5. Jim overheard Silver talking with his brother.
  4. [feel]
    1. Did you feel the house shake?
    2. He felt his heart beating fast.
§172 同族目的語を
  1. [同族目的語が同語源]
    1. Richard III died a misrable death. (=died miserably)
    2. She sang a beautiful song.
  2. [同族目的語が意味上関連]
    1. They fought a fierce battle. (=fought fiercely)
    2. We ran a short distance race.
  3. [最上級形容詞だけのこり、同族目的語は省略]
    1. He breathed his last (breath).
    2. Helen smiled her brightest (smile).
  4. [同族目的語をとる動詞]
    1. ☆ smile a 〜 smile; live a 〜 life; die a 〜 death; sing a 〜 song; laugh a 〜 laugh; fight a 〜 fight; sleep a 〜 sleep; breath a 〜 breath; dream a 〜 dream (今は have a 〜 dream)
§173 語法上注意
  1. [能動態で受動の意味]
    1. His novels sell pretty well.
    2. This paper reads like a novel.
  2. [再帰動詞] 目的語に再帰動詞をとる。
    1. You mus avail youself of every opportunity.
    2. Help youself to these cookiees. (召し上がれ)
    3. [自動詞になった再帰動詞]
      1. ☆ overeat oneself; oversleep oneself; hide oneself;
      2. ☆ betake oneself to (文語的); bethink oneself of (文語的)
  3. [伝達動詞] 目的語+目的語節
    1. She suggested to me that I call off the date.
    2. Could you explain to us why TV games are harmful?
    3. I admitted to him that I had a weakness for sweets.
    4. Jack proved to me that my theory was false.
    5. I requeested (of them) that they refrain from smoking.
    6. The police officer inquired of him where he wanted to go.
  4. [introduce/ add]
    1. Let me introduce Mr. Mason, the lawyer, to you.
    2. She adde a little salt to the soup.
    3. Shakespere compared life to a walking shadow.
  5. [provide/ supply/ feed]
    1. Cows provide [supply] us with milk.
    2. Cows provide [supply] milk to us.
    3. Cows provide [supply] us milk.
    4. I feed my goldfish with fish meal.
    5. I feed fish meal to my goldfish.
    6. I feed my goldfish fish meal.
  6. [pile/ load/ strke]
    1. He loaded tha back seat of his car with his baggage.
    2. He loaded his baggage onto the back seat of his car.
    3. He struck his knee with his hand.
    4. He struck his hand on his knee.
§174 規則動詞
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§175 不規則動詞
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§176 注意すべき
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§177 -ing形
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>Top 句動詞

«Phrasal verb» 動詞+副詞; 動詞+前置詞などで全体で1つの動詞 (群動詞/ 動詞句)

§178 動詞+副詞
  1. [動詞+副詞]
    1. [自動詞]
      1. Several days went by.
      2. The rainy season has set in.
      3. Look out! A car is coming.
      4. The moment he saw me, he ran away.
    2. [他動詞]
      1. I turned on the TV.
      2. Don't put off until tomorrow what you can do today.
      3. Why don't you try it on? said she. - So I put on the overcoat. [put the overcoat on]
      4. He sat the pupils down.
      5. I'll get it over (with) soon. (他動詞+副詞)
      6. I'll get over it soon. (自動詞+前置詞)
      7. I want to call him up. (他動詞+副詞)
      8. I want to call on him. (自動詞+前置詞)
  2. [動詞+副詞+前置詞=他動詞]
    1. We are all looking forward to seeing you.
    2. I couldn't put up with her insolence.
    3. You are sure to catch up with him if you hurry up.
    4. Everybody look up to Miss Jane; nobody speaks ill of her.
  3. [自動詞+副詞+前置詞] 型句動詞
    1. ☆ ask for; catch up with; depend on; do away with; do without; hear of; laugh at; look at; look down on; put up with; rely on; speak ill of
§179 動詞+名詞
  1. [他動詞+目的語=自動詞]
    1. Odd things do take place sometimes.
    2. Propane easily catches fires. (引火)
    3. The roof gave way under the snow.
    4. Do you have any idea what that means?
    5. Make haste slowly.
  2. [他動詞+目的語+前置詞=他動詞]
    1. You must not lose sight of your original aim.
    2. You must take advantage of the result of the last experiment.
    3. No one took notice of the fact.
    4. She made the most of the opportunity.
    5. She made the best of the situation. (切り抜ける)
    6. They made a fool of me.
    7. You're always finding fault with something or other. (けち)
§277 句動詞の受動態
  1. [自動詞+副詞+前置詞]
    1. My sister looked after my hamster while I was away.
      →My hamster was looked after by my sister while I was away.
    2. All the players look up to the coach.
      →The coach is looked up to by all the players.
    3. All his classmates speak well of him.
      →He is spoken well of [well spoken of] by all his classmates.
    4. at long last this conclusion was arrived at.
    5. ☆ ask for; catch up with; depend on; do away with; do without; hear of; laugh at; look at; look down on; put up with; rely on; speak ill of;
  2. [前置詞の目的語が受動態の主語]
    1. The detectives lost sight of the suspect in the crowd.
      →The suspect was lost sight of in the crowd by the detectives.
    2. The cartoonist made fund of the politician's important manner.
      →The politician's important manner was made fund of by the cartoonist.
    3. ☆ catch sight of; make a fool of; make head or tail of; make a point of; make nothing of;
  3. [他動詞の目的語が受動態の主語]
    1. We must make allowances for his lack of experience.
      →Allowances must be made for his lack of experience.
    2. The present government lays particular emphasis on social security.
      →Particular emphasis is laid on social security by the present government.
    3. ☆ bring a charge against; keep an eye on; put stress on; take an interest in; take pride in ;turn a deaf ear to;
  4. [前置詞/他動詞いずれの目的語も受動態の主語]
    1. We should pay attention to this remark of his.
      →This remark of this should be paid attention to.
      Attention should be paid to this remark of this.
    2. The press make too much fuss over the teen-age idol.
      →That teen-age idol is made too much fuss over by the press.
      Too much fuss is make over that teen-age idol by the press.
    3. We must make an end of this bad habit.
      →This bad habit must be made an end of.
      An end must be made of this bad habit.
    4. The police made no mention of the criminal's name.
      →The criminal's name was made no mention of by the police.
      No mention was made of the criminal's name by the police.
    5. ☆ ask for; catch up with; depend on; do away with; do without; hear of; laugh at; look at; look down on; put up with; rely on; speak ill of;
§180 動詞+前置詞
  1. [自動詞+前置詞=他動詞]
    1. A jury usually consists of twelve people.
    2. Happiness consists in contentment.
    3. I quire agree with you.
    4. Neither of my parents agrees to my marriage.
    5. We agreed on an early start.
    6. Have you heard from him lately?
    7. Have you heard of him lately?
    8. We cannot do without water. (=Water cannot be done without.)
    9. Very few people took notice of the fact. (=The fact was taken notice of by very few people.
    10. He had no house to live in.
    11. I don't have anybody to turn on.

>Top 動名詞


§245 動名詞の形
  1. [単純形] making (能動態); being made (受動態)
  2. [完了形] having made (能動態); having been made (受動態)
§246 動名詞の
  1. [目的語や補語をとる]
    1. I remember seeing him once. (目的語)
    2. Doing nothing is being lazy. (補語)
  2. [完了態と受動態がある]
    1. Excuse me for having been late for the appointment. (完了形)
    2. He is ashamed of having been scolded by his teacher. (受動態)
  3. [受動の意味の動名詞]
    1. ☆ want; need; require; deserve; bear; be worth (能動態で受動の意味)
    2. This watch needs repairing (=to be repaired)
  4. [副詞句で修飾される]
    1. I don't like people talking loudly.
    2. He was tired after walking all the way to the station.
§247 動名詞の
  1. [主語補語目的語になる]
    1. Reading in bed is not good fro the eyes.
    2. It's been nice meeting you.
    3. My hobby is collecting postage stamps.
    4. He admitted having made a serious mistake.
    5. The doctor insisted on operating as soon as possible.
  2. [複数形・所有格がある]
    1. Her doings do not agree with her sayings.
    2. I don't like reading for reading's sake.
  3. [冠詞・形容詞がつく]
    1. He had a great liking for mathematics.
    2. Early rising makes us healthy.
    3. He spent all his savings on a new car.
§248 動名詞の
  1. [意味上の主語明示なし]
    1. Beating a child will do more harm than good.
    2. She is afraid of going out alone late at night.
    3. Thank you for helping me with my work.
  2. [意味上の主語明示する]
  3. [人称代名詞]
    1. His doing it should result in success.
    2. I can really understand him [his] composing those kind of pieces.
    3. There is a strong possibility of his [him] helping us.
    4. ☆ avoid; consider; deny; enjoy; (普通は所有格をとる)
  4. [人や動物]
    1. Mary's getting up so early surprised all her family.
    2. I can't understand my brother('s) being in love with Betty.
    3. He insisted on John('s) not going there alone.
    4. He apologized to me for his dog barking all the night through.
  5. [無生物]
    1. I am sure of the news being true.
§249 動名詞の時制
  1. [述語動詞より後]
    1. I am looking forward to seeing you again.
  2. [述語動詞と同時]
    1. Which are you more interested in , singing or writing music?
  3. [述語動詞より前]
    1. I remember visiting the temple when young.
  4. [時とは無関係]
    1. Seeing is believing.
  5. [完了形の動名詞]
    1. I'm sorry for you not having come with us.
      (=I'm sorry that you didn't come with us.)
§250 動名詞を用いた慣用構文
  1. It is (of) no use translating every single word. (=There is no use (in) translating every single word.)
  2. There is no telling when the history of English began.
    (=It is impossible to tell when the history of English began.)
    (=We cannot tell when the history of English began.)
  3. There's no accounting for tastes.
  4. On hearing the news he turned pale. (=As soon as he heard the news, he turned pale.)
  5. Be care in crossing the street.
  6. I felt like dancing with her.
  7. It goes without saying that health is more important than wealth.
  8. I never do anything without consulting my conscience.
    (=Whenever I do something, I consult my conscience.)
  9. This poem is worth learning by heart.
  10. That a dream worth living for.
  11. This book is worth reading.
    (=It is worth reading this book) (=It is worthwhile to read [reading] this book.)
  12. Do [Would] you mind bringing it back her?
  13. Do [Would] you mind my smoking here?
  14. Do you mind if I borrow this umbrella? - Of course not.
    Would you mind if I borrowed this umbrella? (丁寧)
  15. I'm not accustomed to being treated that way.
  16. ☆ cannot help 〜ing; be used to 〜ing; look forward to 〜ing; What do you say to 〜ing?
§251 動名詞と
  1. [意味上の違い]
    1. [動名詞] 修飾する名詞の目的・用途を表す: a sleeping bag = a bag (used) for sleeping.
    2. [現在分詞] 修飾する名詞の動作・状態を表す。a sleeping lion = a lion that is sleeping.
  2. [発音上の違い]
    1. [動名詞] a smóking room (名詞に強勢なし)
    2. [現在分詞] s smóking chímney (名詞にも強勢あり)
  3. [動名詞+名詞]の複合語:
    1. ☆ dining room; hearing aid; reading glass; sewing machine; visiting card; waiting room; walking stick; writing desk

§252 動名詞と不定詞




  1. [動名詞と不定詞の違い]
    1. [to不定詞] これから行動をとる、ある状態に成ろうという意思や感情を示す動詞にく傾向; 仮想的文脈
    2. [動名詞] 名詞に近く、静的な感じ。現在のことをどうこうするという動詞につく傾向; 現状描写
    3. Cf; I like to camp in the mountains. (山でのキャンプは楽しい)→would like to〜
      I like camping in the moutains. (目下のキャンプ生活が楽しい)
  2. [+to do][to不定詞だけを目的語にとる動詞] 意欲的な動詞
    1. ☆ agree; decide; desire; determine; expect; fail; hope; learn; manage; mean; offer; pretend; promise; refuse; resolve; seek; wish
    2. I hope to see you again. (× I hope seeing you again.)
    3. He decided to make an early start. (× He decided making an early start.
  3. [+doing][動名詞だけを目的語にとる動詞] 消極的な動詞
    1. ☆ admit; avoid; consider; deny; enjoy; escape; excuse; fancy; finish; give up; involve; mind; postpone; put off; stop
  4. [動名詞と不定詞いずれも目的語にとるだ動詞]
    1. [意味にあまり差のない動詞]☆ begin; cease; continue; start
    2. The bay began to cry [crying] (意味上の差はない)
    3. [以下の場合はto不定詞が普通]
      1. The water is beginning [starting] to boil. (進行形の場合)
      2. At last he began [started] to see hat she meant. (動詞が心的状態を表す場合)
      3. It began [started] to thunder. (主語が無生物の場合)
      4. I'd like to try this on. (would/should like to 〜の場合)
    4. [実質差がない場合]
      1. ☆ like; love; prefer; hate
      2. I like watching [to watch] TV.
    5. [preferとdislike]
      1. I prefer skating to skiing. (toが重複するので動名詞)
      2. I prefer to skate rather than (to) ski.
      3. I dislike having to live alone. (dislikeは動名詞)
    6. [意味の差が明確なもの] 不定詞は今後の予定、動名詞は過去の行為
      1. ☆ remember; forget; regret
      2. Please remember to wake me up at six.
        (cf: I remember seeing him at his office.
      3. She has forgotten to come here.
      4. The children will never forget visiting this museum.
      5. I regret to say that he did not pass the examination.
      6. I regret telling [having told] you that he did not pass the examination. (通知を後悔している)
    7. [不定詞は能動、動名詞は受動]
      1. ☆ deserve; need; want
      2. You need to cut the grass.
      3. The grass needs [wants] cutting (=The grass needs to be cut.)
    8. [tryは微妙]
      1. I tried lifting the stone. It was very heavy. (実行)
      2. I tried to lift the stone, but it was too heavy. (失敗)
      3. I'm going to try cooking beef stew this evening. (料理の計画)
      4. I'm going to try to cook beef stew this evening. (料理のトライ)

>Top 代名詞


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>Top 不定詞

  • 不定詞は情報を補足:
    1. I went to NYC [to] see my friend. (→目的)
    2. I was relieved [to] hear the news. (←原因)
    3. He was grown up [to] be a famous scholar. (→結果)
    4. He must be rich [to] buy a big house. (←根拠)
    5. He is too fact [to] wear the trousers. (→目的・結果)
    6. It is difficult [to] finish the work in a day. (→目的)
  • that構文も情報を補足:
    1. It was [so] heavy [that I coud not lift it.]
  • 分詞構文も情報を補足:
    1. She ran away [seeing me.]

>Top 不定代名詞

«Indefinite Pronoun»
§98 oneの用法
  1. [名詞の代用語] 不特定 one (既出 the one); 不特定の不可算名詞 some; 特定 it
    1. I have lost my watch and have to buy one.
    2. I don't have a pen Can you lend me one?
    3. Shall I pass the butter? Or have you got some already?
  2. [修飾語がつく場合]
    1. Molly wears a red dress, but a blue one would suit her better.
    2. I want some roses - red and white ones.
    3. I like that picture - I mean the third one from the left.
    4. He has a great number of books and keeps the rare ones in a glass case.
    5. Which necklace do you like? - this one.
    6. What nice shirts! - Which one [ones shall we buy?]
  3. [基数詞の後]
    1. × My house is smaller than Robert's one.
      ○ My house is smaller than Robert's.
    2. He has three rabbits and I have only two.
    3. Do you want these trousers or those?
    4. Your right hand is clean, and so is your left.
    5. These dolls are prettier than the ones I bought in Paris.
  4. [一般の人を表すone]
    1. One should always listen to what other people say.
    2. One should do one's [his] duty.
    3. Everyone thinks they are the center of the universe.
  5. [形容詞としてのone]
    1. One day they found a thrush lying in the bush.
    2. One Mr. Brown came to se you. (古風)
  6. [慣用表現]
    1. One of these days is none of these days.
      I, for one, am in favor of the proposal.
    2. They left by [in] ones and twos. (一人二人と)
    3. They left the room one by one.
    4. The children came home one and all. (残らず)
    5. They spoke to one another in a very friendly manner.
§99 otherとanother
  1. [代名詞用法]
    1. I don't like these; show me some others.
    2. Show me the other.
    3. Show me the others.
    4. Be kind to others. (他人に)
    5. Come again some other time.
    6. I have other things to do.
    7. Show me the other room.
    8. Where are the other boys.
    9. I could not do other (=otherwise) than obey him.
  2. [another] an+other
    1. I don't lie this one; show me another.
    2. Have another piece.
    3. I've already read five books, but I have to read another five books.
  3. [慣用表現]
    1. One man shouted, but the other could not understand him.
    2. Of their five children, one is in Japan and the others are abroad.
    3. I have three young friends; one is eight years old, another is ten, and the other is twelve.
    4. Some of the boys are here, but where are the others?
    5. She hung her raincoat on one hook and her umbrella on another.
    6. Some people said yes and others said no.
    7. Mary has a white and a red rose; the one is lovelier than the other. (he former, the latter)
    8. He crossed the street from this side to the other.
    9. To know is one thing, and to teach (is) quite another.
    10. The boy showed me his dirty hands one after the other.
    11. Planes took off one after another.
    12. On the one hand he suffered a heavy loss, but on the other hand he learned a great deal from the experience.
    13. I had expected something other than this.
    14. He likes English, among other things.
    15. What kind of music do you like? - Popular music, among other kinds.
    16. Write on every other line.
    17. He was none other than Mr. Brown himself. (他でもない)
    18. I tell you it also works the other way (a)round. (逆にも作用する)
    19. Other things being equal, Alice would marry Jim. (他の条件が同じなら)
    20. It's just another story. (ごく平凡な話)
§100 severalの用法
  1. [several] 可算名詞の複数; それぞれのことを意識している。
    1. We waited fro the bus for several minutes.
    2. There are several ways of solving the problem.
    3. Several (of my friends) attended the conference.
    4. Several of the pears are bad, and seral more have worm holes. (文語調)
    5. They parted at the gate and went their several ways. (それぞれの)
§101 相互代名詞
  1. [each-other; one-another]
    1. The people in the room knew one another.
    2. They held each other's hands.
    3. Each of them knew the others's weak point.
    4. One man shouted to another in his own language.
    5. × Each other's letters arrived in time.
      Their letters to each other arrived in time.
§102 someとany
  1. [幾つかの/幾らかの]
    1. I had some American coins.
      sone of her stories were quite amusing.
    2. Are there any letters for me?
    3. He has no sisters; do you have any?
  2. [幾らかの]
    1. She asked me for some ice.
    2. Do you have any sugar? - Yes, I have some.
      Is this book of any use?
    3. Please lend me some money, if you have any.
    4. × Any student will not succeed.
      ○ No student will succeed.
    5. Some say they have seen UFO's.
    6. If any of the meat goes bad, please throw it away.
  3. [some ある〜]
    1. I saw it in some book.
    2. How about having lunch at some good restaurant?
  4. [any どんな〜も]
    1. Any pupil knows it.
    2. Some doctors will say anything.
    3. Any doctor will say something.
    4. Any of the magazines will do.
  5. [依頼・勧誘]
    1. Can I have some more coffee?
    2. Won't you have some candy?
    3. What are you eating? - Popcorn. Want some?
    4. I you eat some spinach, I'll take you to the park.
    5. He finished the work without any difficulty. (平叙文でも否定・疑問の場合)
    6. The noise prevented me from getting any sleep.
    7. I wonder if he has any money.
  6. [someが否定文に]
    1. I don't like some of these books.
      cf; I don't like any of these books.
  7. [someとanyの注意点]
    1. Some say the new is true; others not.
    2. Some AIDS babies die quickly, but others live longer than AIDS adults.
    3. We had to walk some miles.
    4. That was some performance! (大した演技)
    5. The are some 10,000 water birds on the lake. (=about)
    6. I know him some, not well.
    7. He says he's feeling some better. (少しはよくなった。)
    8. I cannot wait any longer.
    9. He couldn't go any further.
    10. I don't feel any better having had a holiday.
    11. It isn't any too big for you.
    12. Do you feel any better today?
    13. That won't help us any. (全然助けにならない。米)
    14. I hope some day we'll have enough money to get those pictures.
    15. He's staying with some friends or other in the country. (誰か田舎の友達)
    16. In any case, you have to take a taxi first to go there.
    17. He was determined to finish the work at any cost.
    18. We have to investigate the cause at any rate.
    19. There is little water, if any.
    20. Correct errors, if any.
§103 allとboth
  1. [all]
    1. [代名詞用法]
      1. All were frightened.
      2. All of the villagers knew of the accident.
      3. All is well that ends well.
      4. All I want is love.
      5. All is lost.
    2. [形容詞用法]
      1. All children should learn to play on some instrument.
      2. All the villagers knew of the accident.
      3. All the milk was spilled.
      4. It rained all afternoon.
      5. They walked all the way.
      6. The boy walked all the way.
      7. The boy has eaten all the loaf.
      8. All the town was destroyed.
      9. All London welcomed the two astronauts.
      10. × the whole villagers. → ○ the whole of the villagers.
        ○ all the villagers.
  2. [both]
    1. Both of his children went to New York.
      They both have succeeded in the examination.
    2. There are trees on both sides of the road.
    3. I've read both these papers.
    4. [all/bothの位置]
      1. all my three dear little children
      2. both the charming ladies.
      3. They all live together in the same house.
        They are both happy.
      4. They might both have come.
      5. The villages have all been destroyed.
      6. × You may take these toys all. → ○ You may take all these toys.
      7. × You may take all them. → ○ you may take them all.
    5. [allの慣用表現]
      1. The desk was all covered with dust.
      2. The holidays always end all too soon.
      3. I liked him all the better for this confession.
      4. He is all kindness. (親切そのもの)
      5. The pupils were all attention.
      6. She was all ears.
      7. The girl was all similes.
      8. He has a lot of weaknesses, but I like him all the same. (それでもやはり)
      9. He ate the fish bones and all. (骨ごと)
§104 eachとevery
  1. [eachの用法] 各々個別的、原則単数扱い。代名詞・形容詞・副詞的用法がある。
    1. Each of the girls was charmed by the handsome young man.
    2. Each house on the street has a small yard.
    3. On each side of the street there were police officers.
    4. These hats cost 30 dollars each.
    5. × each his friend → ○ each of his friends.
    6. × each of friends → ○ each of his [the] friends
    7. × Each did not succeed. → ○ Each failed.
  2. [everyの用法] 全体を固体の集まりとして表す。原則単数。形容詞用法のみ。
    1. The energy problem was very serious in every country.
    2. Every dog has its day.
    3. Every dog and cat has his likes and dislikes.
    4. × Every this is distasteful to me.
      All this is distasteful to me.
    5. × Every leg o fits has broken.
      ○ Its every leg [Every leg of it] has broken.
    6. We have every reason to believe that he did it.
    7. She showed me every kindness.
    8. You should practice speaking English every day.
    9. The committee meets every other week. (=ever second week)
    10. The Summer Olympics are held every four years (=every fourth year)
  3. [each/ everyを受ける代名詞]
    1. Every girl wants to talk with their teacher.
    2. Each of us were willing to pay our fares.
§105 eitherとneitherの用法
  1. [either] 単数扱い
    1. Either of the two answers will do.
    2. Bill can write with either hand.
    3. Do you know either of the visitors?
    4. I don't like either of the men.
  2. [nether] bothの否定。
    1. I like both of them. →I like neither of them.
    2. I made two propositions, and neither was accepted.
    3. I'll take neither side.
    4. × the (n)either pen, his (n)either book
      ○ (n)either of the pens, (n)either of his books.
  3. [not ... either] 〜もない
    1. She isn't French and she isn't British, either.
  4. [neither+be動詞+主語]
    1. I'm not a new comer, and neither is Bob.
  5. [either...or〜 / neither...nor〜]
    1. Either you apologize or you leave now.
    2. Neither rain nor snow stopped him from jogging for exercise.
§106 noとnoneの
  1. [noの用法] 可算・不可算名詞いずれも。1つしかないもの単数形、2以上複数形
    1. Today we have no bananas.
    2. The is no clock in his room.
    3. the police officer arrived in no time. (直ちに)
    4. He is not a musician. (cf: He is no musician. 音楽の才能なし)
    5. The shows that his is no fool. (とんでもない)
    6. We had no little (=pretty much) rain.
    7. He is no richer than before. (=He is as poor as before.)
    8. He is not richer than before. (以上ではない)
  2. [noneの用法]
    1. She wanted some cookies, but there were [was] none left.
    2. Is there any oil in the container? - No, there is none.
    3. None of the telephones are [is] working.
    4. None of my friends live [lives] near here.
    5. None of us knew how to work the machine.
    6. None of the cheese is left.
    7. None of this is confined to Asia.
  3. [NoneとNo one] Noneは単数・複数扱い、No one は常に単数扱い
    1. None were willing to put out the fire. (文語的)
    2. There were [was] none present.
    3. No one knows where he was born.
    4. None but the brave deserve(s) the fair. (=only)
  4. [none the+比較級+for[because] ...]
    1. He is none the better for the change of air. (それだけよくなった訳ではない)
    2. He has faults, but I love him none the less. (それでもなお)
    3. The price is none too high.
    4. She is none so pleased (決して満足していない, 英)
  5. [慣用表現]
    1. It's none of your business.
    2. It's none other than Tom! We thought you were in Kuwait. Can it really be you?
    3. What you said was true but it was none the less unkind. (=nevertheless)
§107 somebody, somethingなど
  1. [somebody/ someone/ anybody /everyoneの用法]
    1. She wanted to live with anyone kinder than Jane.
    2. Can you borrow anybody's CD player?
    3. Everybody's business is nobody's business. (共同責任は無責任)
  2. [特殊な意味]
    1. If you want to be anybody, you must work hard. (ひとかどの)
    2. he thinks he is somebody. (偉い人物)
    3. There were somebodies and nobodies at the party. (有名無名の人々)
    4. The question is who, if anybody, would be named to succeed him. (誰かいるとして)
  3. [everything/ something/ anythingの用法]
    1. Everything permanent is base on careful planning.
    2. IU have never heard anything more dreadful.
    3. She denied knowing anything more precise. (何も知らない)
    4. The success of the experiment means everything to him. (最も重要なこと)
    5. It's something to have a family after all. (たいしたこと)
    6. He seems to thing he is something. (ひとかどの)
  4. [慣用表現]
    1. H was very worried about this future course and everything. (その他諸々)
    2. Human life is important before everything (else).
    3. He is something like his father. (多少似ている)
    4. He is something of a musician. (ちょっとした)
    5. He is a lawyer or something. (か何かだ)
    6. Something or other seems to be wanting. (何かが不足)
    7. She is not anything like her mother. (まるで違う)
    8. John is anything but a good loser. (とんでもない; =far from)
    9. I have not seen anything of Jane lately (ちっとも会っていない)
    10. Is he anything of a scholar? (少しは)
    11. He would not go with me for anything. (どうしてもしない)
    12. If anything, she works too hard. (どちらかと言えば)
    13. True love has little, if anything, to do with money. (例えあっても)
§108 nobody, nothingなど
  1. [none/ no one/ nobody] 英語では any 〜notの語順を割けるために no---で始める。
    1. No one was killed in the car accident.
    2. No one is allowed in yet, are they? (まだ入ってはだめだね)
    3. Nobody knows how you happened to be there.
    4. As the move was dull, nobody enjoyed themselves.
    5. Most people at the party were nobodies trying to be noticed by the press.
  2. [nothing]
    1. There is nothing new in this report.
    2. Have you got nothing to do?
    3. Thank you. - It's nothing. (どう致しまして)
    4. He is a mere nothing. (つまらぬ男)
    5. This picture looks nothing like her.
    6. I had nothing [something] to do with the accident.
    7. He did nothing but laugh.
    8. I cannot give instruction for nothing. (ただではだめ)
    9. He did not read the book for nothing. (読んだだけのことはある)
    10. This pen is good for nothing. (役立たず)
    11. I could make nothing of what he said. (さっぱり)
    12. He is nothing but a fool (過ぎない)
    13. He is nothing of a poet (全くない)
    14. There is nothing for it but to surrender. (仕方がない)
    15. He thinks nothing of working ten hours a day. (何とも思わない)

>Top <E>:


>Top <F>:


>Top 不定詞


  1. [現実域表現の動名詞]
    1. I often dream of becoming an inventor like Edison.
    2. You may rely upon my meeting you there.
    3. He came to NY for the purpose of becoming an artiste.
      (同格のof; 現実のこととしての表現)
    4. I have no intention of declining his invitation. (同格のof)
  2. [動名詞とto不定詞]
    1. I like teaching English. (今教えていることが好きだ。)
    2. I like to teach English. (これから教えたい)
    3. I want walking. (歩かねばならない)
    4. I want to walk. (これから歩きたい)
    5. You need exercising. (運動が足りない)
    6. You need to exercise. (これから運動する必要がある)
  3. [原形不定詞とto不定詞] 原形不定詞は感動+同時+挑戦
    1. Dare he fight?/ He daren't tell us. (三単現 sなし)
    2. I see a dog run. → A dog is seen to run. (受動態は、外から強制される表なので幾らか時間差が発生する。)
    3. I hear a car start. → A car is heard to start.
    4. I felt the air flow. → The air is felt to flow.
    5. They made me run a trial. →I was made to run a trial.
    6. I will have him come earlier tomorrow. →He will be got to come earlier tomorrow. (have/getが受動態になると別の動詞になる)
    7. I got my son to weed the yard. → My son was made to weed the yard.
    8. He helped her do the dishes. /He helped her to do the dishes. (helpとdoが同時か、時間差があるか)
    9. He helped cook lunch. /He helped to cook lunch.
  4. [助動詞+原形不定詞/to不定詞]
    1. [助動詞+原形不定詞] 同時
      1. will, shall, can, may, must, dare, need, had better, had rather, would rather
      2. You must obey your father. (直ちに従え)
    2. [助動詞+to不定詞] 時間的間隔がある
      1. ought, used, have
      2. You ought to obey your father (心構えとして従え)
      3. You don't need to take his side. (彼の側に経つ必要はない)
      4. He used to play tennis with me. (テニスをしによくいった→やくテニスをした)
      5. You have to see her home. (送り届けることを持っている→ねばならない)
      6. She is to return to her mother's. (家に戻るために存在している→はずだ)
§213 to不定詞と
  1. [to不定詞 to-infinitive] 方向の意味ほとんどなし
    1. It's glad to see you again.
    2. Do you have anything to declare?
    3. Why did you go out? To buy some bread.
    4. I'm sorry to have kept you waiting. Not at all. I've just arrived myself.
  2. [原形不定詞 Bare infinitive]
    1. We must go to the store to get some food. (助動詞の後)
    2. The pepper made me sneeze. (使役動詞)
    3. I heard the car stop short. (知覚動詞)
    4. I think I had better leave now. (慣用表現)
  3. [両方可能な場合]
    1. [help] He helped his brother (to) paint the room.
    2. [have known] I have never known a horse (to) east fish. (完了/過去のみ)
    3. [be] All you have to do is (to) study as hard as you can. ;
      The I could do was (to) cheer him up.
    4. [than] She preferred to stay at home rather than (to) go out.
  4. [代不定詞 pro-verb, substitute verb]
    1. You can stay here if you want to. (繰り返しを防ぐ)
    2. I'll help you whenever you want me to.
    3. I'd like to join you, but I'm afraid I won't be able to.
§214 不定詞の
  1. [不定詞の完了形]
    1. [述語動詞より前] The computer seems to have been out of order.;
      The computer seemed to have been out of order.
    2. [may/must/cannot+] She cannot have said do.
    3. [should/ought to+] You should have come earlier.
  2. [非実現の過去]
    1. [was to] I was to have left yesterday.
    2. [intend/mean/hope/expect] I intended to have finished the homework, (but I couldn't). (= I had intended to finish the homework.)
§215 不定詞の
  1. [受動態の不定詞]
    1. [単純形] I was very glad to be invited.
    2. [完了形] Jim was proud to have been chosen captain of the team.
    3. [慣用表現] Is there a house to let (=to be let) around here?;
      The drive was to blame (=to be blamed) for the accident.
  2. [不定詞の進行形]
    1. He seemed to be listening to me.; He seemed to have been reading.
§216 不定詞の
  1. [不定詞の否定形]
    1. She pretended not to be listening.
    2. I had better not eat so much. (原形不定詞の否定)
    3. Take care not to catch a cold.(〜しないように)
    4. I turned off the radio so as not to disturb her.
    5. They hid themselves in the cave in order not to be seen by the enemy.
  2. [分離不定詞 split infinitive]
    1. I want to really study; I want to be a scholar.
    2. He failed to entirely comprehend it. (cf: He failed entirely to comprehend it.)
§217 to不定詞の
  1. [主語として]
    1. [It is ... to] It is impossible to control market tendencies.
    2. [文頭] To err is human, to forgive divine.; Jane always greeted people with a smile, and to see her doing so warmed their hearts.
  2. [目的語として]
    1. [他動詞の目的語] I like to play the guitar. (= I like playing the guitar.); I want to play the guitar.
    2. [第5構文] The judges found it difficult to decide between the two contestants.
    3. [前置詞の目的語] There was nothing but for it [I had no choice] but to keep silent.; Dora did nothing but sit in the house crying all day long.
  3. [名詞と同格] His ambition to become the world swimming champion was understandable.
  4. [補語として]
    1. [主格補語] My plan is to build a new house.; To do good is to be happy
    2. [目的格補語] We consider him to be honest (= We consider him honest. /We consider that he is honest.)
§218 to不定詞の
  1. [主語関係]
    1. I have no one to help me. (= I have no one who will help me.); Neil Armstrong who the first man to set foot on the moon
  2. [目的語関係]
    1. I have an assignment to do today. (=I have an assignment that I should do today.)
    2. There are a lot of good books to read (to be read) in the world.
  3. [前置詞の目的語]
    1. He is now looking for a bigger house to live in (=which he can live in).
    2. This shirt has no pocket to put things in. (=pocket in which to put things)
  4. [その他修飾]
    1. It is time to go to bed now. (cf: It it time you went to bed now.)
  5. [叙述用法]
    1. That answer appears to be wrong.
    2. The rumor turned out to be true.
§219 to不定詞の
  1. [目的を表す]
    1. You come to school to study, not to play.
    2. [目的の強調] I had to shout in order to make myself heard.
    3. The people stood up so as to see the parade better.
    4. I hurried out so as to be in time for class.
    5. He stood quite still in the dark so as not to be notices.
  2. [結果を表す]
    1. He grew up to be a famous scholar.
    2. He went to Africa in 1963, never to come back
    3. I hurried to the station, only to miss the train.
  3. [原因理由を表す]
    1. I am relieved to hear that.
  4. [判断の根拠を表す]
    1. He must be crazy to go out in this stormy weather.
    2. How kind you are to come all the way to see me.
  5. [条件を表す] 仮定法的
    1. To hear him talk, you would take him for a foreigner.
  6. [感嘆願望を表す]
    1. To think that I was once a billionaire!
    2. Oh, to be in England. (=I wish I were in England.)
    3. You will come to like Tokyo soon.
  7. [形容詞を補う]
    1. We are all anxious to know the truth.
    2. He isn't easy to please (=It isn't easy to please him.)
    3. This river is dangerous to swim in. (=It is dangerous to swim in this river.)
  8. [程度を示す]
    1. You are old enough to know better.
    2. This problem is too difficult for me to solve.
    3. He was so kind as to drive me to the station. (=He was kind enough to drive me ...)
    4. The skirt was so long as to touch the floor.
§220 疑問詞+
  1. [主語として]
    1. What to read is an important question.
    2. Where to stop is more difficult than how to begin.
  2. [補語として]
    1. The question was where to set up the tent.
  3. [目的語として]
    1. I don't know what to think of it.
    2. I was at a loss what to do.
    3. The traffic lights tell us when to cross the road.
    4. Please tell me which bus to take to get to the station.
    5. Tell me whether to trust him or not.
  4. [他動詞+疑問詞+to不定詞]
    1. Have you determined where to go?
  5. [ask/remember/think]
  6. [consider/discover/discuss/explain/find/know/observe/suggest/tell/wonder] × to不定詞
    1. × Our teacher explained to use the word processor.
      ○ Our teacher explained how to use the word processor.
    2. × Would you consider to go with us?
      ○ Would you consider going with us?
  7. [advise/teach]
    1. She kindly advised me what to do. ≒ She kindly advised me to read the book.
  8. [ask/tell]
    1. I asked her what to do first.
    2. Kent asked me to pose for a picture.
  9. [inform/show]
    1. × Please show me to shift gears.
    2. ○ Please show me how to shift gears.

§221 seem〜toとbe to〜
  1. [seemの後の不定詞]
    1. He seems to know us; He seems (to be) happy.
    2. He seems to be waiting form.
    3. You seem to have lost weight.
  2. [seem to 構文の特徴]
    1. John seems to be please with his new car. (=It seems that John is please with ....)
    2. The man does not seem to understand what I am saying. (=It does not seem that the man understands what ...)
    3. There seems to be little hope of his recovery. (=It seems that there is little hope of his recovery.)
    4. Betty seems to be liked by Mike.
  3. [類似の構文]
    1. He appears to have few friends. (=It appears that he has few friends.)
    2. There appears to be a mistake.
    3. I happened to see her in the park yesterday. (=It happened that I saw her in the park...)
    4. The man chanced to be a doctor. (=It chanced that the man was a doctor.)
    5. The handkerchief turned out (to be) the victim's. (=It turned out that the handkerchief was the victim's.)
    6. Many people are said to be trapped in collapse buildings. (=It is said that many people are trapped ...)
    7. He is known to have been a brave man. (=It is known that he was a brave man.)
  4. [be to]
    1. [予定] The concert is to be held this evening.
    2. [運命] He was never to see his family again.
    3. [義務命令 should] You are to pay your debt as soon as possible;
      You are not to smoke in this room.
    4. [可能 can] The camera was not to be found.
    5. [意思] If we are to get there by noon, we had better hurry.

§222 SV+to不定詞


  1. [意図希望の動詞] これからtoの方向へ〜しよう。
    1. I intend to become a doctor.
    2. He determined to go to college.
    3. [S+V+than節可能] agree; choose; decide; determine; expect; hope; intend; mean; resolve
    4. [S+V+than節不可] plan; propose; want; wish
  2. [懇請拒否の動詞]
    1. He asked to see the drawings.
    2. Fred promised to marry me.
    3. She refused to take the money.
    4. [S+V+than節可能] ask; beg; demand; promise; swear; vow
    5. [S+V+than節不可] decline; offer; refuse
  3. [好き嫌いの動詞]
    1. I like to play baseball.
    2. I'd hate to stay her.
    3. [S+V+than節可能] dread; hate; prefer
    4. [S+V+than節不可] like; love
  4. [始動終始の動詞]
    1. It began to rain.
    2. He ceases to talk.
    3. [S+V+than節不可] begin; cease; commence; continue; start
  5. [その他to不定詞を目的語にとる動詞]
    1. I regret to say that I cannot come.
    2. He managed to be in time for the appointment.
    3. He claimed to have reached the top of the mountain.
    4. [S+V+than節可能] forget; remember; regret; learn; claim; profess
    5. [S+V+than節不可] continue; afford; attempt; fail; manage; neglect; omit; affect
  6. [自動詞に続く?to不定詞]
    1. She tried to write a novel.
    2. The government decided to try and tackle to economic crisis.
    3. He endeavoured to win the race.
    4. This engine tends to overheat.
    5. I incline to agree to his plan.
  7. [to不定詞とthat節]
    1. He decided not to to the meeting. (=He decided that he would not go the meeting.)
    2. I wish to go to the party with Jane. (≠I wish I could go to the party with Jane. 実現不可能)
    3. [主語共通] I hope to see him this evening. = I hope that I will see him this evening.
    4. [主語が違う] I hope (that) you will see him this evening. (that節がふつう)

§223 SVO+

  1. §【S+V+O+to不定詞】
  2. [that節で置換可能]
    1. He advised me to keep the secret. (=He advised me that I should keep the secret.)
    2. Parents ought to teach their children to behave will.
      (=Parents ought to teach their children that they should behave well.)
    3. I told Jim to hold his tongue. (=I told Jim that he should hold his tongue.)
    4. He promise (me) to pay the bill. (=He promised (me) that he would pay the bill.)
    5. advise; persuade; remind; teach; tell
  3. [目的語を伴わないSV+that節構文] 依頼強制、期待希望の動詞
    1. I begged him to stay a little longer. (=I begged that he would stay a little longer.)
    2. I expect him to help me. (=I expect that he will help me.)
    3. She recommended me to meet Professor Kay.
      (=She recommended to me that I (should) meet Professor Kay.)
    4. He ordered the work to be done. (=He ordered that the work (should) be done.)
    5. ask; beg; command; desire; direct; expect; intend; order; intend; order; mean; recommend; request; require; urge
  4. [that節に置換不能なもの]
    1. [受動態になるもの] 使役的な意味のもの
      The teacher encouraged jack to study. (=Jack was encouraged to study by the teacher.)
      ☆ allow; assist; challenge; compel; defy; drive; enable; encourage; forbid; induce; invite; lead; leave; oblige; permit; press; tempt
    2. [受動態にならないもの] 欲求感情を表すもの
      I would hate you to get into the papers.
      ☆ hate; like; love; prefer; want
  5. [SVO+to be]
    1. [SVO+to be省略可] I thought him (to be) a nice man. (=I thought that he was a nice man.)
      ☆ assume; believe; consider; declare; fancy; find; hold; presume; prove; report; show; suppose; think
    2. [SVO+to be省略しない] Arsenic is known to be harmful to humans.
      ☆ assert; conclude; deny; discover; guess; know; recognize; suspect; understand
§224 独立不定詞
  1. §【独立不定詞】
  2. [to be frank型]
    1. To be frank, I don't like the way to talk.
    2. To tell the truth, the butterfly sees nothing but what it needs to see.
  3. [慣用句ほか]
    1. to be sure; to begin with; to do a person justice; to make matters worse; to make a long story short; to say the least of it;
    2. Strange to say (Strangely enough), Hamlet wasn't afraid of this father's ghost.
    3. Needless to say, health is above wealth.
    4. Our teacher is, so to speak, a walking dictionary.
§225 不定詞の意味上の主語なし
  1. §【不定詞の主語示さない場合】
  2. [文脈から明らか]
  3. [不定詞の主語=文の主語]
  4. §【不定詞の意味上の主語の示し方】
  5. [意味上の主語=他動詞の目的語]
  6. [意味上の主語をfor+目的語で表す]
    1. [名詞用法]
    2. [形容詞用法]
    3. [副詞用法]
  7. §【It is 〜for [of] A to 構文とthat節】
  8. [It is 〜 for A to]
    1. [It is 〜that構文に置換不能]
    2. [It is 〜that構文に置換可能]
  9. [It is 〜 of A to]
  10. [It is 〜 that構文だけで不定詞構文なし]
§226 不定詞の
  1. §【不定詞の表す時】
  2. [述語動詞と同時]
  3. [述語動詞の後に発生]
  4. [意味によって判断]
  5. [述語動詞より前に発生]
  6. §【原形不定詞の用法】
  7. [助動詞の後]
  8. [使役動詞の後]
    1. [make/have/letの後]
    2. [bid/helpを用いる場合]
  9. [知覚動詞の後]
    1. see/hear/feelなど
    2. know

§227 It is 〜for/of A to構文とthat節


  1. [It is 〜 for A to ...] 事柄についての判断; 1) Aにとって、2) 意味上の主語
  2. [It is 〜 that 構文に置換不能] Aにとって; 形容詞は難易を示すもの
    1. It is difficult for Kate to swim across this lake.
    2. ☆ dangerous; difficult; easy; hard; (im)possible; safe; tough; useless; usual
  3. [It is 〜 that 構文に置換可能] 意味上の主語
    1. It is not strange for them to get so angry. (=It is not strange that they should get so angry.)
    2. It is desirable for there to be a cold season once a year.
      (=It is desirable that there should be a cold season once a year.)
  4. [It is 〜 of A to ...] 人物についての主観的評価
    1. It was careless of you to leave your camera in the taxi. (= Your were careless to leave ...)
    2. ☆ bad; bold; brave; careless; clever; crazy; cruel; decent; foolish*; good*; honest; kind; naughty; nice; noble; polite; right; rude; selfish; sensible; silly; stupid; sweet; thoughtful; wicked; wise*; wrong*
    3. *印は、It is 〜 for A to 構文も可能
  5. [It is 〜that 構文のみで不定詞構文なし]
    1. × It was evident for me to have their approval.
      ○ It was evident (the fact) that I had their approval.
    2. ☆ apparent; certain; clear; evident; impossible; improbable; likely; obvious; plain; possible; probable; true; unclear; unlikely; well-known
§228 不定詞の表す時
  1. [単純形不定詞の時]
    1. [述語動詞と同時]
      John is said to be guilty. (=It is said that John is guilty.)
    2. [述語動詞の後]
      I promise not to be late again. (=I promise that I will not be late again.)
      He expected to see his brother there. (=He expected that he would see his brother there.)
    3. [意味に依る]
      It's nice to meet you. (cf: It's nice to have met you.)
      The train is sure to arrive on time. (=It is certain that the train will arrive on time.)
  2. [完了形不定詞の時]
    1. [述語動詞より前]
      He is said to have made a fortune in Brazil.
      (=It is said that he made [has made] a fortune in Brazil.);
      She was said to have been poor when young.
      (=It was said that she had been poor when young.)
§229 原形不定詞の
  1. [助動詞の後]
    1. He would not tell the secret to anyone
    2. Her words must have let her down.
  2. [使役動詞の後] make; have; letの後
    1. He made me go against my will.
    2. I'll have him check the package.
    3. Don't let the children play in the street.
    4. I was made to go against my will. (受動態はto不定詞)
    5. Peter was let go after two years. (釈放された)
    6. Nancy got her husband to quit drinking. (get使役動詞はto不定詞)
  3. [使役動詞の後] bid, helpの後は(to)不定詞
    1. I'll help you (to) carry these things upstairs.
      this medicine will help (to) relieve your stomachache.
    2. He bade me (to) do the work.
  4. [知覚動詞の後]
    1. [see/hear/feelなど]I saw the salesman go into Mrs. Johnson's house.
      (=The salesman was seen to go into Mrs. Johnson's house.)
    2. [hear/listen to] They heard the space ship take off with a loud noise.
      (=The space ship was heard to take off with a loud noise.
    3. [feel] I felt the earth tremble.
    4. [observe/notice] We observed the car stop. (=The car was observed to stop);
      Did you notice anyone leave the house?
      He was noticed to hesitate. (〜だとわかる)
    5. [know] Have you even known her (to) lose her temper? (認識動詞; 現在完了/過去形)

§230 原形不定詞を

  1. [had better+原形不定詞]
    1. You had better look over this lesson again.
      It would be better for you to 〜 (丁寧)
    2. She had better not go alone. (否定形)
    3. Hadn't we better start at once? (疑問形)
      (=Don't you think we had better start at once?) ; (=Had we not better 〜?)
    4. Had I better not go out? (否定疑問形)
  2. [would rather/had better+原形不定詞]
    1. I'd (I would) rather wait and see
    2. I would rather quit than change my school.
    3. Would you rather take a walk?
    4. I would rather not stay her alone.
    5. Wouldn't you rather 〜?
  3. [would rather+節]
    1. I'd rather you stayed her
    2. May I smoke? - I'd rather you didn't. (断り)
  4. [cannot but+原形不定詞]
    1. I cannot but feel sorry for him.
  5. [to go]残り
    1. Only a week to go to our wedding!
    2. One finished, two to go!
    3. How many miles to go?
    4. Two laps to go!

>Top <G>:


>Top 疑問詞


§109 疑問
  1. [一般用法] 原則として文頭
    1. Who wrote this novel?
    2. What makes you laugh so?
    3. Which do you like better summer or winter?
    4. And you got off at what station? (対話中)
    5. His brother is a macro-engineer. - His brother is a what?
    6. Who said what to whom?
    7. Who were you talking with?
      With whom were you talking? (堅い言い方)
  2. [数の一致] 単数動詞
    1. What brings you here?
    2. Who' there?
    3. Who are you really, ad what were you before?
    4. Who are coming with the governor. (例外)
  3. [疑問の強調]
    1. Whoever [Who ever] said so?
    2. However [How ever] did you go there?
    3. Why on earth did you do that?
    4. What the hell are you doing here?
    5. I can't decide which to choose. (名詞句)
  4. [whoの用法]
    1. Whom [Who] did you invite to dinner? (文語調)
    2. From whom di he get the present? (文語調)
      (=Who did he get the present from?) (=He got the present from who?)
    3. She is dancing - Who with?
  5. [whoseの用法]
    1. Whose handkerchief is this?
    2. Whose is this handkerchief? (所有代名詞)
  6. [whichの用法] 範囲の中でどれか?
    1. Which would you like better, coffee or tea?
    2. Which of them is your father?
    3. Which is younger, Bill or John?
    4. When you get you r daily paper, which page do you read first?
  7. [whatの用法] 範囲を限らず何か?
    1. What happened to him?
    2. What is the capital of the USA?
    3. What is the table made of?
    4. What did you say? (=I beg you pardon?; Excuse me?; Sorry?)
    5. What did you buy?
      Cf: Which (of those books) did you buy?
    6. What are you? You make me sick. (むかつく)
  8. [whatを含む慣用表現]
    1. My wife has tone to the store for milk and what not. (=and I don't know what; その他いろいろ)
    2. What about (going for) a walk?
    3. What do you say to (playing) a few games of tennis with me?
    4. Jim lied about his age. - What (did he do that) for?
    5. What if you join us? - Well, if you don't mind. I'd like to. (一緒にやったらどうか)
    6. What if [though] we fail? (それがなんだ)
    7. What does it look like? (どんな外見か)
    8. What will become of the world in 100 years?
    9. What did I tell you? Here he comes now! (言った通り)
    10. (I'll) Tell you what. Let's go to a movie. (いい考えがある)
    11. What's up? - Nothing much. (どうした?)
    12. She's in the who's who of musicians.
    13. What's what (図解辞典のタイトル)
    14. You can't fool Tom; he knows what's what. (物事の道理)
§110 疑問
  1. [疑問代名詞の形容詞的用法]
    1. What day (of he week) is (it) today?
    2. What kind of dog is that?
    3. He told me what papers to read first on the subject.
    4. Which picture do you prefer, this or that?
§111 疑問副詞
  1. [whenの用法]
    1. When does the train get in?
    2. Till when can you stay her?
    3. Since when has your grandmother been ill?
  2. [whereの用法]
    1. Where are you from?
    2. Where have you come from?
    3. Where are you going (to)?
    4. Could you send this off for me? Where to?
  3. [whyの用法]
    1. Why were you late for school? - Because I missed the bus.
    2. You shouldn't smoke here. Why not? (どうして?)
    3. Let's have a cup of tea. Why not? (喜んで)
    4. Why don't y9u bring her along?
    5. Why not ask your mother if she can come with us?
    6. Why make so much fuss? (なぜ大騒ぎするの)
  4. [howの用法]
    1. How did you come? - I came by taxi.
    2. How did you come to know Jenny?
    3. How is your father?
    4. How hot is the water?
    5. How long does it take you to get to work?
    6. How soon will the meeting begin?
    7. How do you like this cake? - Oh, I like it very much.
    8. [how+形容詞[副詞]..?で程度を訊ねる]
      ☆ how deep; how far; how fast; how high; how large; how long; how many; how much; how old; how tall how thick; how wide
  5. [howを含む慣用表現]
    1. How about going out after work tonight?
    2. How are you, Sue?
    3. How do you do, Mr. Smith?
    4. How come you were absent yesterday? - I had to go to the dentist.
    5. How is it that they are late in coming? (どうしてか)
    6. What did you thing of the movie? - It was too slow for me. (× How)
    7. How do you like your coffee? - Just cream, please. (× What)(どう召し上がるか)
    8. What do you call this in English? - We all it a screwdriver. (×What)
    9. How do you spell [pronounce]... ? (×What)
    10. What do you say to going out for a walk? - I'd love to. (×How9
    11. What is the weather in England like? (×How)
    12. How was the weather during your trip? (×What)
§112 間接疑問
  1. [if [whether]で始まる名詞節] If [whether]+SVの語順
    1. Please tell me if [whether] the museum is open on Monday.
  2. [if とwhether]
    1. × If the report is true is questionable. (ifは文章主語になれない)
      Whether the report is true is questionable.
    2. × The problem was if we should call an ambulance at once. (ifは補語になる間接疑問節を導けない)
      ○ The problem was whether we should call an ambulance at once.
    3. × It depends on if they will appear. (ifの節は前置詞の目的語になれない)
      ○ It depend on whether they will appear.
    4. × There remains the question if she knew the secret. (ifの節は同格節になれない)
      ○ There remains the question whether she knew the secret.
    5. × I don't know if or not she is married. (ifの直後にor notをつけられない。 if ... or notと離れればよい)
      ○ I don't know whether or not she is married.
      ○ I don't know if [whether] she is married or not.
    6. × I can't decide if to go or not. (whether+to不定詞にifは使えない)
      ○ I can't decide whether to go or not.
§113 間接疑問の語順
  1. [what do you think...?型] Yes/Noで答えられない
    1. What do you think I have in may hand? - I think you have some cherries.
    2. [what do you think...?型]をとる動詞
      ☆ believe; conclude; consider; expect; fear; guess; hope; imagine; say; suggest; suppose; suspect; take; think; tell;
  2. [Do you know what...?型] Yes/Noで答えられる
    1. Do you know what I have in my hand? - Yes, I do. You have some cherries.
    2. Could you tell me where the bathroom is?
    3. Do you remember what she said?
    4. [Do you know what...?型] をとる動詞
      ☆ explain; know; remember; tell;
  3. [2つの語順が可能な間接疑問]
    1. Did he say where he had met Jiro?
      Where did he say he had met Jiro?
    2. Can you guess how old my sister is?
    3. How old do you guess my sister is?
  4. [I wonder...?]
    1. I wonder how it will end? (どんな風に終わるのか9
    2. What are they doing to do now, I wonder?
    3. I wonder if you can give me some advice(?)
    4. I am wondering if you could give me some advice(?)
    5. I was wondering if you could give me some advice(?)

>Top <H>:


>Top 比較


§146 比較変化を
  1. [比較変化しない形容詞]
    1. ☆nsupreme; absolute; perfect; unique;
    2. [-en, -ic, -al] の名詞派生形容詞: ☆ earthen; atomic; musica; English
      1. This landscape is more Japanese.
      2. His performace is more wooden thatn before. (以前よりぎこちない)
    3. [限定用法的] ☆ daily; latter; main; total
    4. [特定語句注目させる副詞] ☆ alone; eitheer; even; just; only; too;
    5. [強調・程度を表す副詞] ☆ actually; hardy; neary; simply
    6. [時・場所を表す副詞] ☆ here; today
§147 比較の規則変化 §148 比較の不規則変化 | §149 比較級最上級が2つある |
§150 原形比較
  1. [as〜as]
    1. American pop groups soon became as famous as British groups.
    2. The air is polluted as badly as the rivers.
    3. Things were not as [so] bad as I had thought.
  2. [後のas以下省略]
    1. I love her as much as you do [love her].
    2. I love her as much as (I love) you.
    3. He is as arrogant as (he was) when he was in high school.
    4. There are not as many tress around here as (there were) two years ago.
    5. Now he is not so naughty (as he was) (この場合はsoを用いる)
  3. [比較構文の意味]
    1. Our town has become as noisy as the center of a big city.
    2. The town is not as quiet as the country.
    3. Jack is as tall as Bill.
    4. Jack is as tall as Mr. X.
    5. That salesman isn't as aggressive as (he was) before.
    6. She isn't as young as she looks.
    7. She is as bright as (she is) beautiful.
    8. He is as diligent as his brother is lazy. (相反する性質の比較)
  4. [直喩] Similes; 強意的直喩; 多くは頭韻(alliteration)を踏む。
    1. ☆ as busy as a bee; as cool as a cumber; as cunning as a fox; as dead ad a doornail; as dry as dust; as gay as a lark; as like as two peas; as old as Adam; as poor as a church mouse; as proud as a peacock; as sweet as honey; as thick as a plank; as timid as a hare; as wise as Solomon
§151 倍数表現
  1. [AはBの〜倍]
    1. The US is about 25 times as big as Japan in area.
    2. He ate twice as much as I did.
    3. Canada is about three times bigger than India.
    4. How may times bigger is the US than Japan?
    5. The population of Spain is about one third as large as that of Japan.
    6. The job took only half as long as I had expected.
    7. [目的語がある場合] × He has books three times as many as I.
      ○ He has three times as many books as I.
    8. Nonverbal information 13 times as potent a data bearer as merely verbal information. (書き言葉)
  2. [as〜asによらない倍数表現]
    1. ☆ (この形の名詞) age; height; length; number; size; weight
    2. This room is ten times the size of mine.
§152 比較構文
  1. [比較級+than] 比較されるものが同類
    1. Dogs are cleverer than cats.
    2. He started earlier than I did.
    3. × The population of Tokyo is larger than Osaka.
      ○ The population of Tokyo is larger than that of Osaka.
    4. I am older than you by three and a half months.
      × Tom is older than I by two years.
      ○ Tom is two years older than I
  2. [thanの後の省略]
    1. Dogs are cleverer than cats (are)
    2. It is cheaper to eat at home than (to eat) in a restaurant.
    3. Some birds see thins ever better than you (do).
    4. It is warmer today than (it was) yesterday.
      he loves her more than yóu do.
      he loves hér mor than yóu.
  3. [劣性比較]
    1. In those days sugar was less valuable than salt.
      (=In those days sugar was not as valuable as salt.)
    2. × The main street it less narrow than this street. (マイナス語は使わない)
      ○ The main street is broader than this street.
  4. [比較級とthe] 一方がより〜
    1. This guitar is the better of the two.
    2. I was the more upset because he blamed me for the accident.
  5. [比較級の強調]
    1. ☆ [ずっと] much; far; by fa; far and away; a lot; lots;
    2. Jet planes fly much faster than propeller planes.
    3. This is by far the better of the two.
    4. ☆ [かなり] still; a good deal; a great deal; considerably; somewhat ; rather; a bit; a little bit;
    5. Your argument was somewhat more persuasive than his.
    6. There were five [many] more applicants than the job openings. (欠員数より多い)
    7. you'll need some [much] more money to rent such a house.
    8. There were far [a lot] more applicants than the job openings.
    9. These are much more beautiful [much prettier] vases than those.
      (many more [fewer]+複数名詞; much less+単数名詞)
  6. [異なる特性を比較]
    1. These shoes are more conformable than pretty.
      (=these shoes are comfortable rather than pretty.)
    2. These shes are more pretty than comfortable. (主語省略の場合-erも原則としてmore)
    3. These book is wider than it is tall. (主語省略しないばあい -er)
      (=This book is more wide than tall.
    4. He was more dead than alive.
    5. He is more a journalist than a scholar.
§153 ラテン語起源の形容詞比較級
  1. [-orで終わる比較級] ラテン語の形容詞比較級に由来
    1. ☆ senior; junior; superior; inferior; major; minor; prior; posterior; preferも
  2. [thanの代わりにtoを]
    1. he is five year senior to me.
      (=He is five years older than I.)
      (=He if five years my senior.)
    2. I prefer white wine to red.
    3. With fish, white wine is preferable to red.
    4. This dictionary is much [far] superior to that.
    5. This is a very superior leather. (名詞を限定的に修飾)
§154 絶対比較級
  1. [絶対比較級] than〜をとらない。
    1. Russel's family belonged to the upper class.
    2. × The class of this hotel is higher.
      ○ This is a higher class hotel.
    3. × Human beings belong to much the higher animals. (muchで強調できない)
  2. [対表現]
    1. the younger generation - the older generation (cf: the young generation)
    2. the lower animals - the higher animals.
      1. A fairly long walk is good for your health.
§155 最上級基本構文
  1. [最上級+in [of]〜]
    1. This is the most beautiful picture in my album.
    2. February is the shortest of all the months.
    3. He drives (the) most carefully of us all.
    4. This is the most difficult problem.
    5. This is the finest view (that) I have ever seen.
  2. [the+最上級]
    1. This is the tallest building in this city.
    2. February is the shortest of all the months.
    3. He drives (the) most carefully of us all.
    4. This is the most difficult problem.
    5. This is the finest view (that) I have ever seen.
    6. This is the tallest building in this city.
    7. This is probably his best work. (this/that/any/noがつく場合)
    8. The rain was heaviest then. (同一の性質・状態の比較)
    9. She was happiest when she was with her husband.
    10. Her failure is plainest. (叙述用法はtheなしも多い)
    11. Jack is the tallest of all these boys.
    12. At long last the meeting closed. (at lastの強意; やっと終わった)
    13. He won (the) first prize.
  3. [副詞の最上級]
    1. Who climbed (the) highest?
    2. In my family, (my) mother drives (the) most carefully.
    3. Which do you like the best of these books> (theがつく場合もある)
  4. [最上級を強める]
    1. This the very best dictionary.
    2. John is the very youngest.
    3. This road map is by far [far and away] the most useful of all.
    4. This dictionary is much the best.
§156 絶対最上級
  1. [絶対最上級] 漠然と程度が高いことを閉める;
    a most+原級+単数名詞; most+原級+複数名詞; veryより堅い言い方
    1. Jack is a most clever man. (=jack is a very clever man.)
    2. They were most pleasant people.
    3. Isn't she the most beautiful woman? (=very)
    4. I owe him the deepest gratitude. (不可算名詞の場合)
    5. He behaved (the) most carefully.
    6. Of all those present he behaved (the) most carefully.
§157 最上級・比較級・原級
  1. [原級・比較級→最上級の意味]
    1. Exxon-Mobil is the biggest company in the world.
      =Exxon-Mobil is bigger than any other company in the world.
      =Exxon-Mobil is bigger than all the other companies in the world.
      =No (other) company in the world is bigger than Exxon-Mobil.
      =No (other) company in the world is as [so] big as Exxon-Mobil.
    2. × No other building in Japan is higher than Mr. Fuji. (同一範疇でない)
      No building in Japan is higher than Mr. Fuji.
  2. [最上級的な原級比較構文]
    1. He is as clever as any person alive.
    2. Helen is as beautiful as any of her friends.
    3. He is as clever (a person) as ever lived. (as〜as ≥の関係)
    4. He was as emaciated as a person could be.
§158 原級の
  1. Speak as slowly as you can. (=as slowly as possible.)
  2. The weather is as fine as (fine) can be.
  3. We may [might] as well have something to eat.
  4. I might as well drown as stave.
  5. Tom will never pay the money back. You might as well throw it away (as lend it to him)
  6. He is not so much a scholar as a journalist.
    (=He is a journalist rather than a scholar.)
    =(He is more a journalist than a scholar.)
  7. She didn't so much as look at me. (一瞥さえしない)
§159 比較級の
  1. [the+比較級, the+比較級]
    1. When should I copy this? - The sooner, the better.
    2. The older we grow, the weaker our memory becomes.
    3. It becomes (the) colder the higher you climb.
    4. The more facts you've got at your fingertips, the more easy it is to persuade people. (比較はmore)
  2. [the+比較級+because [for]〜]
    1. I like him all the better for his human weaknesses. (〜なので一層)
      =I like him all the better because he has human weaknesses.
    2. The child was none the worse for being in the rain all night. (何ともなかった)
  3. [比較級+and+比較級]
    1. Our world is getting smaller and smaller.
  4. [much [still/even] less〜]
    1. I did not even see him, much less shake hands with him.
    2. It was a complete waste of time, to say nothing of all the bother.
      =It was a complete waste of time, not to mention all the bother.
  5. [know better than to〜]
    1. I know better than to do such a thing.
§160 no more than
  1. [no more [less] 〜than] A is no more B than C is D; 両方とも否定
    1. A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.
    2. A whale is no more a fish than a horse is (a fish).
      =A whale is not a fish as more than a horse is.
    3. I suppose that iguanas are no more unusual as pets than tortoises.
    4. I no more believe in UFO's than you do.
    5. I know no more about him now than when I first met him.
    6. Designing a beautiful garden is no more difficult on clay than on anything else.
      (no more 〜 than はnot more 〜 thanの強調)
    7. A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is.
  2. [not more [less] 〜than] 両方とも肯定
    1. This question is not more difficult than that one.
    2. i am not less anxious than you to study abroad.
  3. [no more [less] than A]
    1. I have no more than (=only) 10,000 yen.
    2. I have no less than (=as much as ) 10,000 yen.
  4. [not more [less] than]
    1. I have not more than (=at most) 10,000 yen.
    2. I have not less than (=at least) 10,000 yen.
  5. [no bigger than]
    1. It turned out to be no bigger than (=as small as) a mouse.
    2. They were no better than beasts. (も同然)
§161 最上級構文
  1. [譲歩の最上級]
    1. The fastest rocket would not reach the nearest star in a year.
  2. [at (the)+最上級]
    1. There were only fifty people at (the) most in the hall.
    2. He is at (the) best a second-rate writer.
    3. The cherry blossoms in the park are at their best now.
    4. I have finished the work at last.
    5. × He didn't turn up at last. (at lastは否定文に使わない)
      ○ He didn't turn up after all.
    6. you must come by ten at the latest.
    7. She should at (the) least let us know where she is.
  3. [数詞+最上級]
    1. Borneo is the third largest island in the world.
    2. How do you pronounce the last word but one?
  4. [make the most of] 最大限に利用する
    1. I hope you will make the most of you abilities.
    2. He made the best of his small income. (なんとか我慢)
  5. [the last+名詞+to不定詞] 最も〜しそうもない
    1. He is [would be] the last person to do such a thing.

>Top 否定


§372 強い否定と
  1. [強い否定]
    1. [never] <ever = at any time
      1. You should never walk alone at night.
      2. Jim and Meg got married without telling us. - Well, I never! (え、そんな!)
      3. I've never in all my life seen such a beautiful thing.
      4. I'm not satisfied with it al all [by no means].
        △ I am never satisfied with it.
    2. [no] not 〜 any
      1. It is no hard job.
      2. She is no teacher. > She is not a teacher. > She isn't a teacher. 強い否定順
      3. He is no better than he was yesterday.
        =He is as bad as yesterday. (むしろ悪い)
    3. [not a]
      1. Not a word was spoken.
      2. There was nót a signboard.
      3. I haven't the slightest idea.
    4. [none]
      1. The service in this shop is none too fast.
    5. [little]
      1. I little dreamed of winning the prize.
    6. [否定を強める慣用表現]
      1. There are no mistakes in your compositions at all.
      2. I'm not in the least tired.
      3. The man was in no way to blame.
      4. There is no doubt whatever.
      5. Even pure truth, which has no application whatsoever, elevates life.
  2. [弱い否定]
    1. [hardly/scarcely/seldom/rarely]
      1. I could hardly follow the voice on the tape.
      2. I hardly ever (=seldom) see my uncle.
      3. There were scarcely any seats left when we arrived.
      4. He is seldom late for school.
      5. Japanese parents rarely go out to dinner together without their children.
    2. [few/little]
      1. She has few faults.
      2. Very few people live to be on hundred.
      3. He paid little attention to the fact.
      4. I know very little about modern painting.
      5. Only a few students could speak fluent French.
      6. There was, in fact, almost nothing to say.
      7. Around that city, almost nobody worked without a car.
§373 否定語句の位置
  1. [not] 助動詞/be動詞の後
    1. Jim can't stand on his hands.
    2. I'm not interested in human affairs.
  2. [hardly/seldom/never] 動詞の前, 助動詞/be動詞の後
    1. My mother seldom goes to bed before on o'clock.
    2. I can hardly wait to go to college.
    3. There is scarcely y any time left.
    4. You never think of anything but that child!
    5. This is too much. - Never mind.
  3. [名詞を否定] 名詞の前
    1. There was no living creature to be seen but black cow in the field.
    2. Neither road will lead you to the park.
    3. Not much is known about those people.
    4. Not a word did he say. (文語調)
  4. [否定語の主語] 文頭近く。文末まで否定される。
    1. Nothing will make her change her plan.
    2. Neither driver would admit to being wrong.
  5. [I don't thinkの型]
    1. I don't think it will snow this evening. (△ I think it will now snow.)
    2. I don't think型をとる動詞:
      ☆ believe; expect; fancy; guess; imagine; suppose; suspect; appear; seem
    3. 否定語が後に来る動詞:
      ☆ be afraid; fear; hope; wish; assume; trust; presume;
    4. I hope he won't be back until eight.
    5. I'm afraid I can't come in time.
    6. × We didn't read it also [too]. ○ We also [too,] didn't read it.
§374 文否定と語否定
  1. [定義] 文否定は文全体の否定。
    1. We were not surprised at what we saw.
    2. No two faces are exactly the same. (noを用いた文否定)
    3. She is no stranger to me. (=I know her well.)
    4. He walked around in the village, but he met nobody he knew.
  2. [語否定] 語否定は特定の語(句・節)の内容だけ否定。
    1. We were nót a little surprised at what we saw. (語否定; 文語調)
    2. they visit me not infrequently.
    3. Not surprisingly, he missed the bus.
    4. That was not too sympathetic a report about him.
    5. It is not very warm today.
    6. I saw James not long ago.
    7. We were not a bit hungry. (not a bit = not a all)
    8. There exists not a man who is not a little moved by the word 'home.'
§375 全体否定と
  1. [部分否定] 否定語+以下の語は部分否定
    1. ☆ absolutely; all; altogether; always; both; complete;y; each; entire; entirely; every; everybody; everyone; everything; everywhere; exactly; generally; necessarily; quite; whole; wholly
    2. Not all see the problem withe the same sense of urgency. (部分否定)
      Nobody sees the problem with the sense of urgency. (全体否定)
    3. I haven't read both article. (部分否定)
      I haven't read either article (=I have read neither article.) (全体否定)
    4. You can tell a child what to do, but he won't always obey. (部分否定)
    5. You can tell the child what to do, but he will never obey. (全体否定)
    6. All that glitters is not gold.
    7. We can have one or the other but not both.
  2. [全体否定]
    1. All his riches would not satisfy the girl.
    2. All the King' horses and all the King's men couldn't put Humpty together again.
§376 二重否定
Double negation
  1. [二重否定] 否定の否定
    1. There was no one who did not feel sympanty
      (= Everyone felt sympathy) for the victims of the accident.
    2. It is not unusual (=It is usual) for a family to have more thatn one car to use in daily life.
    3. Nobody had nothing to eat. (=Everyone had somethign to eat.
  2. [例外]二重否定=否定 (非標準)
    1. (?) No one never said nothing to nobody.
      ○ No one ever said anything to anybody
    2. (?) I couldn't hardly walk.
      ○ I could hardly walk.
§377 否定を表す
  1. [修辞疑問] 疑問文の形で否定を表す。(反語)
    1. Who knows what will happen tomorrow? (=No one knows)
    2. Who doesn't know that the man was there? (=Everyone knows)
  2. [anything but 〜] not 〜 at all
    1. Your answer is anything but perfect.
  3. [far from 〜]
    1. The show was far from being a success.
    2. Is she a good driver? - Far from it!
  4. [fail to 〜] =do not 〜; cannot 〜
    1. Even Big Ben failed to strike correctly one day when its chiming mechanism failed.
    2. He never fails to write home to his parents every month.
  5. [too 〜 to]
    1. He was too young to have learned to say no a woman.
  6. [the last+名詞+to不定詞]
    1. Jack would be the last person to believe that.
    2. He is the last person who(m) we would want to come.
  7. [much[still] less 〜]
    1. He cannot understand French, much less Latin.
    2. He cannot speak German, let alone Dutch.
  8. [be [have] yet to 〜]
    1. Commercial exploitation has yet to be developed in that region.
  9. [remain to 〜]
    1. That remains to be seen.
  10. [know better than to 〜]
    1. You should know better than to talk with your mouth full!
  11. [(but) in vain]
    1. He tried to open the door, (but) in vain.
  12. [more than 〜]
    1. The heat was more than he could stand
  13. [beyond 〜]
    1. The scenery is beautiful beyond description
      (=The beauty of the scenery is indescribable.)
    2. Her lecture was beyond me.
  14. [be above 〜]
    1. He is above telling lies.
  15. [be free from 〜]
    1. This district is free from air pollution.
    2. Some day the world may be free of hunger.
  16. [その他会話表現]
    1. Where is the microfilm? - Search me. (=I don't know.)
    2. How did he get into the hospital without being noticed by anyone? - Beats me. (=I can't understand.)
  17. [注意すべき否定形の慣用表現]
    1. It is not longer a dream to fly to the moon.
    2. No more HIroshimas! (複数形)
    3. The dog never crosses a street without stopping at the curb.
    4. There is no knowing who's going to be the next prime minister.
    5. What he said to me was not so much an apology as an excuse.
    6. There was nothing but water as far as we could see.
    7. No doubt he meant to come, but something prevented him from doing so.
    8. The men lost no time (in) getting out to fight the locusts.
    9. He can ride a motorbike, not to mention a bicycle.
    10. That has nothing to do with him.
    11. You cannot be too careful in driving a car.
    12. He did not turn up until the meal was over.
    13. It won't be long before we all have robots.
    14. He has no less than 500 dollars.
    15. He is no more an artist than you are a mathematician.
    16. I had no sooner arrived than it began to rain. (文語的)
    17. We're thinking of emigrating to Australia. - You don't say! (まさか)
    18. How's business? Not too bad.
    19. So you agree to this plan. - Not exactly.
    20. Will you be able to come and stay with us sometime? - You never know! (ひょっとしたら)

>Top < I >:

< I >:

>Top <J>:


>Top 時制の一致と話法

«Sequence of tenses»

§350 時制の一致の
  1. 主節が過去時制なら、従節も過去時制。
    1. My mother thought that I was sick.
    2. I said that he wouldn't come.
§351 時制の一致の
  1. [主節が現在・現在完了・未来] 時制の一致なし。
    1. He says [has said/ will say] (that) he is [was/ has been/ will be/ had been] free now.
  2. [現在→過去]
    1. I know you are busty.
      → I knew you were busy.
  3. [過去→過去/過去完了]
    1. I think he was sick. → I thought he had been sick.
    2. I think I sent the check two weeks ago.
      → I tought I (had) sent the chek two weeks before.
    3. She wonders how long he has been in the room.
      → She wondered how long he had been in the room
    4. She says my letter had arrived when I phoned her.
      → She said my letter had arrived when I phoned her. (過去完了はそれ以上なし)
  4. [未来/未来完了助動詞→過去形の助動詞]
    1. They believe he will come back soon.
      → They believed he would come back soon.
    2. They believe he will have arrived by this time.
      → They believed he would have arrived by then.
    3. They believe he may come any minute.
      → They believed he might come any minute.
§352 時制の一致と
  1. [現在時制→過去時制] 直接話法→間接話法
    1. He said, "I'm busiy." → He said that he was busy.
    2. She said, "The kettle is boiling." → She said that the kettle was boiling.
  2. [過去時制/現在完了/過去完了→過去完了]
    1. He said, "I was [have been/ had been] busy."
      → he said tht he had been busy.
    2. She said, "The kettle was boiling [has been boiling/ had been boiling]."
      → She said the kettle had been boiling.
  3. [未来時制/未来完了助動詞→助動詞の過去形]
    1. Kate said, "jane will come soon." → Kaid said Jana would come soon.
    2. Bill said, "Things will have changed by then."
      →Bill said things would have changed by then.
    3. The radio said, "The weather may change for the better."
      →The radio said the weather might change for the better.
§353 時制の一致の
  1. [不変の真理・社会通念]
    1. We were taught at school that the wquare of 10 is 100.
    2. Franklin was well aware tht light travels faster than sound.
    3. My grandpa would oftern say, time is moeny.
    4. Darwin believed that natural selection could account for evertything. (単なる伝達・不信の暗示)
  2. [今でも該当すること]
    1. Did you know awallows migrate to Japan in April?
    2. Mr. Okuda asked me what my father does.
    3. At the party last night, he wispered to me that I am beautiful.
  3. [歴史上の事実、過去の明確な出来事]
    1. Did you know that the Civil War broke out in 1861?
    2. The history teacher said Sahkespere was born and died on the same day of the same month.
    3. Kate said she was astounded when she saw the will.
§354 仮定法の場合
  1. [仮定法] 仮定法は、実際の現在や過去を表さない→時制の一致なし
    1. [仮定法現在] 今では条件節の中で、仮定法現在の代わりに直説法現在を使う場合は、時制の一致が起こる。
      1. She says if she is not wrong she doen't have to appologize.
        → She said if she was not wrong she didn't have to appologize.
    2. [仮定法過去]
      1. She said if he were a secret agent, he would become 008.
      2. The grown-ups said it was time the children went to bed.
      3. She wished she were a doctor to save those children.
    3. [仮定法過去完了]
      1. She said that if he had been the President of US, she would have been the First Lasy.
      2. She said that if he had questioned her she would probably have told him the truth.
§355 比較を表す
  1. [異なる時期の比較] 時制の一致はなし
    1. My father was older then than I am now.
    2. The air was not as polluted then as it is now.
§356 直接話法と
  1. [直接話法 Direct narration]
    1. Mary said to Bill, "It is a good idea."
  2. [間接話法 Indiret narration]
    1. Mary told Bill (that) it was a good idea.
§357 特殊な話法
  1. [特殊な話法] 直接話法と間接話法の中間的なもの。小説や随筆などの文体的な効果。
    1. [引用符で囲まれていたり、疑問符がついているもの]
      1. Anoterhshort fellow pulled him by the arm, and rising on tiptoe, inquired in hie ear "
      2. I was still peering about, when Mr. Mell came back and asked me what I was doing up there?
      3. After all, he thought, someone will come along in the morning and help me climb out.
    2. [語順だけが直接話法のもの] 語順以外の代名詞・副詞・時制の一致などは間接話法
      1. He asked was my family nam Federico or Enrico?
      2. And I said of course but would that be enough?
§358 話法の転換の
  1. [時制の一致、接続詞の補充など必要]
    1. Ann said to me, "My mother is out now."
    2. Ann told(*1) me that(*2) her(*3) mother was(*4) out then(*5).
      1. 伝達動詞の変更
      2. 接続詞+
      3. 代名詞変更
      4. 時制の一致
      5. 副詞の変更
§359 伝達動詞の種類
  1. [伝達動詞に変える]
    1. [平叙文] tell; say (to); report; answer
    2. [疑問文] ask; inquire; demand
    3. [命令文] tell; ask; order; advise
    4. [感嘆文] cry exclaim; sigh
    5. [祈願文] pray; express

§360 時制の一致・willとshall

  1. [伝達動詞が過去・過去完了] 時制の一致
    1. My kid brother said, "I don't like the idea."
      →My kid brother said (that) he didn't like the idea.
    2. He said, "Blood is thicker than water after all."
      →He said that blood is [was] thicker than water after all. (社会通念; 両方可)
    3. I said to him, "If I were you, I would stick to it."
      →I told him that if I were him, I would stick to it.
  2. [間接話法の過去完了] 直接話法では過去時制/現在完了/過去完了になる場合がある。
    1. She said her sister had gotten married the previous Sunday.
      →She said, "My sister got married last Sunday."
    2. She said her sister had been married for three years.
      →She said, "My sister has been married for three years."
  3. [willとshall] 単純未来のshall→間接話法では単純未来のwill [would]/shall [should]を入れ替える。(英)
    1. Mac said, "I shall be late for class."
      →Mac said he would be late for class.
    2. She said, "I will probably get there about seven."
      →She said she would probably get there about seven.
  4. [話手の意思のshall] 間接話法では、shall [should]にする。(状況次第)
    1. He said to his daughter, "You shall have my answer soon."
      →He told his daughter that she should have his answer soon.
§361 代名詞の交代
  1. [人称代名詞] 伝達者の立場へ適宜変更
    1. She said, "I saw your brother eating a big hamburger."
      →She said that she had seen my brother eating a big hamburger.
    2. I said to her, "I'm sorry you don't understand me."
      →I told her that I was sorry she didn't understand me.
    3. She said to my husband, "I'd like to see your wife."
      →She told my husband that she would like to see me."
  2. [指示代名詞] this[these]→that[those]、但し、眼前の場合thisのままもある。
    1. I told the police officer, "This is my handbag!"
      →I told the police officer that that was my handbag.
    2. He said, "I didn't see this box then."
      →He said that he had't seen this box then.
§362 副詞の交代
  1. [直接話法→間接話法]
    1. ☆ now→then; today→that day; yesterday→the day before, the previous day;
      tomorrow→(the) next day, the following day; new week→the next week, the following week;
      last night→the night before, the previous night; last year→the year before, the previous year;
  2. [内容に応じて変える]
    1. He said, "I'll come back tomorrow afternoon."
      →He said that he would come back the next afternoon.
      →He said that he would come back tomorrow afternoon. (今日の発言の場合)
    2. They said, "We like it here."
      →They said that they liked it there.
      →They said that they liked it here. (同じ場所での発言)
    3. Yesterday he said to me, "I'll see you tomorrow."
      Yesterday he told me that he would see me today."
§363 平叙文の転換
  1. [伝達動詞] say to 〜 → tell 〜に変える。但し、say to 〜のままもある。
    1. She said to Bob, "I've never thought of that."
      →She told Bob that she had never thought of that.
    2. Harris said, "We'll start early tomorrow morning."
      →Harris said that we should start early the next morning. (sayのまま; 同行者の場合)
      →Harris said that they should start early the following morning (同行しない観察者の場合)
  2. [被伝達部を導くのに接続詞のthatを使う]
    1. Annie said, "I'm going to like New York."
      →Annie said that she was going to like New York.
§364 疑問文の転換
  1. [一般疑問] if/ whetherを使う。ifが普通。
    1. Donald said to me, "Do you know who that man is?"
      →Donald asked me if I know who that man was.
    2. The visitor said, "Is your father at home or at his office.?"
      →The visitor asked whether my father was at home or at his office. (AかBかの選択はwhether)
    3. The man suddenly said, "Are you alone, Jack?"
      →The man suddenly asked Jack if he was alone.
    4. She said, "Shall I be in time if I start right away?"
      →She said whether she would be in time if she started right away.
  2. [特殊疑問] 直接話法の疑問をそのまま接続詞に使う。
    1. Jack said, "What's up? (何が起こったか)
      →Jack said what was up?
    2. Janet said, "What are you up to, Bill?" (あなたの狙いは)
      →Janet asked Bill what you were up to.
    3. Meg said to me, "Which do you like better, winter or summer?"
      →Meg asked me which I liked better, winter or summer.
    4. I asked, "What is the matter?"
      →I asked what was the matter.
§365 命令文の転換
  1. [一般の命令文] 命令文→不定詞; Let's〜 →that節
    1. Larry said to me, "Stay in touch with me." (連絡を絶やすな)
      →larry told me to stay in touch with him.
    2. Her secretary said to me, "Please call back."
      →Her secretary asked me to call back.
    3. He said to me, "Don't take your blood pressure too seriously."
      →He advised me not to take my blood pressure too seriously.
    4. I said, "Let me take a look at your glasses, Pete."
      →I said Pete take a look at his glasses.
  2. [Let's〜の間接話法]
    1. Professor Kay said to us, "Let's have a coffee break."
      →Professor Kay suggested (that) we (should) have a coffee brake.
    2. Jimmy said "Let's don't talk about it any more."
      →Jimmy suggested that we (should) not to talk about it any more.
    3. The judge said to me, "You must pay a fine of $25."
      The judge ordered me that I (should) pay a fine of $25.
    4. Chris said to her friend, "If you don't know, shut up."
      →Chris told her friend to sht up if she didn't know.
§366 感嘆文の転換
  1. [how, whatを使う場合]
    1. The woman said, "Oh, how awfully sorry I am!"
      →The woman said regretfully how awfullly sorry she was.
    2. Steve said, "Boy, what a nice seater you are wearing."
      →Steve cried out what a nice seater I was wearing.
  2. [平叙文で表現する場合]
    1. She said, "How nice of you!"
      →She said (that) it was very nice of me.
    2. Jim said, "Oh, gosh, what a fool I am!"
      →Jim said wih regret that he was a big fool.
    3. Susan said, "Thank God, the examinations are over at last!"
      →Susan sighed with relief that the examinations were over at last.
§367 祈願文の転換
  1. [prey/ express +that節]
    1. They all said, "May God forgive him!"
      →They all preyed that God might forgive him.
    2. Eliza said, "I wish I were dead!"
      →Eliza cried that she wished she were dead. (仮定法過去ゆえ時制一致せず)
    3. He said, "I hope everything will go all right!"
      →He expressed his hope that everything would go all right.
§368 省略文の転換
  1. [Yes, Noの場合]
    1. I said, "Yes."
      →I agreed.
    2. He said, "No."
      →He said no.
      →He disagreed [denied it, refused, answered in the affirmative]
  2. [Thank youなどの場合]
    1. She said, "Thank you."
      →She thanked me.
    2. Alice said, "How nice!"
      →Alice said it was very nice of you.
  3. [Good morningなどの場合]
    1. I said, "Good morning, Mrs. Smith."
      →I wished Mrs. Smith (a) good morning. (=I greeted Mrs. Smith with a good morning.) (aがつく)
      →I passed the time of day with Mrs. Smith.
§369 重文の転換
  1. [等位節がand/ but/ or/ norで結ばれた重文]
    1. He said, "I'm very sorry and I'll do anything to make it up to you."
      →He said (that) he was very sorry, and that he would do anything to make it up to me.
    2. She said, "You ought to have written to him sooner, but it's too late."
      →She said (that) I ought to have written to him sooner, but that it was too late.
    3. "The man must be over sixty, for his hair is white," he said.
      →He said (that) the man must be over sixty, for his hair was white.
  2. [命令文+and [or]] 命令文+and [or] (thatはつけない)
    1. She said to me, "Wash my car, and I'll give you ten dollars."
      →She told me to wash my car, and she would give you ten dollars.
    2. She said to him, "Put on your coat, or you'll catch a cold."
      →She told him to put on your coat, or he would catch a cold.
  3. [被伝達部が複文の場合]
    1. I said to him, "I can't undertand what you mean."
      →I told him I could not understand what he meant.
§370 異種類の2つ
  1. [疑問文+平叙文]
    1. Meg said to their roommate, "Do you like Mexican food? It's too hot for me."
      →Meg asked their roommate if she liked Mexican food, and said (that) it was too hot for her.
    2. Why do you say that?" he said to her. "You are as pretty as any other girl."
      →He asked her why she said that, and told her that she was as pretty as any other girl.
    3. Mom said to me, "Which day of the week is it? Is it Friday?"
      →Mom asked me which day of the week it was, and asked me if it was Friday.
  2. [命令文+平叙文]
    1. She says to Jim, "Go and see a dentist. A toothache is worse than a headache."
      →She tells Jim to go and see a dentist, and says (that) a toothache is worse thatn a headache.
  3. [感嘆文+平叙文]
    1. Joe said, "Oh, what a fool I am! I did it again."
      →Joe said what a fool he was, and that he had done it again.
  4. [疑問文+命令文]
    1. The father said to his child, "What are you doing that for? Stop it at once."
      →The farther asked his child what he was doing that for, and told him to stop it at once.
  5. [感嘆文+命令文]
    1. Jane said, "Oh, how nice you look in that jacket! Tell me where you got it."
      →Jan said (that) I looked in really nice in that jacket, and asked me to tell her where I had got it.
§371 その他転換の
  1. [命令文+and [or]]
    1. She said to me, "Wash my car, and I'll give you ten dollars."
      →She told me that if I washed her car, she would give me ten dollars.
    2. "Stop that, or I'll hit you!" said my sister.
      →My sister said that if I did not stop that, she would hit me.
  2. [Will you 〜?/ Could you 〜?など]
    1. My nextdoor neighbor said, "Could you do me a favor?"
      →My nextdoor neighbor asked me to do him a favor for her.
    2. I said, "Can I borrow an umbrella?"
      →I asked to borrow an umbrella.
  3. [Shall I 〜?]
    1. I said to her, "When shall I come for you?"
      →I asked her when she wanted me to come for her.
      →I asked her when I should come for her.
  4. [had better 〜]
    1. Mike said, "You'd better not outstay your welcome. (長居して嫌われる)
      →Mike advised me not to outstay my welcome.
      →Mike told me (that) I had better not outstay my welcome.
  5. [その他慣用表現]
    1. He said, "How about a glass of wine?"
      →He asked me if I would like a glass of wine.
      →He offered me a glass of wine.
    2. She said, "How about you?"
      →She asked what I thought of that.
    3. Almost everyone in America say, "Have a nice day."
      →Almost everyone in America wishes you a nice day.

>Top 助動詞

«Auxiliary verb»

§196 助動詞の種類と語形変化

  1. [種類]
    1. [法動詞] 可能・必然・義務の意味を加える。 can/must/may/will/shall/ougt to/used to dare/need
    2. [それ以外の助動詞] 時制・態・疑問・否定を作る。have/be/do
  2. [have] +過去分詞=完了形
  3. [be] +現在分詞=進行形;+過去分詞=受動態
  4. [do] 疑問文・否定文を作る;強調文
§197 助動詞の
  1. [否定文・疑問文] doは使わない
  2. [動詞と共に] 単独では用いない。
§198 can, couldの用法
  1. [can] 能力・可能
    1. [be able to] 未来時制・完了形に使う。現在形ではやや堅い言い方。
      1. canは身に備わった能力。気持ちの上での可能性を問う。
        1. The bay cannot walk yet.
        2. I couldn't shoot the bear because I couldn't bring myself to do so.
      2. be able to は一時的な能力。実際の可能性を問う。
        1. John isn't able to walk because of his sore feet.
        2. I wasn't able to shoot the bear because my rifle did not fire.
    2. [比較形] be better able to; be more able to; 最上級は be most able to
      1. I haven't been able to recall his name.
      2. She ought to be better able to speak French than you are.
    3. [可能性]
      1. This kind of thing can happen every now and then.
      2. Children can be very cruel sometimes.
    4. [否定的推量] 一体全体
      1. Can such things be?
      2. How can you say that?
      3. Where can I have left my glasses?
    5. [否定文] 〜ではずがない
      1. Tom can't be ill. I just saw him swimming.
      2. There can be no doubt about that.
    6. [過去の否定的推量] 〜したはずがない
      1. He has an alibi; he can't have been there.
      2. He can't have seen it. ←He must have seen it.の否定
      3. (cf: He couldn't see it. ←He could see it.の否定)
    7. [軽い命令]
      1. You can go now. (命令)
      2. You can't stay up that late. (禁止)
    8. [遺憾] could, mightの使用が多い
      1. She can at least speak to me.
    9. [許可] mayより口語的
      1. You can use my dictionaries whenever you want to.
      2. I don't think he is shy. - You can say that again! (その通り)
    10. [依頼]
      1. Can you give me alight? (相手の行為はcould)
    11. [canの慣用表現]
      1. I can't help thinking so.
      2. He couldn't help smiling at her childlike frankness.
      3. We can but wait and see
      4. You cannot praise his courage too much. (=You cannot praise his courage enough.
  2. [couldの用法]
    1. [能力・可能] 過去の能力の場合以外は、was able to/ managed toがよい。
      1. He could climb trees easily when he was young.
      2. He was able to climb the tree easily. (実際に登った)
      3. I could hardly believe my eyes. (否定文)
    2. [仮定の能力] 〜しようと思えばできる。
      1. I's so hungry that I could eat a horse. (仮定法の条件節省略)
    3. [可能性] ひょっとしたら
      1. Is it true that he's bought a Rolls Royce? - It could be. (かもね)
      2. I thought that what she was saying could be true. (本当かも)
    4. [否定的な推量] あり得ない!
      1. How in the world could you do that?
    5. [could have+過去分詞] 過去の推量
      1. Who could have borne to see such a scene? ←Who could bear to see such a scene.
      2. You could not have seen Bill because he is still abroad. (=cannot have seen)
    6. [許可]
      1. Could I sit here a minute. - Yes, you can. (× Yes, you could.)
    7. [依頼その他]
      1. Could you repeat that?
      2. Could I see you gain? - Oh, yes. I promise.

§199 may, mightの用法

  1. [mayの用法]
    1. [許可] canより形式的。上下関係
      1. Now you may go, Harry.
      2. May I be excused? (トイレ?)
        - No, you must not. (禁止); No, you may not. (却下) ; can't (普通の不許可)
        - Sure./ Go ahead./ Yes of course. / If you wish. (許可)
    2. [推量] 見込みや可能性。倒置文は不可。
      1. It may sound strange, but it's true.
      2. His health may or may not turn for the better.
      3. Dad may have missed the point of my joke. (過去の推量)
    3. [容認] 〜してさしつかえない。
      1. Life may be compared to a voyage.
      2. It may safely be said that power corrupts sooner or later.
    4. [祈願] 文語的
      1. May all your Christmases be white!
      2. May I never see a sight like that again!
    5. [目的] 〜するように
      1. We work in order that we may earn our living.
    6. [譲歩]
      1. Whatever may happen, I will not be surprised.
      2. No matter what he may say, I won't believe it.
    7. [能力] canより弱い。古風。
      1. Gather rose while you may.
    8. [mayを用いた慣用表現]
      1. You may [might] well get confused.
      2. Her grandfather may well be over eighty.
      3. We may [might] as well go home ... there's nothing interesting here.
      4. Shall we take a walk? - Might as well. (そうだね)
      5. You may as well open an oyster without a knife as a lawyer's mouth without a fee.
      6. You might as well give up the project as do it incompletely.
  2. [mightの用法]
    1. [許可] 丁寧な許可
      1. Might I have a few words with you, sir?
    2. [推量] =may; 現在の推量
      1. He might have some difficulty in finding our place.
      2. It might be better to be on your guard.
      3. Stop thinking what you might have been. (過去の推量)
    3. [非難] 〜位してもよさそう
      1. You might at least say you are sorry.
    4. [譲歩]
      1. You might think I am heartless, but business in business.
    5. [もったいぶった疑問] 〜なんでしょうかね。
      1. Well, who might you be?
    6. [軽い命令]
      1. You might move over a little.
§200 mustの用法
  1. [義務・強要]
    1. I really must go now.
    2. You must keep silent in the library.
  2. [禁止]
    1. You must not drink if you are to drive, and you must not drive if you have drunk.
    2. Must I finish this by tomorrow?
      - Yes, you must.
      - No. you don't have to. (=No, Yo don't need to./ No, you need not.)
  3. [勧誘] ぜひ〜しなさい。
    1. You must come to my birthday party.
    2. You must help yourself to the cookies.
  4. [主張]
    1. Some kids must have their own way.
  5. [推量] 〜に違いない。この意味の否定形は can't
    1. He must have seen it. →否定形: He can't have seen it.
    2. Sir Lawrence must be very old, for his hair is all white.
    3. I've decided to get married. - You must be kidding!
    4. I must have been asleep. I didn't hear your footsteps.
  6. [当然・必然]
    1. Human beings must die.
  7. [遺憾の気持ち]
    1. Brian shrugged. Why must you be so secretive about it?

§201 have toの用法
  1. [義務] must >have to で強制の意味が強い
    1. You must go now. (話手の意思都合); You have to go now. (客観的な事情)
    2. Alice had to run to catch up with the rabbit.
    3. A lot of things will have to be done without.
    4. We have had to wait for a long time.
    5. You have to think twice before you buy anything.
  2. [推量]
    1. He has to be stuck in traffic.
    2. She looks about eight years old but has to be more than that.
    3. There has to be more to life than earning money. trrrtt5rrr
  3. [遺憾な気持ち]
    1. Just when I am busiest, Jack has to come and waste my time.

§202 ought toの用法
  1. [義務]
    1. We ought to live within our means.
    2. We ought not to live beyond our means. (must notより弱い)
      I don't think we ought to live beyond our means. (この方が自然な否定形)
    3. Ought I to notify the post office of my change of address?
    4. She said I ought to drive more lowly. (過去時制に相当)
    5. You ought to have explained yourself.
    6. The man's identity ought not to have been disclosed.
  2. [推量・当然]
    1. He ought to succeed if everything goes all right. (should)
    2. You ought to be hungry now, since you didn't eat lunch.
    3. The 6:30 jumbo jet ought to have arrived in San Francisco by now. (ought to have +過去分詞)
    4. Where can they be? They ought to have come by now.

§203 used toの用法
  1. [過去の習慣] 〜したものだった。
    1. John used to work part-time at a restaurant after school.
    2. We used to talk about our future, didn't we?
    3. Did he use [used] to have quarrels with his mother?
      (=Used he to have quarrels with his mother?) (英での堅い言い方)
    4. People never used to [People didn't use [used] to / People usedn't to] talk of leisure before.
  2. [過去の継続] 以前は〜だった。
    1. Love used to be something more romantic than it is now.
    2. There used to be a bronze stature in front of the building.
    3. He isn't what he used to be three year's ago.

§204 willの用法
  1. [話手の意思]
    1. I'll treat myself to a new suit. (普通の意思; I'llが多い)
    2. I will do my best to realize my dream of becoming a novelist.
    3. I won't care what you say.
  2. [二三人称の意思]
    1. I'll be happy if she will help me financially.
    2. The lid of this bottle won't come off
  3. [相手の意思]
    1. Will you do me a favor? (依頼)
    2. Won't (Will) you come in? (勧誘)
    3. Will you shut up?n (命令)
    4. Will you sign here, please (指示)
  4. [現在の傾向習性能力] willに強勢
    1. Accidents will happen.
    2. Boys will be boys.
    3. Oil will float on water.
    4. Will such a small air conditioner cool the whole room?
  5. [現在の推量] 確信度は高い。
    1. Mom will be downstairs now.
    2. You'll be Dr. Livingston, I presume?
    3. You'll have heard of this before, I guess.

§205 wouldの用法
  1. [過去の習慣]
    1. I would sometimes travel alone when I was a college student.
  2. [過去の強い意志]
    1. George would stick to his own theory.
    2. The rusty screw wouldn't come loose.
  3. [丁寧]
    1. Would you call me back later?
    2. I would appreciate it if you would write me just as soon as possible.
    3. Would you please keep silent a minute.
  4. [勧誘]
    1. Would [Wouldn't] you like to come with me? - Yes, if I may.
  5. [控え目]
    1. It would be difficult for us to accept your offer.
  6. [現在の意思] 
    1. If you would wait a minute. I'll see if he's free.
    2. Would that he were here now! (文語調)
  7. [現在の弱い推量]
    1. Shall I make some coffee? - Yes, that would be nice.
    2. Who would believe your story?
    3. The screw-driver would do, I guess.
  8. [非難・いらだち]
    1. You would lose your glasses!
  9. [仮定法の条件節]
    1. You could if you would. (やる気があれば)
    2. Alexander could have conquered the whole world if he would have done so.
  10. [仮定法の帰結節]
    1. If she liked the idea, he would be glad.
    2. If he had followed my advice, he would have saved face.
  11. [意思を表す]
    1. If you could persuade him, I would give you one million yen.
    2. I would have made you happy if you had married me.
    3. A romanticist like you would naturally think so. (条件節省略)
    4. I wouldn't say he was a genius. (条件節省略)
  12. [間接話法の被伝達部]
    1. A little bird told me something wonderful would happen soon.
    2. The Japanese student said he would keep in touch with me.
    3. Arnold said he would be seeing me soon.
  13. [wouldを用いた慣用表現]
    1. I'd like to send this parcel to Japan.
    2. I'd like to have seen the game. (=I'd have liked to see the game)
    3. Would you mind breaking this one dollar bill into quarters?
    4. Would [Do] you mind my taking this seat?
    5. I'd rather be burned alive than betray you.
    6. I'd rather you didn't say that. (それを言って欲しくない。)

§206 shallの用法
  1. [話手の意思]
    1. I shall have my own way.
    2. I shall never gorgive him
    3. I shan't be long. (米ではwon't)
    4. You shall have this coin.
    5. He shall contact you.
  2. [相手の意思]
    1. Shall I call a tax for you? (申し出)
    2. What shall we do for the holidays? - Shall we go abroad?
  3. [命令・禁止]
    1. You shal love your neighbor. (聖書)
    2. You shal not kill. (聖書)
  4. [約束・予言・規定]
    1. Ask, and it shall be given you. (聖書)
    2. You shall hear from me soon. 
    3. All students shall attend classes regularly.
    4. All payments shall be made at the local office. (契約)
  5. [反語的用法]
    1. Who shall foresse the future. (文語調)

§207 shouldの用法
  1. [義務・必要] out to より意味が弱い
    1. You should bear this in mind
    2. W shouldn't visit with our neighbors in class, should we?
    3. The government should have taken more adequate measures.
    4. You shouldn't have made a U-turn on a one-way street.
  2. [推量・当然]
    1. Since he was born in 1927, he should remember the WWII quite well.
    2. This plan should work, if nothing unexpected happens.
    3. The Sasakis should have arrived in London by now.
    4. I was very surprised to hear that. She should have passed the examination easily.
  3. [控え目な表現]
    1. I should think so.
    2. This picture is well painted, I should say.
    3. We should like to see the flat.
  4. [主観的判断]
    1. It is a good thing (that) he should admit his mistakes. (主観的主張)
  5. [感情の強調]
    1. It is surprising (that) you should know so much about astronomy.
    2. It is a pity (that) she should have failed the driving examination.
  6. [疑問詞+should]
    1. Why should I be questioned by the police? (反語)
    2. How [Why] should I know? (反語)
    3. Who should come in but the President himself?
  7. [提案・要望・命令・決定]
    1. The contract requires that the rent (should) be paid by the first day of each month.
    2. I suggested that the meeting (should) be postponed.
    3. I insisted that he (should) resign as chairman
    4. [that節中にshouldを用いる動詞]
      ☆ advise; agree; arrange; ask; command; demand; decide; desire; determine; insist; move; order; propose; recommend; request; require; suggest; urge
    5. [書き換え]
      1. The Queen ordered that Alice (should) be put to death.
      2. The Queen ordered Alice to be put to death.
      3. The Queen ordered them to put Alice to death.
      4. He insisted that I leave.
      5. He insisted on my leaving.
    6. [It is 〜 that構文]
      1. It is necessary that you (should) pack and leave at one.
      2. It is advisable that drivers (should) wear a seat belt while driving.
  8. [仮定法の条件節で]
    1. If anything of this sort should happen, I wouldn't be surprised in the least.
    2. Should you think it necessary, please leave a message.
  9. [lest/for fear/so thatで始まる節]
    1. Father Brown took an umbrella lest it should rain.
    2. I didn't tell him the truth fore fear he should get angry.
    3. He read newspapers so that he should no fall behind the times. (文語的)
  10. [形容詞節]
    1. A wide occupational choice is available to those who should care to have ones.
  11. [間接話法の被伝達部]
    1. Mr. Cooper said he should be free the next day.

§208 needの用法
  1. [現在]
    1. You need not speak so loud. I hear you very well.
      (=You don't have to speak so loud 米)
    2. It need hardly be said that health is the most precious thing we have.
    3. Need I say that? - Yes, you must / No, you need not.
    4. He need not be told. (助動詞; 知らなくても知らせ不要)
      He doesn't need to be told. (動詞; 知っているから知らせ不要)
  2. [過去]
    1. The husband told his wife that she need not wait up.
    2. You didn't need to [didn't have to] quit your job. (やめたかどうか不明)
    3. You need not have quit you job. (のにやめた)

§209 dareの用法
  1. [否定文]
    1. She dare not laugh. (助動詞)
      =She does not dare to laugh (動詞)
      =She does not dare laugh (助動詞と動詞の中間の性質)
    2. She dared not laugh
  2. [疑問文]
    1. Dare you say that to the boss?
  3. [dareを用いた慣用表現]
    1. How dare you talk to me with such disrespect?
    2. He'll come, I dare say.
§210 beの用法
  1. [be+現在分詞]
    1. Dad is cutting his nails.
  2. [be+他動詞の過去分詞]
    1. Miss Smith is respected by all.
§211 haveの用法
  1. [have+過去分詞]
    1. I've had enough.
  2. [have got 〜]
    1. I've got a rare old coin.
  1. [否定文]
    1. I don't rink coffee very often.
    2. Don't be absurd, Billy.
  2. [疑問文]
    1. Does you father like oysters?
    2. Do you know when WWII broke out?
    3. When do you think WWII broke out?
  3. [強調]
    1. The pearl dóes look real, it's not.
    2. come and see me again one of these days.
  4. [倒置文]
    1. Well do I remember the day I saw you for the first time.
    2. Little did I dream that the girl was my niece.
    3. I do not borrow, nor do I lend.
  5. [代動詞]
    1. Who said that? - I did.
    2. In July it rains more in Kyushu than it does in Hokkaido.
    3. I like cats and so does my wife.
    4. Latin never appealed to him, and nor did Greek.
    5. He seems happy, and so does she.
    6. I broke my arm, and so did she.

>Top <K>: 


  1. 可算名詞:
    • 数で考える名詞: book, boy, car, dog
  2. 不可算名詞:
    • 量で考える名詞:
      • 粉末・液体: poweder, rice, snow, water
      • 切っても同じもの: cheese, firewood, paper, sugar, wood
      • 総称の場合: equipment, facility, furniture
      • イメージできないもの: advice, damage, information, news, work
  3. U・C両用あり:
    • facility 便利さ; facilities 設備・機関
    • service 助け; services 貢献・奉仕; service(s) (U/C) 事業・サービス
    • watermelon; 買うときはC、分けたらU
  1. 後置修飾 post modification: a knife to cut bread; 形容詞句=形容詞的用法の不定詞
  2. 後置修飾は一時的、前置修飾は恒久的; 但し、Patema Inverse
  3. 後置修飾の例
    1. +形容詞句: a bridge 200m long
    2. +前置詞句: the name of the company
    3. +不定詞: a chance to speak English
    4. +現在分詞: a girl singing karaoke
    5. +過去分詞: a car made in Italy
    6. +関係詞節: a sport I like

>Top 冠詞


  1. a は新情報の記号; 一つとは限らない
  2. the は特定の; 後方照応 cataphoricに限定されたthe

§73 冠詞の種類

  1. [不定冠詞と定冠詞] ☆ a; an; the
    1. a university - an umpire
    2. a European - an Englishman
    3. a oneman show - an oak desk
    4. an hour; an heir; an honor; an historian - a hotel/ an hotel
    5. an MP; an SOS
  2. [冠詞相当語] ☆ one; another; some; any; each; every; either; nether; no
    1. Either book will do.
    2. One man's meat is another man's poison.
  3. [定冠詞相当語] ☆ this; these; that; those; my; your; his; her; its; our; their;
    1. Let's go and talk to those girls.
    2. Which subject do you like best?
  4. [疑問代名詞/関係代名詞で名詞を修飾する場合]
§74 不定冠詞の用法
  1. [不特定単数可算名詞]
    1. Paganini was a great violinist.
    2. There were some police officers at the door. (不特定複数可算名詞
  2. [初登場の名詞]
    1. Long, long ago, there lived a fisherman in a small village.
  3. [1つの]
    1. Rome was not built in a day.
    2. I bought a dozen eggs.
    3. She did not say a word.
    4. A shotgun is no good. (他のものが必要)
      One shotgun is no good. (2丁以上必要)
    5. He has a light cold. (形容詞がつく場合)
  4. [a certain]
    1. It is true in a sense. (ある意味で)
    2. He came back on a Christmas. (ある年の)
  5. [some]
    1. She thought for a while. (しばらくの間)
    2. A knowledge of foreign languages is always useful. (knowledgeは通例不可算名詞)
  6. [one and the same]
    1. Birds of a feather flock together.
    2. Boys are of an age. (=The boys are the same age.)
  7. [per]
    1. We have fine English classes a week.
      The back number of the magazine cost 50p a copy. (perは実務英語)
    2. We are paid by the week (週給)
  8. [any] 総称単数
    1. A cat has nine lives.
      A house built of wood is more easily burnt than a house of stone.
    2. × A panda is becoming extinct. (aはその種の一つ。種族全体はthe)
      ○ Pandas are becoming extinct.
      ○ The panda is becoming extinct.
§75 不定冠詞の
  1. [〜という人 a certain]
    1. A Smith spoke to me all night long at the party.
  2. [〜のような人 one like]
    1. He is a Cicero in speech.
  3. [〜家の人]
    1. His wife is a Tokugawa.
  4. [の作品]
    1. He bought a Kodak and showed it to me.
  5. [不定冠詞+形容詞]
    1. Mrs. Jones gave me a few flowers.
    2. A little learning is a dangerous thing.
    3. I saw him there a good many times. (そこで何回も)
    4. He had a most beautiful daughter.
    5. He tried to jump across the river a third time. (3回目の)
  6. [不定冠詞+抽象・物質名詞]
    1. An air conditioner is a necessity in a hot country like this.
    2. He was inspired with a new courage.
    3. When he finished speaking, there was a short silence.
    4. There was a silence for a while.
    5. This must be a different tea from the one we usually buy.
    6. She got an iron for a wedding present.
  7. [慣用表現]
    1. My father is angry to a degree. (ひどく)
    2. He works hard with a view to receiving a scholarship.
    3. A heavy rain began to fall.
    4. A rain of stones. (石の雨)
§76 定冠詞の用法
  1. [特定のもの]
    1. I met a boy and an American girl. The boy said he was from Senegal.
    2. We visited a high school last week. When we reached the gate, we saw a l lot of students coming out.
    3. We have decided to put on a drama. John suggested the plan.
    4. I have been to the post office.
    5. Will you open the window?
    6. He became famous all over the world.
    7. He saves some money for the future.
    8. [only/ last/ same/ very/ 助数詞/ 最上級]
      1. Harry is the only person who can do this trick.
      2. John and Tom were born on the same day.
      3. This is the third time I have spoken to you.
      4. Jack is the fastest runner of the three.
      5. London is the capital of the UK.
      6. I came to Tokyo in the spring of 1992.
      7. The wind I drank at the party was very good.
      8. The lecturer emphasized to the audience the importance of antipollution measures.
      9. This is the doll that he made yesterday. (a dollなら幾つかの一つ)
  2. [定冠詞+単数普通名詞] 総称単数
    1. The horse is a useful animal.
    2. The at judges distances by a kind of echo-location.
    3. He plays the violin.
  3. [定冠詞+単数普通名詞] 抽象名詞
    1. What is learned in the cradle is carried to the tomb.
    2. He chose the stage as a career.
    3. She felt the mother rise in her breast.
  4. [定冠詞+複数名詞] 総括的用法
    1. The Japanese are diligent workers.
    2. All my children have had (the) measles.
§77 定冠詞と
  1. [固有名詞+普通名詞]
    1. the Argentine Republic; the Crimea Peninsula; the Hudson River
    2. William the Conqueror; Edward the Confessor;
    3. the Pacific; the Argentine; the Thames
  2. [of+名詞]
    1. the Sea of Japan, the Bay of Tokyo
  3. [複数形の固有名詞]
    1. The United States, the Alps; the Smiths
    2. We went on camel rides to the Pyramids.
  4. [形容詞+固有名詞]
    1. the wise Helen; the late Mr. Smith
§78 定冠詞の
  1. [複数普通名詞]
    1. ☆ the rich; the poor; the young; the old; the learned
    2. The poor are often generous to each other.
    3. The very wise avoid such temptations.
    4. The young in spirit enjoy life.
  2. [単数普通名詞] 慣用
    1. Talk of the absent and he'll appear.
    2. The judge asked the accused to stand up.
    3. The deceased left a large sum of money to his wife.
  3. [抽象的意味]
    1. The most important is yet to be explained.
    2. He takes a great interest in the supernatural.
    3. The task approaches the impossible.
  4. [catch+人+by+the+体の部分]
    1. He caught me by the arm.
    2. She seized the child by the collar.
    3. He shook her roughly by the shoulder.
    4. He kissed the girl on the forehead.
    5. She gave him a little tap on the arm.
    6. The brick hit John in the face.
    7. The man was shot through he heart.
    8. I have a pain in the knee.
    9. She was red in the face.
    10. The wanted man had a scar across the left eyebrow.
§79 冠詞の位置
  1. [冠詞+副詞+形容詞+名詞]
    1. He is a very tall old man.
      to me Hong Kong was one of the loveliest places in the world.
  2. [普通でない語順]
    1. I've never has such a wonderful time.
    2. I know what a lucky boy I am.
    3. Many a man came to see him.
    4. It lasted for half an hour.
    5. I was rather a cold day. (a/the rather)
    6. It's quite an unusual story.
  3. [as+形容詞+a+名詞]
    1. He is as great a musician as ever lived.
    2. How big an apartment do you want?
    3. We must do something, on however hmble a scale.
    4. I've never seen so clever a boy.
    5. It's too small a hat for you.
  4. [all+the+形容詞+名詞]
    1. We walked all the way.
    2. Both the boys shouted.
    3. I had to pay double the sum.
    4. The jet can fly at twice the speed of sound.
    5. Half the members were present.
§80 冠詞の反復
  1. [冠詞の反復]
    1. He is a novelist and playwright. (同一人物)
    2. They are a novelist and a playwright.
    3. a black and white dog (1匹)
    4. a black and a white dog. (2匹)
    5. a cup and saucer; the bread and butter; a needle and thread; a rod and line; a watch and chain; the whiskey and soda
    6. Read the first and second chapter(s).
    7. The novelist and (the) playwright were both familiar to us.
§81 無冠詞と冠詞の省略
  1. [冠詞の省略] 一般的な意味
    1. Bacteria exist almost everywhere.
    2. Cattle live on grass.
    3. Money talks.
    4. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
    5. He was stuck with the beauty of the scenery. (特定)
  2. [固有名詞化した普通名詞]
    1. Has mother gone out?
    2. Parliament is now in session.
    3. I like summer better than the other seasons.
    4. April is a spring month.
    5. He will be here before Christmas.
    6. Waiter! The menu, please.
    7. Mr. Smith; King John; Professor Nagai; Judge Johnson.
  3. [補語]
    1. They elected George captain of the club.
    2. He was director of the Institute of International Affairs.
    3. Mr. Smith is principal of our school.
    4. Who will act as principal.
    5. As publisher, I have the final say as to how many copies are printed.
  4. [慣用] 本来の目的・機能
    1. ☆ after school; appear in court; be at school; be at sea; be at table; be at tea; be in bed; be in class; sent to prison; go to market
    2. I go to bed at ten.
    3. You have to go to college for four years.
    4. They go to church regularly.
    5. She has been inn hospital for three weeks.
    6. I went to town yesterday.
    7. ☆ by air; by boat; by email; be letter; by p-mail; by nail mail; by sea; by train; by tube; by wire
    8. They went out for dinner.
    9. I like history very much.[She is a good player of tennis.
    10. Mink is often used for making ladies' coats.
    11. You have egg all over your face.
    12. He gave body and soul to the work.
    13. They a husband and wife.
    14. He is walking side by side with her.
    15. Hygiene and health go hand in hand.
    16. She knows that subject from beginning to end.
    17. He lives from hand to mouth. (その日暮らし)
    18. Coward though [as] he was, he took on the task.
    19. That's just the sort of thing I want.
    20. This is a new type of dictionary.
    21. What kind of car is it?
    22. He was not fool enough to think the job would be easy.
    23. He is more teacher than scholar.
    24. He is master of the French language.
    25. I caught sight of my own face in the shop window.
    26. Everything takes place according to the laws of nature.
    27. Without food the dog will starve to death.
    28. The construction of the new school building is under way
    29. My wife has been rather tired of late (最近)
    30. She hid in her room fore fear of being scolded.
    31. He could not come on account of illness.
    32. Part of this story is true.

>Top 仮定法

«Subjunctive Mood»

§254 直説法と仮定法

  1. [直説法 Indicative mood] 事実として述べる時の動詞の形
  2. [仮定法 Subjunctive mood] 想像仮定願望として述べる時の動詞の形 →過去の事実の反対の仮定・妄想
  3. 時制(tense)とは別物で、表現として過去時制(=心理的隔たり)を借用。
§255 仮定法の動詞の形
  1. [仮定法現在 SC] 動詞の原形。
  2. [仮定法過去 SP] 動詞の過去形 。(但し、be動詞はwere)
  3. [仮定法過去完了 SPP] 動詞の過去完了。
§256 単なる条件と仮想の条件
  1. [単なる条件] 開放条件 open condition; 現在と未来の不確実; 可能性50%
  2. [仮想の状況] 却下条件 rejected condition; 現在と過去の事実に反すること
§257 条件文の形
  1. [条件節と帰結節] Conditional clause (Protasis)+ Apodosis
  2. [仮定法現在] If need be, you can use my car.
  3. [仮定法過去] If I were you, I would accept his offer.
  4. [仮定法過去完了] If I had had enough money, I could have bought the picture.
  5. [ifに変わる語句]
    1. ☆ suppose/supposing; provided/providing; as [so] long as; in case; unless (直説法と)
    2. Suppose/Imagine you had 10M dollars, what would you like to do first?
    3. I will stay here provided/providing the climate agrees with me.
    4. Any toothbrush will do as/so long as it is cheap and easy to use.
    5. In case your husband dies, you'll get the insurance money.
    6. Don't come to school by motorcycle unless it is absolutely necessary. (直説法と共に)
§258 仮定法現在
  1. [仮定法現在, SC] 現在または未来の不確実な仮定。
    1. [独立節] So be it. そうとしておこう
    2. [譲歩] Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home.
    3. [lest節] Take heed lest you (should) break your neck.
    4. [Come+主語] Come spring this will produce a flurry of flowers.
    5. [Suggest動詞] suggest/propose/demand/advise/decide/insist/order/recommend
      The teacher suggested that she study abroad. (=should study)
      (cf: that以下は想像の世界で、彼女の意思とは関係ない)
    6. [It is +形容詞; that] necessary/desirable/imperative/suggest/demand/essential+that節
      It is necessary that this plan be changed. (=should be changed)
      She suggested that I be the leader.
      If need be, you can use my car. (=if (it is) necessary, ... 直説法)
    7. [格調高い文体]
      If any person be found guilty, he shall have the right of appeal. (法律)
    8. [古風な文体]
      If it be inappropriate to have said this, I humbly apologize.

§259 仮定法過去

  1. [仮定法過去 SP] 現在の事実の反対の仮定
    1. were は、if I were you, as it wereなどの場合のみ;
      If I were you, I would look for a new job. 要是我是你,我就另作找工作了。
      I wish I were dead! 死んでしまいたい位だ。
  2. [現在または未来についての可能性の乏しい想像]
    1. What would you do if you were bitten by a cobra?
    2. I somebody entered this room with a gun, I'd be very frightened.
    3. What would Japan do if the OPEC countries cut their oil supply in half?
§260 仮定法過去完了
  1. [仮定法過去完了 SPP] 過去の事実の反対の仮定・想像。
    1. If I had voted against him, he would have had to resign.
    2. What would have happened if I hadn't smelled gas?
    3. If I had been sensitive, I should have known I had no chance.
§261 条件説と帰結節の時制
  1. [過去 →現在] 条件節は過去の事実の反対+帰結節は現在の事実の反対
    1. [SPP +過去助動詞+原形不定詞]
    2. If John had not bought that expensive picture, he would have a lot of money now.
    3. If Jane had not broken her leg, she would be skiing here now.
  2. [現在→過去] 条件節は現在の事実の反対+帰結節は過去の事実の反対
    1. [SP +助動詞+完了不定詞]
    2. If Mr. Smith were not a very wealthy man, he could not have donated $1M to the Red Cross.
    3. If I knew the answer to that question, I would have told you a long time ago.

§262 were to , shouldを用いた仮定法 (仮定法未来)

  1. [未来→現在] 未来の実現の乏しい仮定
    1. [if+S+were to+原形不定詞 +過去形助動詞+原形不定詞]
    2. If the Pacific Ocean were to dry up, he would never change his way of thinking.
    3. Suppose I were to tell his mother he was going to America, what would she say?
    4. If the children were to go to the seaside, they would be happy.
    5. If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down. (丁寧な依頼)
    6. [if+S+should+原形不定詞+過去形助動詞+原形不定詞] 万一ならば
    7. If anything should happen to you, I would be responsible.
    8. If his aunt should die, he will [would] be the last person to bear that family name.
    9. If Bill should call me, tell him he can come at any time.
§263 ifの省略
  1. [文語調]
    1. Were I to take over my father's business, I would make a drastic reform.
      (=If I were to take over may father's business, ...)
    2. Should anything happen to him, call me at once.
§264 if節の代用
  1. [不定形]
    1. You'd be crazy t0 expect that kind of thing to happen. (=If you were to expect ...)
    2. To hear him talk, you would think that he was God Almighty. (=If you heard him talk, ...)
  2. [分詞構文]
    1. The same man, living in this century, would be a hero.
      (= The same man, if he were living in this century, ...)
    2. Seen at a distance, the glass necklace might have passed for a genuine one.
      (=If it had seen at a distance, ...)
  3. [副詞(句)]
    1. I felt a little better; otherwise I would have had to go to the doctor.
      (=if I had not felt a little better)
    2. Ten years ago, I could have run around this lake within half an hour.
    3. With a little more care, you wouldn't make such a silly mistake.
  4. [主語の名詞]
    1. A man of common sense wouldn't dare take chances.
    2. It was so quiet that a pin might have been heard to drop.
§265 条件節の省略
  1. [帰結節のみ]
    1. I could kill you for saying that to me.
    2. What with rain and with hunger, I could have wept.
    3. They discussed what they could have done.
  2. [婉曲表現]
    1. Will she come tonight? - I should think so.
    2. Would you like some more coffee?
    3. Could you do me a favor? - I'd be very happy to.
§266 帰結節の省略
  1. [条件節のみ]
    1. If only I knew that! (I wish より感情的)
    2. If I had confided everything to you! (何もかも打ち明けていれば)
    3. Could I but live my life again! (人生のやり直し)
    4. Oh, had I but come to his help in time! (救助が間に合っていれば)
    5. As if you didn't know! (知らないふりして)
§267 that節中の
  1. [提案要求を表す動詞+that節] suggest; demand; insist;
    1. The chairperson suggested that the conference (should) be postponed indefinitely. (英ではshould大)
    2. The prosecution demanded that a witness be summoned.
    3. The coach insisted that the quarterback not be replaced by Jeff.
  2. [It is+形容詞 +that節] desirable; necessary; important; (英ではshould大)
    1. It is desirable that the employee (should) be restored to her former position.
    2. It is important that the bill (should) pass [passes] the Diet.
    3. It is our ardent wish that the government's policy reflect public opinion.
§268 願望を表す構文; 古い慣用表現
  1. [SC]
    1. God bless you! (cf: May God bless you!)
    2. They say that you'll be getting married soon. - God forbid! (とんでもない)
    3. Modernism be damned. (くそくらえ)
    4. (God) Damn the rain! (いまいましい雨だ) d--n, d--d
  2. [SP]
    1. I wish I were young again.
    2. I wish I could help you. (= I'm sorry I can't help you) (お役に立てなくて...) I wish I couldも可
    3. Would that I had more courage! (Would that = I wish)
    4. Oh, were I in England now! (=Oh, if I were in England now!) (今、英国にいたら)
  3. [SPP] 仮定法では時制の一致はなし
    1. I wish you had left that unsaid.
    2. Alice wished she had not mentioned her cat.
    3. Had I but known her suffering! (苦しみを知ってさえいたら)
§269 It is time 〜
  1. [It is that 潮時 ]
    1. It's time we said good night.
    2. I think it's about time I was leaving. (そろそろ失礼します)
    3. It was high time (that) they came to a conclusion.
    4. Isn't it time a new refrigerator (should) be bought?
§270 仮定法を含む
  1. [as if〜/ as though〜] 疑わしいと感じる場合にはSP/SPPを用いる
    1. You talk as if you knew everything.
    2. I fee as though you were my own son.
    3. She felt as if she were in a dream.
    4. Mom looked as if she had seen a ghost.
    5. My father always feels as if other people have taken him in. (人に騙されたように感じる)
    6. I love her every bit as much as if she were my natural daughter.
    7. It's as if you go back into your childhood again.
  2. [〜らしい] I looks [seems] as if 〜は、直説法現在/未来/現在完了がくる。
    1. She is walking as though she doesn't know where she is headed for.
    2. That sounds as if it is a good idea.
    3. What's the matter with you? You look as if you are bout to faint!
    4. It looks as if it's going to snow.
    5. We missed the last bus. It looks as if we'll have to walk.
    6. It seems as if the guest would never come. (時制の一致)
    7. It looks like you haven't finished your assignment. (=It looks as if 〜)
  3. [It isn't as if 〜] まさか IM
    1. It isn't as if she didn't know anything about cooking.
    2. As if you don't [didn't] know that! (知っているくせに)
    3. She's gone. - As if I cared! (=I don't care at all.) (かまうもんか; 強い否定)
    4. I'll marry Beth. - As if! (まさか)
  4. [if it were not for] 文語的
    1. If it were not for you quick play, our team wound not win.
    2. If it had not been for your quick play, out team would not have won.
    3. Without [But for] appropriate software a computer would be a mere box.
      (=If it were not for appropriate software, ...)
    4. Without [But for] you, our project wouldn't have succeeded.
    5. We would be unable to survive with no fresh water supply.
    6. Were it not for you advice, my project would fail. (倒置)
  5. [as it were ] = so to speak/so to say; いわば
    1. A human brain is, as it were, a living computer.
  6. [would rather〜, had better〜] 〜したほうがまし
    1. ☆ would rather/would sooner/had rather/had sooner/would as soon... as/I'd rather/I'd sooner
    1. I would rather remain poor than do illegal things.
      = I would as soon remain poor as do illegal things.
  7. [had better〜 + 原形不定詞]
    1. I thing you'd better not be too nervous.

>Top 関係詞



§298 関係代名詞の機能と種類


  1. Relative clause: a subordinate clause that contains an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; i.e., anaphoric relation between the ralativized element in the relative caluse, and the antecedent on which it depends.
  2. [関係代名詞の種類]
    先行詞種類 主格 所有格 目的格
    who whose whom/who
    物/動物 which whose/of which which
    物/動物/人 that - that
    先行詞を含む what - what
  3. 関係代名詞のthatは、本来は指示代名詞から。それは...
    1. that はwho(m)、whichより多用される傾向がある。Who is the girl whom you love?で whoを繰り返さないため。
    2. that は補足説明用法(非限定用法)には使えない。I live in Tokyo, which is the capital.
    3. <,>の有無は限定用法、非限定用法の区別にならない。The letter was from her fiancé who was working in London.
    4. <前置詞+that>の形にならない。This is the hospital in which I was born.
  4. [人+人以外]が先行詞の場合は、むしろ省略する。Look at the boy and dog (that are) playing over there.
  5. [複合関係代名詞] -everをつけたもの。いずれも先行詞を含む。
    1. Whoever (=Anyone who) visits that old town will love it.
§299 関係代名詞の
  1. [主格] I, who am your your friend, tell you so. (先行詞の人称・数に一致)
  2. [one of 複数名詞] He is one of the people who have made the town famous. (複数名詞と一致);
    1. 但し、the only one of +複数名詞の場合は単数
  3. [関係代名詞の格] 節の中の役割で決まる。
  4. [前置詞の目的語] whom, whichを用いる。
    1. The music to which we listened last night was by Beethoven.
      cf.: The music we listened to last night was by Beethoven. (thatは省略が普通)
§300 関係代名詞の
  1. [制限用法と非制限用法]
    1. [句読点の有無]
    2. [先行詞の特徴] 非制限法の先行詞は特定の人・物で、補足的説明を加える場合
      1. 固有名詞: Mr. Frank, who expects too much of his son, may be disappointed.
      2. 唯一性: The earth, which moves around the sun, is call a planet.
      3. 特定可能: The restaurant hired a new cook recently. The cook, who has studied culinary art in Paris, is expect to be very good.
      4. 一般化: The computers, which are not working well, must be repaired.
  2. [制限用法の機能] 修飾する先行詞を明確化。
    1. The person who lives next door is very friendly.
    2. This is a doll that he made yesterday. (特定化さらない。幾つかの人形)
  3. [非制限法の機能]
    1. [連結用法]
      She received a long letter from Steve, which she read again and again. [and]
      The children like this book, which was beautifully illustrated. [as]
      the milk, which was near the window, turned sour. [because]
      He wrote her a long letter, which she sent back unopened. [but]
      This fountain pen, which cost a lot of money, doesn't write well. [though]
    2. [挿入用法]
      My father, who is a scientist, is now in New York.
§301 前置詞+
  1. [前置詞の位置]
    1. The woman to whom he was talking was his secretary.
      (=The woman (who) he was taling to was his secretary.)
  2. [関係代名詞の前の前置詞]
    1. ☆ as to; besides; beyond; concerning; down; during; except; near; opposite; outside; round; since; up;
    2. He explained his whereabouts on the evening of July 21, as to which I wanted to question him further.
    3. That was the meeting during which I kept taking notes.
  3. [部分のof]
    1. She hurried home to feed the cats, one of which had just had kittens.
  4. [最上級]
    1. The children, the tallest of whom could not reach the shelf where the cookies were, went to look for something to stand on.
  5. [時・様態を表す副詞句]
    1. Everybody is surprised at the fluency with which my brother speaks German.
    2. Newton was born in 1642, the year in which Galileo died.
  6. [前置詞+whose]
    1. Even the lawyer for whose ability we all had a deep respect, could not settle the matter.
    2. The group includes three writers to whose work we have already referred.
    3. Frank, with whose speech all of us agreed, decided that.
    4. He knew Jim, at whose house he had met Russell.
  7. [関係詞節の末尾に置く前置詞] be afraid of/be fond of/laugh at/do without/
    1. There is no non here (that) you need to be afraid of.
    2. A cup of coffee in the morning is something (which) I can't do without.
§302 whoの用法
  1. [who 主格]
    1. [制限用法]
      Babies who are allergic to mild shouldn't be given it.
      The man who caused the accident escaped.
      We are often told at school about all the wonderful openings for those who are good at foreign languages.
    2. [非制限用法]
      Jim called on Mrs. Smith, who welcomed him warmly.
      I met an old friend of mine, who didn't recognize me.
      Greg, who came on holiday with me, is now in Kyoto.
      We have a pet mynah who is always mimicking human speech. (擬人化)
      Ducks, who are very fond of being in the water, are fun to watch. (擬人化)
  2. [whose 所有格]
    1. [制限用法]
      People whose dogs get lost make every effort to find them.
      I want you to meet a man whose ambition is to live underwater.
    2. [非制限用法]
      Ann, whose boyfriend didn't turn up, ended up having lunch with her sister.
      The injured pedestrian, whose leg had been broken, was carried away in a n ambulance.
  3. [whom 目的格]
    1. [制限用法]
      The doctor (whom) she visited gave her the wrong prescription.
      He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.
    2. [非制限用法]
      He introduced me to his wife, whom he obviously adored.
      Mr. Watson, for whom I was working, appreciated my plans.
§303 whichの用法
  1. [which 主格]
    1. [制限用法]
      A dictionary is a book which gives you the meaning of words.
      Animals which are in cages are not happy.
    2. [非制限用法]
      Our car, which is second-hand, never breaks down.
      Love, which is a wonderful feeling, comes to everyone at some time in their life.
  2. [whose, of which 所有格]
    1. [制限用法]
      Hand me the book whose cover is frayed.
    2. [非制限用法]
      Canterbury, whose cathedral is famous, is in Kent.
      That tree, the branches of which are almost bare now, is a very old one.
  3. [which 目的格]
    1. [制限用法]
      The music (which) the orchestra is playing is a Strauss waltz.
      The cat (which) I am so frond of belongs to Aunt Mary.
    2. [非制限用法]
      Air, which we breathe, is made up of may gases.
      Yesterday we visited the Capitol, which I've never been to before.
  4. [留意すべきwhichの用法]
    1. His mother was an able lawyer, which he is not. (職業)
    2. He appeared to be richly experienced which he was. (地位の性格)
    3. This is the baby which need inoculation. (子供)
  5. [文の一部・全体が先行詞] 非制限的用法
    1. Laura said she was very sick, which was not true.
    2. Some schoolchildren take no breakfast, which is not goof for their health.
    3. Students admire Mrs. Brown. Which I find natural.
§304 thatの用法
  1. [用法] 原則、非制限用法には用いない。前置詞の直後にも用いない。
  2. [that 主格]
    1. The trees that line the street have lovely blossoms in spring.
    2. Birds that eat insects can see them from far away.
    3. The girl that offered an old man her seat in the train had a large bag.
  3. [that 目的格]
    1. The dress (that) my mother bought for me suits me perfectly
    2. He is a person (that) you wan to work with.
  4. [thatがよく用いられる場合]
    1. The is the hottest summer (that) we have had in 30 years. (hottest)
    2. The hummingbird is the only bird that can fly like a helicopter. (only)
    3. It was the result of all that had happed previously. (all)
    4. Is ther anything (that) I can do?
    5. There was little that interested him at the motor show.
    6. The pople and manners that he decribes will be unfamiliar to most of his readers. (人+物先行詞)
    7. Who that understands music could say his playing was good? (疑問詞が直前)

§305 whatの用法
  1. [主語]
    1. Wha I don't understand is that he rfused any order.
  2. [補語]
    1. Good manners are what makes humans different from animals.
    2. His parents made him what they wanted him to be.
  3. [目的語]
    1. I don't beliveve what you've just said.
  4. [=whatever, anything that]
    1. What I have is yours.∧∧
    2. Choose what you want for dinner.
  5. [whatを含む慣用表現]
    1. Reading is to the mind what food is to the body. (比較)
    2. What food is to the body, knowledge is to the mind.
    3. HIe is what is called a self-made mad.
    4. His power is absolute, and what is more, hereditary.
    5. It ws blowing ery hard, and what was worse, it began to rain.
    6. What with work and all, I haven't bad time to read.
§306 関係代名詞の
  1. [目的格]
    1. The rain ∧ the farmer were expected came too late to save the crops. (動詞の目的語)
    2. The girl ∧ I gave a party for is getting engaged. (前置詞の目的語)
  2. [主格]
    1. Bob is not the man ∧ he used to be. (be動詞の補語)
    2. There was nothing ∧ coud be done about it. (There isの後)
    3. It isn't evernybody ∧ can do that. (It isの後)
    4. He's had every opportunity∧ there is (関係詞節にthere is)
    5. He is the last person ∧ I think will betray you. (I thinkの挿入)
§307 関係代名詞の
[連鎖関係節; 二重限定]
  1. I haven't met a boy that you know who is the brightest student.
    (cf.: I haven't met a boy who you know is the brightest student ever.)
  2. This the only word (that) I know which explains the situation.
§308 関係代名詞+
  1. [限定用法の場合省略可]
    1. ☆ hear; think; believe; fear; fancy; find; knowなど
    2. I saw a woman (who) I thought was a frien of my mother's.
  2. []
  3. []
§309 疑似関係代名詞
  1. [疑似関係代名詞] as/but/than
    1. He is a German, as is clear from his accent.
    2. This is the same book as he has.
    3. There is no rule but has some exceptions.
    4. The galaxy is made of more stars than anybody can count.
  2. [such, as, the sameと相関]
    1. Choose such friends as will listen to you quietly.
  3. [as A as B]
    1. He is as wise a man as ever lived.
    2. We are give as much food as we can barely live on.
  4. [the same A as B]
    1. He goes to the same school as [that] I do.
  5. [主節やその一部が先行詞]
    1. She is very careful, as her work shows.
    2. As everyone knows, it is harder to write interestingly about a good person than about a bad one.
    3. As is often the case with young people, he was overconfident.
    4. As was expected, he left the hospital in two weeks.
      (=He left the hospital in two weeks, which was expected.) (which節は主節の後)
    5. × Tom has passed the test, as nobody knows.
      ○ Tom has passed the test, which nobody knows.; ○ ..., as everybody knows.
  6. [butの用法] 先行詞が否定の意味を持つ
    1. There is nobody but has their faults.
    2. None came to him but were fed.
  7. [thanの用法] 比較級の語と相関的
    1. There is more space than is needed.

§310 関係副詞の

  1. [関係副詞の機能]
    1. This is the house. + He lives there.
      → This is the house where he lives. (=This is the house in which he livers.)
  2. [関係副詞の種類] when, where, why, how
    when where why how
    on which in which for which the way in which
    名詞節 名詞節 名詞節 名詞節
    形容詞節 形容詞節 形容詞節 ×
    副詞節 副詞節 × ×
    1. The day when I took the picture wad dark and overcast.
    2. I first saw her in the office where she worked.
    3. I don't know the reason why he refused our invitation.
    4. This is how I came to this conclusion.
§311 関係副詞の用法
  1. [制限用法]
    1. [when]
      1. 2001 is the year (when) we enter the 21st century.
      2. The time will soon come when we can enjoy space travel. (先行詞と形容詞節が分離)
      3. There are times when all the world seems asleep.
    2. [where]
      1. Is there a shop near hear where I can buy postcards?
      2. This is the place (where) the great poet is buried.
      3. There are a few cases where this rule doe not apply. (point/case/circumstance/situation)
      4. There are cases when a casual remark cuts deep. (case = when)
    3. [why]
      1. Please give me a good reason why you didn't show up for work yesterday.
      2. The reason (why) I didn't write to you was that I didn't know your address.
    4. [how] 'how' or 'the way'
      1. That's how your father and mother came to be husband and wife.
      2. The film will show you the way the native Americans lived in Alaska at that time.
      3. It looks like we'll miss the train again. - That's the way it goes. (諦め)
    5. [that] when/where/why/hooey。whenに相当する場合が多い。このthatも省略多い。
      1. The last time (that) you were her we had a picnic.
      2. I will go nowhere (that) you cannot go.
      3. Is this the reason (that) you disagreed with me?
      4. That's the way (that) I was rescued. (the wayの関係詞はthatまたはin which
  2. [非制限用法] whenとwhereのみ。why/howにはない。
    1. [when]
      1. I finished talking whith him at ten o'clock, when he wanted met to alittle longer.
      2. In 1939, when WWII broke out, my father was born in Paris.
    2. [where]
      1. We came to a fountain, where we rested for a short while.
      2. There is a language war in Malaysis, where people of different races live together.
§312 関係副詞の
  1. [when] the timeを省略。あるいは先行詞を含んだ形
    1. Spring is ∧ when the garden is most beautiful..
    2. The est time for her is ∧ when all the family get together.
    3. Say when! - When! (that's enough, thanks)
  2. [where] the placeを省略、またはそれを含む。
    1. Something exploded a few meters away from ∧ where we were standing.
    2. The library is ∧ where I spend mot of my time.
    3. That's just ∧ where you're wrong.
  3. [why] the reasonは通常省略。the reasonを使う場合はwhyを省略またはthat
    1. I can't understand ∧ why you did such a thing.
    2. That's ∧ why any seeing-eye dogs have to be clever.
  4. [how] how またはthe wayを用いる
    1. That is how the farmers' crops were saved.
    2. That is how the evening with the young people went.
    3. He told me how (=that) he had met her in Paris. (how=that)
§313 関係副詞の省略
  1. [when] time/day/week/yearなどの直後の場合。特にtimeの後のwhenは通常省略
    1. Monday is a day ∧ I have a lot of work to do.
    2. The last time ∧ Halley's comet appeared was in 1986.
  2. [why] 先行詞がreasonの場合、省略可
    1. There is no reason ∧ you should complain.
    2. The reason ∧ I'm calling you is to invite you to a party.
  3. [that] くだけた言い方で通常省略
    1. Do you still remember the day ∧ we first met?
    2. This it the way the accident happened. (= This is how the accident happened.)


§314 関係形容詞の

  1. 関係形容詞(Relative adjective)の定義:
  2. [what] = all the 〜 that ...
    1. I'll give you what money I have with me now.
    2. I gave him what little help I could.
  3. [which] 前置詞+which+名詞の形。文語的
    1. They may refuse to follow the agreement, in which case we shall have to take more drastic action.
    2. The letter was written in French, which language I happened to know well. (=but its name)
    3. Their ship was driven away to an island, whose name was unknown to them.
      cf: Their ship was driven away to one of the Shetland Island, which name was unknown to them. (=but this name)

>Top 複合関係詞

«Compound relative»

§315 複合関係代名詞

  1. 定義:名詞節/譲歩を表す副詞節を導く。whoever/whichever/whateverがある。
  2. [whoever] = anyone who; = whosoever
    1. Whoever leaves the office last should switch off the light.
    2. We'll employ who(m)ever you recommend. (whoever > whomeverを使う)
    3. He told the story to who(m)ever he met.
  3. [譲歩の副詞節を導く] =no matter who
    1. Whoever is [may be] responsible, we should seek the best solution of this difficulty.
    2. Who(m)ever (=No matter who) you ask, you'll not be able to get the answer to the question.
  4. [whichever]
    1. Which is my bed? - you can have whichever you like.
  5. [譲歩の副詞節を導く] =no matter which
    1. Whichever (=No mater which) wins, it isn't important for me.
    2. Whichever you decide upon, I'll back you up.
  6. [whatever] = anything that; =whatsoever
    1. Whatever has a beginning also has an end.
    2. Whatever you break you will have to pay for.
    3. I want you to deliver this letter personally. - Okay, Jim. I'll do it. Whatever you say.
  7. [譲歩の副詞節を導く] =no matter what
    1. Whatever happens [may happen], I will go.
    2. Whatever (=No matter what) they said to him, Joe would not change his mind
    3. Can you handle this? - No problem what(so)ever.
§316 複合関係副詞
  1. 定義:副詞節を導く;wherever, whenever, however
  2. [wherever] (=no matter where)
    1. Whenever you are, remember that we will be thinking of you.
    2. Tommy followed my grandpa wherever (=to any place where) he went.
  3. [whenever] (=no matter when)
    1. Whenever you come, I am glad to see you.
    2. Come whenever it is convenient for you.
  4. [however] (=no matter how)
    1. However much he eats, he never gets fat.
    2. However (=by whatever means) you do it, the result is the same.
§317 複合関係形容詞
  1. 定義:複合関係代名詞が形容詞的に働く場合。whatever, whichever
  2. [whatever] (=any 〜 that)
    1. Whatever excuse he makes will not be believed.
    2. Whatever decision you make is all right with me.
    3. You have to go on, whatever (=no matter what) difficulties come up.
    4. Whatever problems you have, you can always come to me for help.
  3. [whichever]
    1. Choose whichever brand you prefer.
    2. I think you will enjoy whichever one you choose.
    3. The game will be very exiting, whichever side wins. (=no matter which)
    4. Whichever TV channel he turned to, he saw nothing but talk shows or comedies.

>Top <L>:


>Top <M>:


>Top <N>:


  1. [集合名詞]物質名詞と同じ扱い。不特定はmuch, little、特定量はa piece of an item ofなどと。常に単数で、a/anはつかない。
    1. luggage, baggage (米) - a bag, a suitcase
    2. foliage - a leaf
    3. game; ¶He was a easy game for their jokes.
    4. machinery - a machine
    5. clothing - clothes, food,
    6. jewelry - a jewel
    7. mail - a piece of mail
    8. scenery - a scene
    9. fiction - a novel
    10. furniture - a piece of machinery; a table, a chair
    11. merchandise - several pieces of merchandise
    12. machinery - a machine
    13. poetry - a poem, a piece of poetry
    14. food - a staple food
  2. [無冠詞・単数の物質名詞]
    1. cash/money; ¶Money talks.
    2. toast/meat; ¶The shop doesn't deal in meat.
    3. timber; ¶My father's work is to cut down timber.
    4. mud/dirt/rubbish/garbage; ¶Her satin dress was covered with mud.
    5. chess
    6. soap/china/
    7. linen
    8. spaghetti/macaroni; ¶Spaghetti is my favorite food.
  3. [抽象名詞1] 単数形でふつうa/anつけない、形容詞がつくとa/anがつく。
    1. advice; a shipping advice 船積通知
    2. aid
    3. anger
    4. applause
    5. assistance
    6. behavior
    7. conduct
    8. courage
    9. damage; ¶claim damages 損害賠償金
    10. evidence
    11. fun
    12. happiness
    13. harm
    14. help
    15. information
    16. laughter
    17. leisure
    18. music
    19. news
    20. permission
    21. progress
    22. traffic
    23. weather
    24. work; a work 作品; public works 公共土木工事
  4. [抽象名詞2] a/an+形容詞・形容詞句で限定された場合は、a/anがつく。
    1. education; a good education 立派な教育
    2. vocabulary; a small vocabulary
    3. knowledge; a good knowledge of …
    4. chalk; a white chalk
  5. [抽象名詞] U/Cいずれでも
    1. activity/activities
    2. frustration/frustrations
    3. pain/pains
  6. []
  1. [数量詞]
    1. a piece of cheese/wood/chalk
    2. a lump of sugar/coal/clay
    3. a cake of soap (一塊の)
    4. a pinch of salt
    5. a drop of oil/water/milk
    6. a bar of chocolate/gold/soap
    7. a cube of ice/sugar
    8. a loaf of bread
    9. a roll of paper/glass/metal
    10. a sheet of paper/ice/metal
    11. a stick of celery/chalk
    12. a strip of cloth/paper/land
  2. [数量・容器]
    1. a cup of coffee/tea
    2. a barrel of oil/wine
    3. a bottle of milk/wine
    4. a can of tomato juice/beer
    5. a glass of water/wine
    6. a mug of tea/coffee
    7. a packet of washing powder/sugar
    8. a pot of tea/jam
    9. a spoonful of sugar/oil
    10. a tube of toothpaste/mayonnaise
  3. [数量・単位]
    1. a pound of salt/a gram of
    2. two inches of rain
    3. a meter of
    4. a square meter of/an acre of
    5. a pint of/a quart of/a gallon of
    6. a
  1. []
  1. []
  1. []

>Top <O>:


>Top <P>:


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>Top <R>:


>Top <S>:


  1. [名詞句 (Noun phrases)]
    1. 不定詞を用いる名詞句:
      1. It would be better for him not to lose his temper so often. (真主語)
      2. To drive too fast is to drive foolishly. (主語/補語)
      3. I forgot to call him last night. (目的語)
      4. He explained how to change the wheel of the car. (疑問詞+不定詞: 目的語)
    2. 動名詞を用いる名詞句:
      1. Thinking in English is good for English learners. (主語)
      2. Would you mind opening the window? (目的語)
      3. I'm not used to driving on the left. (前置詞の目的語)
  2. [形容詞句 (Adjective phrases)]
    1. 不定詞を用いる形容詞句:
      1. That is the way to understand great art. (名詞を修飾)
      2. Don't you have anything to eat? (代名詞を修飾)
    2. 分詞を用いる形容詞句:
      1. The people attending the conference are here. (現在分詞)
      2. The book stolen from the library was an expensive one. (過去分詞)
    3. 前置詞+名詞を用いる形容詞句:
      1. He is a pianist of great talent. (名詞を修飾)
      2. My daughter is in great health. (補語)
  3. [副詞句 (Adverbial Phrases)]
    1. 不定詞を用いる副詞句:
      1. It's raining too hard for may cat to go out. (程度)
      2. To be precise, the accident occurred at 12:24 p.m. (文全体を修飾)
    2. 分詞を用いる副詞句:
      1. Feeling sick, he went home. (理由)
    3. 前置詞+名詞を用いる副詞句:
      1. They got married on March 10, 1987. (動詞を修飾)
      2. It began to rain in earnest. (不定詞を修飾)
      3. A sharp knife should be used for cutting meat. (動詞を修飾)
    1. [名詞節 (Noun clauses)]
      1. 主語になる名詞節:
        1. It was pity that you couldn't come. (形式主語)
        2. What pleased me the most that my lost dog came back.
        3. It's none of your business which day I have set for the meeting. (形式主語)
      2. 補語になる名詞節:
        1. The trouble is that he only thinks of himself.
        2. The truth is that we ran out of money.
        3. This is how Charles fixed his old bike.
      3. 目的語になる名詞節:
        1. She proposed that the bus trip be put off.
        2. Could you please tell me how much this costs? - It's only $5.95.
        3. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
      4. 同格になる名詞節:
        1. We were surprised at the news that she had got divorced.
        2. Let's discuss the question whether we should do it or not.
    2. [形容詞節 (Adjective clauses)]
      1. 関係代名詞が導く形容詞節:
        1. He shivered like a man who was very cold.
        2. That's a book which will interest children of all ages.
        3. Have you got a map that shows all the freeways?
        4. The key you lost yesterday has been found in the garden.
      2. 関係副詞が導く形容詞節:
        1. Do you remember the days (when) there was no jet planes?
        2. I'll show you the shop where I bought those pretty cups.
        3. Can you tell me the reason (why) he's so late?
    3. [副詞節 (Adverbial clauses)]
      1. 時・場所を表す副詞節:
        1. My sweater shrank when I washed it.
        2. Please knock before you come in
        3. The dog goes wherever she goes.
      2. 原因・理由を表す副詞節:
        1. My face is swollen because I have just had a tooth pulled out.
        2. Since it began to rain, we hurried home.
        3. I need not stay, now (that) you are here.
      3. 目的・結果を表す副詞節:
        1. Come early so (that) we can discuss our plans.
        2. I bought the car at once in case he changed his mind.
        3. She was so excited that she jumped up and down with delight.
        4. He is such a competent teacher that many schools want to hire him.
      4. 条件・譲歩を表す副詞節:
        1. If you want to be a success in life, work hard and play hard.
        2. Unless the weather was bad, may father used to take me a walk in the morning.
        3. She put off going to the dentist although her teeth needed attention.
        4. No matter how hot the weather is, he doesn't complain.
        5. Late as it was, we decided to call our friends.
      5. その他の意味を表す副詞節:
        1. As far as I know, he has not come. (制限)
        2. While the work is difficult, it is interesting. (対照)
        3. The water is colder than it usually is. (比較)
        4. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. (様態)

>Top 接続詞


§288 接続詞の種類

  1. [等位接続詞] and; or; but; for
    1. You and I are close friends.
    2. Let's take our lot for better or for worse.
    3. He hid behind a tree, but his mother soon found him out.
    4. She was crying, for her mother was seriously ill.
  2. [等位接続詞と同じ機能の接続副詞]
    1. ☆ besides; then; else; otherwise; however; still; yet; hence; therefore; so
  3. [従位接続詞] that; if; whether
    1. [名詞節を導く]
      1. Do you suggest that I'm telling a pack of lies?
      2. I asked her if [whether] she wanted me to see her home.
    2. [副詞節を導く] when; because; if; as though
      1. When I was fourteen, I wen to Chicago.
      2. I was late for school because I had missed my train.
      3. If Mom was here, she'd make us a hot cup of tea.
  4. [形態上の分類]
    1. [1語の接続詞] ☆ and; or; but; when; because; if
    2. [群接続詞] as soon as; even if; as if
      1. As soon as he got home, he hurried to the mailbox.
      2. I won't be surprised even if it is true.
    3. [創刊接続詞] 前後の要素の組
      1. Her novels are selling well both in America and in Europe.
      2. Either you voice was too low or I wasn't listening to you.
§289 等位接続詞
  1. [and]
    1. [対応接続]
      1. The thief moved quickly and quietly.
      2. My father worked by day and by night.
    2. [因果関係]
      1. I washed the dishes and dried them.
      2. I've sent off my check and am looking forward to receiving my first parcel.
    3. [命令+and] 条件文
      1. Go straight on, and you will come to the river.
      2. Another war, and we will be ruined. (名詞+and)
    4. [単一概念]
      1. Slow and steady wins the race.
      2. I don't like coffee and doughnuts. (ドーナツ付コーヒー)
    5. [反復連続多様]
      1. The women talked and talked without eating anything on the table.
      2. There are boxes and boxes of gifts for you.
    6. [不定詞の代用] come; go; stay; stop; tryなどと
      1. Come and dine with me. (勧誘)
        I'd like to finish this work today if I can. - Try and do it. (激励)
    7. [形容詞+and+形容詞] fine; good; niceと副詞的に修飾
      1. It's nice and warm today. (nice and = nàisn)
      2. I'm getting good and angry over the matter. (本当に怒る) (good and = gùdn)
  2. [neither] tampoco
    1. [neither A nor B] She has neither farther nor mother. (対句は a/theなし)
    2. [and neither] I am not rich, and neither do I wish to be.
  3. [nor] 節が続くときは倒置形
    1. I don't drink nor smoke.
    2. The job cannot be done by you nor by me.
    3. I have neve seen her since then, nor do I want to see her again.
    4. He refuses to join a book club, nor will he use a library.
    5. I never wrote again, and nor did she. (andが入ることも)
  4. [both A and B] 対等の語句; at one A and B; A and B alike
    1. Both rich and talented people live in Beverly Hills.
    2. He writes equally well with both pen and brush.
    3. Young and old alike enjoyed their holiday.
  5. [not only A but (also) B] 動詞はBに一致
    1. Not only the pupils but also the teacher was laughing.
    2. She not only made a mistake, but put the blame on me.
  6. [or] 選択を示す等位接続詞
    1. [AあるいはB]
      1. Kill or be killed, east or be eaten, was the law.
      2. (Is this) for hear or to go?
    2. [否定の後] You cannot take buses or taxis here. (=You cannot take buses nor taxis here.)
    3. [すなわち] This is the end, or the finale.
    4. [命令+or] さもないと
      1. Hurry up, or you'll be late.
      2. Another drink, or I'll die of thirst.
  7. [either A or B] 二者択一
    1. Either you leave the house, or I'll call the police.
    2. You can either pay now or later.
  8. [but] 対立を表す等位接続詞 (日本語順接もあり;この本読んだが面白かった。)
    1. The hummingbird is very small but very brave.
    2. [not A but B]
      1. The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part in them.
    3. [B, and not A]
      1. One of the girls told me that unbaptized infants were sent to limbo, and not to hell.
    4. [It is true 〜, but] なるほど〜だが; to be sure 〜, but; indeed 〜, but
      1. It is true that I don't understand his idea, but he doesn't understand mine, either.
      2. Your suggestion is splendid, to be sure, but I'm afraid it will be very difficult to put it into practice.
  9. [for] 判断の理由。文語的
    1. It must be very cold outside, for the lake is frozen over.
      × For it is very cold, the lake is frozen over. (○ Because it is very cold, ...)
§290 接続副詞
  1. [連結的] ☆ also; beside; then; moreover; (moreover > also > besides で口語的)
    1. I'd like a hamburger. Also, I need a cup of coffee.
    2. I don't want to go; besides, it's too late.
    3. I'll take a bath; then I'll eat.
  2. [反意的] ☆ however; nevertheless; still; yet
    1. She was very tired; however, she kept on working.
    2. It may rain; nevertheless, we will start on our trip. (文語的)
    3. It's raining; still, I'd like to go if you don't mind.
    4. Alice saw the rabbit vanish, yet she couldn't believe it.
  3. [選択的] ☆ else; otherwise
    1. Shut your mouth, (or) else I'll hit you!
    2. I'm taking my umbrella with me; otherwise (=if not) I'd get wet.
  4. [因果関係] ☆ so; therefore; consequently; hence
    1. He is going to go to the party, so he has gone to get dressed. (口語的)
    2. The man was out of this mind when he wrote his will; therefore, the will be invalid.
    3. I expected Jane to get in late; consequently, I left the door unlocked. (文語的)
    4. He was penniless; hence he had to accept the first offer. (文語的)
  5. [説明的] ☆ namely; for instance; that is (to say)
    1. Pennsylvania has given us only one President, namely, James Buchanan.
    2. He's injury-prone - for instance, he broke his leg twice last year.
    3. Production has increased by 20% this year.
      That is
      (to say), or performance has been very satisfactory.
  6. [接続詞+接続副詞] ☆ and also; and so; and then; and therefore; and yet; but still; or else
    1. She is a good swimmer and also play tennis well.
    2. He was sick and so he could not come.
    3. He had dinner first, and then read the newspaper.
    4. Jim injured his leg and therefore could not run.
    5. Henry said he would be late, and yet he arrived on time.
    6. His toothache grew worse, but still he didn't complain.
    7. Dress warmly, or else you'll catch cold. (=Unless you dress warmly, you'll catch cold.)
  7. [接続詞と接続副詞との区別]
    1. [機能面の違い] 接続詞は語-語/句-句/節-節を結合;接続副詞は節-節の結合のみ
      1. All airports were closed down; consequently, we could not land.
    2. [句読法の違い] 接続副詞は2節の間に休止、句読点(, /;)を用いる。
      1. John doesn't know Ann's last name; however, he knows her address.
    3. [位置の違い] 等位接続詞は2節の間;接続副詞は後続節の先頭/中間/末尾に位置できる。
      1. His sister is a nice person; but she has no friends. (接続詞)
      2. His sister is a nice person; however, she has no friends. (接続副詞)
        (= she has however, no friends.; she has no friends, however.)

§291 名詞節を導く

  1. [thatの用法]
    1. [that節が主語] 主語の長さのバランス¥; 形式主語 itを置く
      1. It surprises me that he denies the story.
      2. Is it true that John has bought a Rolls Royce?
      3. It's a shame (that) you can't come to the party.
      4. That I was head over heels in love with her was true. (やや稀)
    2. [that節が補語]
      1. My suggestion is that we dine out this evening.
      2. The trouble with not sleeping enough is that you feel tired all the time.
      3. The chances are, our team will win the tournament. ([,] がthat省略の代用)
    3. [that節が目的語] thatの前が軽い場合に省略傾向
      1. I know (that) he is here.
      2. I think (that) he will accept the job.
      3. Our visitor said (that) it rained a great deal in his country.
      4. They demanded (that) the passage (should) be deleted.
      5. Many people pretend (that) they understand modern art.
      6. I thin it probable that he is dead. (SVOC型ではitが先行; SV+it+C+that)
    4. [that 節を目的語にとらない動詞] 意思・決心/懇請・拒否を表す動詞(+to不定詞)→"Vector動詞"
      1. ☆ attempt; care; decline; hate; like; offer; refuse; try; want
      2. × He offered that he would drive me to the station.
        ○ He offered to drive me to the station.
    5. [that 節の前に間接目的語を必要とする動詞] (SVO+that節の形)
      1. ☆ assure; convince; inform; instruct; persuade; remind; tell
      2. × I told that he shoudl see a doctor.
        ○ I told him that he sould see a doctor..
    6. [自動詞+that節] 自動詞の場合 (前置詞+ it) thatとする。( )は省略可;
      直接 that節が続く場合は、他動詞とみなす。
      1. The detective insisted (on it) that he should have a look.
      2. We'll see (to it) that you get home early. (文語的)
      3. [前置詞+it] を省略不可の動詞: ☆ answer for it that; depend on it that; rely on it that
      4. She depends on it that I will do it.
    7. [that節が前置詞の目的語]
      1. [除外の意味の前置詞] ☆ except; save; but; besides; beyond
      2. Everything was O.K. except that the wind was blowing hard.
      3. [in that 〜] 原因(〜であるから)/制限(〜という点で)の意味
      4. Their arguments are unconvincing in that (=because) their reasons are inadequate. (形式的)
      5. Some laws do mor harm that good in that (=in the fact that) they make progress impossible.
      6. Susan is a good swimmer in that she swims faster than I do. (厳しい限定)
    8. [that節が同格の節を導く場合] 事実・噂(...であるという)
      1. The fact that fewer people smoke suggests that they have begun to realize the health risks.
      2. There's a rumor that the Cabinet may resign.
      3. Is there any likelihood that she will be successful?
    9. [that 節が緊急必要提案の動詞/形容詞の後に続く場合]
      1. ☆ suggest; request; urge: essential; necessary; urgent
      2. He suggested that we (should) ask a lawyer.
      3. We strongly urge that you (should) not interfere in this matter.
      4. The teacher insists that no one (should) chew gum in class.
      5. It is necessary that you (should) get your passport renewed before you leave the country.
      6. It is essential that you (should) not write checks for more money than you have in you account.
  2. [whetherとifの用法]
    1. [whetherの導く節が主語]
      1. It is not certain whether he will come at all.
      2. Whether the non-scheduled train will leave late tonight will be announce soon.
    2. [whetherの導く節が補語]
      1. The question is whether he will get well before the entrance examination.
      2. The point is whether people will read these technical books.
    3. [whetherの導く節が目的語]
      1. He asked whether the mail carrier had brought something for him.
      2. he hesitated (about) whether he should send the money.
      3. [No one knows whether or not they will get a raise.
        (=No one knows whether they will get a raise or not.)
    4. [if]
      1. Please ask them if they can help us.
      2. Do you know if the plane is going to be late?
      3. We didn't know if Dad would let us have a dog or not.
  3. [but (that)とlestの用法]
    1. [but, but that, but what]
      1. ☆ believe; be sure; consider; expect; say; think; knowなどの否定や、修辞疑問に続いて
        <that 〜 not ...>の意で用いる。(古風)
        1. I am not sure but (that) he may fail. (= I am not sure that he may not fail.)
        2. Who knows but (that) it is true? (=Who know that it is not true?)
      2. ☆ deny; doubt; wonder; questionなどの否定や修辞疑問をとるとき、but (that)= thatの意味
        1. I don't doubt but that you will succeed. (=I don't doubt that you will succeed.)
        2. There is no doubt but that he is guilty.
    2. [lest] 心配・懸念の動詞と共に用いて、<〜しはしないか>の意味
      1. I fear [am afraid] lest he (should) get angry. (文語的)
  4. [接続詞の働きをする疑問詞]
    1. I can't remember what I have done with my glasses.
    2. Can you let me know when we get to Evanston.
    3. May I ask who is calling?
    4. I often wonder where all of my old school friends are.
    5. I wanted to know who won the game.
    6. Do you have any idea how Jim hurt his leg last week?
    7. The little boy told me why he was crying?
§292 時・場所の
  1. [時の副詞詞を導く接続詞] 時を表す副詞節では、未来の事柄を表すのに現在時制を用いる
  2. [when] 〜するとき; (, when) 〜したらそのとき
    1. When the movie is over, I'm going straight home.
    2. Things were different when I was a child
    3. Paul got up, when who should come in but Mary!
    4. We were just about to go out, when we felt our house shake.
    5. We hadn't gone far when it began to rain.
    6. He telephones me whenever he's in town.
  3. [while] ある長さをもった期間
    1. Did anyone call while I was away?
    2. Sit down while you are waiting.
    3. While the war was raging, he was painting.
    4. While (you are) in Italy, you should visit the Colosseum. (主語が共通の場合省略可)
    5. When (we are) young, we're full of hopes and anxieties.
  4. [as] when/whileより同時性が強い
    1. Mary often hums a tune as she works in the kitchen.
    2. I finished my composition just as the teacher said, 'Pens down.'
    3. A hush spread over the spectators as the teams took their places.
  5. [after]
    1. Your friend arrived after you left.
    2. He went out again after he (had) finished his dinner.
    3. The grass turned green after the rain had fallen.
  6. [before]
    1. Do it now before you forget.
    2. Before she came here, she must have been studying in France.
    3. Before I watch TV, I'm going to wash those dishes.
  7. [if] =whenever
    1. If you don't eat, you get hungry.
    2. If I don't understand what he says, I always question him.
    3. If she goes out she always wears a coat.
  8. [until/till] 主節は継続、但し否定文は一度だけ; (, until)=and at last; =unless and until
    1. Wait until I call.
    2. They wandered around in the snow for many hours, until they found themselves too tired to go any further.
  9. [since]
    1. She's has been working since she finished school.
    2. Sam has been more careful since his employer warned him about his careless work.
    3. It has been two years since I took up tennis. (=It is ...)
  10. [once] =after 一旦〜したら
    1. Once you have made up your mind, you should never think of changing it.
    2. Once you have been to Europe, you will always want to go back.
    3. I never wake before seven o'clock, once I get to sleep.
  11. [as soon as 〜] 何らかの因果関係あり
    1. A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.
    2. The heart transplant will take place as soon as a suitable donor can be found. (未来だが現在時制)
    3. The motor began to purr as soon as I switched it on. (過去)
  12. [no sooner 〜 than] than以下が従節
    1. No sooner had he arrived here than he fell ill. (倒置、文語調)
    2. The fly had no sooner hit the water than a huge trout snapped at it.
  13. [hardly 〜 when] = scarcely/barely 〜 when/before 〜した途端
    1. Hardly had I started when my car got a flat tire. (倒置、文語調)
    2. He had scarcely begun his speech before the power supply was cut off.
  14. [directly] = immediately/the instant/the moment 〜すると直ぐに
    1. Directly they told him about the accident, he left.
    2. I will write the letter directly I get home.
    3. The moment the earthquake shook the city, he hurried back to his home.
  15. [every time] = each time
    1. The dog barks at the mail carrier each time it sees him.
    2. Every time we go on a picnic it rains.
  16. [where]
    1. Put it back where it was.
    2. It is necessary to plant a tree where it will get the sun.
    3. The car is where you parked it.
    4. He put semicolons wherever he should have put colons.
§293 原因・理由の
  1. [場所の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  2. [because] since, asより直接的な原因・理由を表す。
    1. We were late because there was a lot of traffic on the way.
    2. Because Mary had refused his offer, John was in no mood to enjoy the weekend.
  3. [否定文でのbecause] 〜だからと言って ...ではない。
    1. I don't like her because she is conservative.
      (=I like her, but that's no because she is conservative.)
    2. Cf: I don't like her (↘), because she is conservative.
  4. [becauseとforの違い] because は It is 〜 that の強調構文とれる。
    1. It is because I like traveling that I want to work in a tourist bureau.
    2. I didn't go out simply because i t was raining. (× simply for ...)
    3. That was because I was so tired.
  5. [since] 既知の理由の場合
    1. Since you won't help me, I must do the job myself.
    2. Since there are no buses on this road, we will have to walk.
    3. Since you cannot come, perhaps we had better ask someone else for help.
  6. [as] 間接的・補足的な原因・理由を示す。明確な理由は because/sinceで示す。
    1. As I have a car, we won't have to walk.
    2. This is all I have. I can't give you any more, as this is all I have.
  7. [that/now that/seeing thatの用法]
  8. [that] (It is) not that ... という訳ではない
    1. It's not that he needs the money.
    2. He came to very few of the meetings, not that he thought they were unimportant,
      but because he had too much work to do.
    3. I'm glad (that) you like it. (...なのでうれしい)
    4. Who are you, that you should talk to me like that? (〜するとは)
  9. [now that] 今はもう...だから; 言われてみれば
    1. Now (that) you mention it, I do remember.
    2. Now (that) you are tired, you must take a rest.
    3. Now (that) we've eaten all the sandwiches, we'll have to make do with potato chips.
  10. [seeing that] ...だから
    1. Seeing that it is 10 o'clock, I suppose we ought to leave.
    2. Seeing that you haven't read the report yourself, you cannot be sure what is in it.
    3. I'll leave soon, seeing as you're busy.
§294 目的・結果の
  1. [目的を表す副詞節を導く接続詞]
  2. [so that] くだけた文体。助動詞はcan (could)が普通。
    1. I'll give him a key so that he can get in any time.
    2. Speak clearly so that the audience will understand you.
  3. [in order that]
    1. The flowers will be delivered as late in the evening as possible in order that they should be fresh for the party.
    2. They are working nigh and day in order that they may finish the building by the fixed time.
  4. [that] 文語的。
    1. Father left us an immense fortune that we might live in safety.
  5. [lest] 文語体; = so that ... not/ in case ...
    1. They came in through the back door lest they should be seen.
    2. Take care lest you catch cold! (仮定法現在)
    3. Lest we forget!
  6. [for fear (that)]
    1. He hurried home for fear (that) he might miss his guests.
    2. I wrote down his telephone number for fear (that) I should forget it.
    3. I obeyed her for fear (that) she would be angry.
  7. [in case] 導く節は直説法。shouldは堅い口調。
    1. You should take you raincoat in case it rains.
    2. In case you are hungry I have made some sandwiches.
    3. Make a note of it in case you should forget it.
  8. [結果を表す副詞節を導く接続詞]
  9. [so 〜 that]
    1. She sings so beautifully that I can't believe she has had no training.
    2. The moonlight was so bright (that) we didn't need a flashlight.
  10. [such 〜 that]
    1. She got such a nice present (that) she could hardly get to sleep.
      = She got so nice a present that she could hardly get to sleep. (名詞が複数形の場合はsoは×)
    2. His talent was such that he deserved to be famous. (such=so greatの意味)
    3. Such was his anxiety that he couldn't stop trembling.
    4. There is no wool so white but a dyer can make it black.
      = No wool is so white that a dyer cannot make it black.
      = No wool is too white for a dyer to make it black.
  11. [..., so that]
    1. They climbed higher, so that they go a better view.
    2. It was quite windy, so (that) we had to button our coats up.
§295 条件・譲歩の
  1. [条件の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  2. [if]
    1. If they don't get here soon, we will leave without them.
    2. Please give David my best regarads if you should see him.
    3. We hope you'll stay for dinner tonight. - All right, if you insist.
    4. If you are sure you can swim the lake, then do it!
  3. [unless] =except if 〜
    1. × I'll be surprised unless she wins. ○ I'll be surprised if she doesn't win.
    2. There will be serious water shortage unless we get rain soon.
    3. I won't phone you unless something unforeseen happens. (unless節はsomeが普通)
    4. The train ticket is not refundable unless not train runs on your date of travel.
  4. [in case] 〜だといけないから; 英ではifの意味では用いない。
    1. In case anything happens, call me immediately.
    2. Please go tot he drugstore immediately in case you run out of your medicine.
  5. [suppose] supposing/provided (that)/providing; granted/granting ;ifの代用表現
    1. Suppose you are elected, what will you do for your constituents?
    2. Supposing he came back and found us, what would he say?
    3. I will come provided (that) I am invited. (=only if)
  6. [as long as] so long as; (=only if, provided that)
    1. Any book will do as long as it is interesting.
    2. She can go, as long as he goes with her.
    3. You will be admitted so long as your arrive before 10 p.m.
  7. [譲歩の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  8. [though] although
    1. Although my right arm was broken, I was able to write a short letter.
    2. Though the days on the desert were hot, the nights were cold.
    3. Jim won the competition though he'd had no previous experience.
    4. The stain wouldn't come out although Mary washed the shirt twice.
  9. [as] 〜だけれども;形容詞+as+SVの形。文語調。
    1. Dark as [though] it was, we were still able to see the sign.
      = Though it was dark, we were still able to see the sign.
    2. Much as [though] I admire him as a writer¥, I do not like him as a man.
    3. Try as [though] she might, she couldn't put on a happy face.
    4. Young as he is, he is reckless.
    5. Fool as he was, he knew how to gain the favor of the superiors. (名詞は冠詞不要、古風)
      =Though he was a fool, he knew how to gain the favor of the his superiors.
  10. [if] たとえ〜であっても
    1. The house is comfortable if it is a little small.
    2. I will do it if it kills me!
    3. If they are poor they are at nay rate happy. (if= even if)
  11. [even if] ifの強調
    1. Even if you don't like cheese cake, try a piece of this.
    2. Even if it rains or snows, he goes to the railroad station by bicycle.
  12. [even though] thoughの強調
    1. They're not happy even though they have everything they need.
    2. Even though she disliked movies, she went with her husband to please him.
  13. [while] when/whereas;〜なのに
    1. While [Wheras] I really don't like art, I find his work impressive.
    2. Jack is a huge man, while his wife is a slender litter woman.
    3. He claims to be a member of the royal family when in fact his family wer immigrants.
  14. [whether 〜 or] 〜であるにせよ。
    1. Whether you pay in cash or by check, it makes no difference.
    2. Things will change, whether you like it or not.
    3. Whether or not [no] the book I've long wanted cost me a lot, I'm sure I'm going to buy it.
      (whetherの導く節が長い場合、or notが先に来る。)
  15. [no matter (what) 〜] no matter +疑問詞
    1. No matte who says so, it is not true. (口語ではmayを用いない)
    2. No matter what I did, no one paid any attention to me.
    3. No matter where you may go, you will think of your family.
§296 比較・比例の
  1. [比較の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  2. [than]
    1. Philip is much more intelligent than Bill.
    2. I agre that yoour opinin is good, but Jhon's is better thn yours.
  3. [as 〜 as] not as 〜 as/ not so 〜 as
    1. The days are almost as long as the nights now.
    2. The Empire State Building in New York isn't as high as the Shears Tower in Chicago.
  4. [as] 〜につれて
    1. As he grew older, he feared death more.
    2. She always does as her husband tells her.
  5. [according as] 〜につれて、に従って (文語的)
    1. According as you behave yourself so you will be welltreated.
    2. You think differently according as you are young or old.
  6. [the+比較級, the+比較級]
    1. The older you get, the less you will want to eat meat.
    2. The softer you sepak, the quicker you will get peoples's attention
§297 その他の副詞節を導く接続詞
  1. [制限の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  2. [as far as] so far as/ in so far as/ insofar as; 制限範囲
    1. As far as I know, Bunin is the most brilliant pianist in the world.
    2. As far as the eye can see, there stretches the desert.
    3. Science, in so far as it consists of knowledge, must be regarded as having value.
  3. [as long as ] 時間的限度
    1. I'll never forget her as long as I live.
  4. [様態の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  5. [as/like] ...の様に、の通りに
    1. Do as you think fit.
    2. We'll do it like you do.
    3. Leave the matter as it is.
  6. [the way = as ,米]
    1. Do it the way he showed you.
    2. The window panes are seldom cleaned the way they used to be.
    3. You'd think he was rich, the way he spends money.
    4. The way I heard it, the tower was built in the 1700's.
  7. [as if/ as though]
    1. The young couple acted as if no on else existed in the whole world.
    2. The man looked as if he hadn't slept for a week.
    3. He walked around as though he was in a daze.
    4. He went on eating as though nothing had happed.
    5. She looks as if she is getting better.
    6. He acts lie he's the boss. (=as if, 米)
  8. [除外の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  9. [except (that)] ...を除けば
    1. The two rooms look exactly the same except that one faces the sea.
    2. I'd love to go that restaurant except it's too expensive. (=if not)
    3. I would go with you, except that I have a previous engagement. (=if not)
  10. [but (that)] =except (that) 古風
    1. No one saw the accident but I (saw it) (=No one saw the accident but me.)
    2. We should have started but that the weather was so bad.
      (=We should have started if the weather had not been so bad.)
    3. Not a day goes by but that I think of Helen. (= I think of Helen every day.)
    4. I never pass my old house but I thing of my childhood.
      (=I never pass my old house without thinking of my childhood)
      (=Whenever I pass my old house, I think of my childhood.)
  11. [付言の副詞節を導く接続詞]
  12. [as it seems] as it appears; as it happens; as I see it; as I interpret it; 挿入節、コメント付加
    1. As it happened, I was at home when he called.
    2. As it appears from what you say you are quite mistaken.
    3. This is English as it is spoken in the South.
    4. Many of the features of the pub as we know it today were developed during the Georgian period.
  13. [as] 関係代名詞的用法; asが主節の内容の一部/全部を先行詞とする。
    1. As is customary with him, he wears his clothes attractively.
    2. Hibiscus is common in Hawaii, as you know.
  1. [帰結]
    1. therefore; ¶ I think, therefore I am.
    2. thereby; ¶ Students perform in the hospital, thereby gaining a deeper awareness of the therapeutic power of music.
    3. thus; ¶ Burke knocked out Byrne, thus becoming champion.
    4. hence; ¶ many vehicle journey (and hence a pollution) would be saved.
    5. according to;
    6. in consequence;
    7. consequently;
    8. accordingly;
    9. due to this; (形容詞句)
    10. owing to this; (副詞句)
    11. for this reason;
    12. as a result;
  2. [原因・結果]
    1. because;
    2. since;
    3. this is attributed to A
    4. this is due to A
    5. the result is from B
    6. B result in A
    7. this arises from
    8. this originates from
    9. this is caused by
    10. this is explanation of why ...
    11. take accounts of this
    12. take this into account
    13. this experiment yields that she can seek a better life.
    14. , and so
    15. , so that
    16. after all;
  3. [目的]
    1. so that ...; ¶ She required a divorce so that she
    2. so as to; ¶ If we cannot live so as to be happy, let us least live so as to deserve it.
    3. in such a way that/ as to; ¶ Enjoy present pleasures in such a way as not to injure future ones.
  4. [追加]
    1. (and) further;
    2. (commence) anew;
    3. (to begin) afresh;
    4. to take a fresh start;
    5. again;
    6. furthermore;
    7. farther/further;
    8. even more;
    9. more and more;
    10. moreover;
    11. what is more;
    12. additionally/addnl;
    13. in addition (to);
    14. by way of addition;
    15. besides;
    16. again;
    17. as well;
    18. also;
    19. simultaneously;
    20. similarly;
    21. as well as; ¶ Life wouldn't be worth living if I worried over the future, as well as the present.
    22. likewise;
    23. for good measure; ¶ the car salesman threw in the radio, for good measure.
    24. to make matters worse, rain bagan to fall.
  5. [否定・逆説]
    1. however; ¶ A conservative is a man with two perfectly good legs who, however, has never learned to walk forward. (F. D. Roosevelt)
    2. nevertheless;
    3. although/though;
    4. in spite that/ despite;
    5. on the other hand;
    6. by contrast;
    7. on the contrary;
    8. in contrast;
    9. contrary to this;
    10. meanwhile;
    11. incidentally;
    12. in the least; ¶ She did't seem to be at all [in the leaset] interested in his painting.
    13. the least bit;
    14. in the slightest degree;
    15. in any respect;
    16. (not) at all;
    17. (nothing) at all;
    18. noway;
    19. none whatever;
    20. not the slightest;
    21. not the faintest;
    22. abosolutely (nothing);
    23. be deaf to ...; ¶ He is deaf to entreaty.
  6. [強調]
    1. it should be pointed out that;
    2. note that;
    3. bear in mind that;
    4. it is notable that;
    5. it it noteworthy that;
    6. it should be emphasized that;
    7. we should keep in mind that;
    8. , that is,
    9. in other words;
    10. namely;
    11. especially;
    12. particularly; (×文頭)
    13. in particular;
    14. generally;
    15. certainly;
    16. altogether;
    17. evidently;
    18. specifically;

>Top <T>:


>Top <U>:


>Top <V>:


>Top <W>:


>Top <X>:


>Top <Y>:


>Top <Z>:


>Top 前置詞


§318 前置詞の種類
  1. [1語前置詞] after; at; by; for; from; in; of; on; till; to; under; with
  2. [群前置詞] as for; because of; up to; be means of; in front of;
  3. [他品詞転用前置詞]
    1. [現在分詞] concering; excepting;
    2. [過去分詞] past;
    3. [形容詞] near; (a)round
§319 前置詞の目的語
  1. [名詞・代名詞] 前置詞の後の語句=前置詞の目的語
    1. The sun is behind the clouds.
    2. He told me about himself.
  2. [形容詞]
    1. Things went from bad to worse.
  3. [副詞]
    1. A great part of iron use in the country was imported from abroad.
  4. [二重前置詞]
    1. These birds have come from over the sea.
  5. [準動詞]
    1. [動名詞]
      1. I leaned a great deal from reading periodicals and newspapers.
    2. [不定詞]
      1. She did nothing but complain the whole time she was here.
  6. [名詞節]
    1. [間接疑問]
      1. The lesson is about how uncertain the English weather is and what people feel about it.
    2. [間接副詞]
      1. he would try to borrow money from whoever happened in.
    3. [that節]
      1. He is like his father in that he is very susceptible to feminine charms.
§320 前置詞の位置
  1. [疑問詞が目的語] 原則は目的語の前だが、以下の場合は離れて後置。
    1. Who do you work for?
    2. I wonder if you really believe that - What are you driving at?
  2. [関係詞節]
    1. The woman (who) he fell in love with was the perfect woman for him.
  3. [不定詞]
    1. There's nothing to worry about.
      please lend me something to write with.
  4. [受動態] 句動詞の受動態では前置詞は後置。
    1. The patient has to be operated on.
    2. This problem had better be taken care of at once.
  5. [目的語が先行]
    1. Outdated computers we have no use for.
    2. That sort of advice I could do without.
§321 前置詞の省略
  1. [副詞的目的語] 距離・時間を表すfor
    1. We walked (for) three miles.
    2. The conference lasted (for) four hours.
    3. Won't you stay (for) the night?
  2. [of+名詞で形容詞句となる場合]
    1. The children are (of) the same age.
    2. This suitcase if (of) the same size as that.
    3. (Of) What color is your car?
  3. [that節や疑問詞を含む節/ 句が前置詞の目的語となる場合]
    1. [that節]
      1. I'm sure that he is honest. ←I'm sure of his honesty.
      2. He insisted that he was innocent. ←He insisted on his innocence.
    2. [疑問詞の導く節]
      1. I'm worried (about) how the project was carried out.
      2. I'm worried about where she is. (aboutがないと文意が不明確)
      3. I am quite at a loss (as to) what I should do.
  4. [動名詞の前]
    1. I had a lot of difficulty (in) finishing the work on time.
    2. He spend most of this spare time (in) reading.
  5. [不定詞の中]
    1. The moon is not a good place to live (on).
    2. He didn't have the money to buy the tent (with)
§322 前置詞付の
  1. [形容詞用法]
    1. [限定用法]
      1. Nurses are often called 'angels in white.'
    2. [叙述用法]
      1. The bill was under heated discussion.
      2. It will be of great interest to you.
      3. leave me in peace.
      4. Whenever we meet him, we find him in high spirits.
  2. [副詞用法]
    1. He spoke in a great hurry.
    2. Mary is good at cooking.
    3. We live nearest to the church.
    4. He admitted, to my amazement, that he didn't know.
    5. In other words, we had to give up our plan.
  3. [名詞用法]
    1. After school is the busiest time at Mr. Stone's shop.
    2. Across the field is the nearest way to the lake.
§323 群前置詞
  1. [2語から成る群前置詞]
    1. My friends all like baseball. As for me, I find no game more interesting than soccer.
    2. I would have drowned, but for my lifebelt.
    3. He was late because of the accident.
    4. Owing to the flood, the train service has been suspended.
    5. We went up to the river and turned back.
    6. ☆ according to; as to; except for; instead of ; thanks to; with [for] all
  2. [3語以上から成る群前置詞]
    1. In cas of fire, break the glass and push the button.
    2. I get very nervous whenever I stand in front of an audience.
    3. He did it in spite of the fact that he had been told not to.
    4. Thoughts are expressed by means of words.
    5. Let's walk as far as the lake.
    6. The law exists for the sake of individual freedom.
    7. In addition to this business misfortune, he fell seriously ill.
    8. Your suggestion is helpful with regard to our present situation.
    9. ☆ at the risk of; by way of; for fear of; for the purpose of; in view of; on account of; with a view to;
§324 二重前置詞
  1. [説明] 後の前置詞が導く句が前に位置する前置詞の目的語
    1. We heard the children's shouts of joy from across the garden.
    2. He was chose from among the volunteers.
    3. The sound of laughter came from behind the curtain.
    4. He took a box from under the counter.
    5. I have been up since before sunrise.
    6. We didn't see him till after the meeting.
§325 前置詞と
  1. [説明] 前置詞は名詞(句)を目的語にとるが、副詞はとらない。
    1. It's very cold outside the house. (前置詞)
    2. Don't stay outside - come inside. (副詞)
  2. [前置詞/副詞の区別の仕方]
    1. He went up the ladder. → × He went the latter up. (前置詞)
    2. Roll up the rug. →roll the rug up (副詞)
    3. She got over it. (前置詞) (悲しみを乗り越えた)
    4. She got it over. (副詞) (片付けた)
  3. [前置詞/副詞両用の語]
    1. ☆ abroad; about; above; across; along; alongside; around; before; behind; below; beneath; besides; between; beyond; bey down; less; near; off; on; opposite; outside; over ; pas; round; since; through; throughout; under; underneath; up: within; without
  4. [留意]
    1. after: 通常は前置詞/接続詞; afterwards: 副詞
    2. beside: 前置詞(の横に); besides 前置詞 (に加えて)/副詞(さらに)
      1. He stood beside me. (prep.)
      2. What shall we have besides steak and chips? (prep.)
      3. I don't really like steak; besides, it's expensive. (ad.)
  5. [前置詞と接続詞] 前置詞は名詞(句)の前、接続詞はSVに続く。
    1. That happened before the war. (prep.)
    2. I arrived before you did (conj.)
    3. I thought I had seen the movie before. (ad.)
    4. I have only been liven here since April. (prep.)
    5. I have not seen him since that happened. (conj.)
    6. He joined the club in 1990 and has been a member since. (ad.)
  6. [becauseとbecause of]
    1. I stayed home because of a high fever. (prep.)
    2. I stayed home because I had a high fever. (conj.)
  7. [asとlike]
    1. He spoke as a boss. (として)
    2. He spoke like a boss. (の様に)
§326 動詞・形容詞と前置詞との結合
  1. [特定の前置詞との結びつき]
    1. Look after the children for me.
    2. I'll look into the matter soon.
    3. this is also true of others.
    4. He was true to his promise.
  2. [自動詞+前置詞]
    1. [at]
      1. ☆ glace; grasp; jeer; laugh; look; marvel; shudder; sneer; stare
      2. Everybody laughed at his joke.
      3. They shuddered at the thought of hard work.
    2. [of]
      1. ☆ admit; approve; beware; consist; despair; dispose; disapprove; think; repent
      2. My father disapproved of my choice of clothes.
      3. Can you dispose of all these newspapers?
    3. [for]
      1. ☆ apply; cry; hope; log; look; pray; strive; wait; wish;
      2. We all hope for a better world.
      3. I looked for her everywhere, but I couldn't find her.
    4. [to]
      1. ☆ adhere; appeal; conform; consent; contribute; listen; object; reply; resort; respond; speak; stick; talk; yield
      2. He spoke to her but she did not listen to what he said.
      3. Pearls have always appealed to me.
    5. [on/upon]
      1. ☆ act; count; depend; draw; insist; live; reflect; rely; resolve
      2. You can't count on a liar. (うそつきは当てにならない)
      3. He insisted on paying the check for everyone.
    6. [with]
      1. ☆ associate; coincide; consult; cooperate; cope; dispense; interfere; unite;
      2. The US consulated with the Japanese Government.
      3. She had to cope with a lot of difficulties.
      4. The lecture began with a joke (× begin from)
    7. [from]
      1. ☆ abstain; differ; emerge; escape; flee; recover; refrain; result; retire; suffer; withdraw
      2. She was suffering from a bad cold.
      3. Sickness often results from eating bad food.
    8. [in]
      1. ☆ abound; believe; confide; consist; delight; engage; participate; persist; succeed
      2. He is sick, or he would participate in the game.
      3. I don't believe in miracles.
      4. Your efforts should result in success.
    9. [for/against]
      1. ☆ contend; declare; demonstrate; fight; strike; vote
      2. Did you vote for Mr. Smith?
      3. We are fighting for a good cause.
      4. She applied for the job.
  3. [他動詞+目的語+前置詞]
    1. [ask A of B]
      1. ☆ ask; beg; demand; expect; require
      2. May I ask a favor of you? - What is it?
      3. A father demands obedience of his children.
    2. [inform A of B]
      1. ☆ convince; inform; persuade; remind; warn
      2. The police informed us of the accident.
      3. The coast Guard warned all ships of the hurricane.
    3. [rob A of B]
      1. ☆ clear; cure; deprive; empty; relieve; rid; rob; strip
      2. That'll relieve you of the fears and anxieties.
      3. The accident robbed her of health.
    4. [blame A for B]
      1. ☆ blame; excuse; forgive; praise; punish; thank;
      2. I don't blame you for doing that.
      3. Please forgive me for being late.
    5. [provide A with B]
      1. ☆ entrust; feed; furnish; impress; invest; present; provide; supply; trust
      2. When he retired, his company presented him with a lot of gifts.
      3. The village is supplied with water from the lake.
    6. [prevent A from B]
      1. ☆ discourage; hinder; keep; prevent; prohibit; protect; save; stop
      2. Nothing can discourage him from going ahead with his plans.
      3. He protected us from the dangerous animals.
    7. [tell A from B]
      1. ☆ distinguish; know; tell
      2. He could not distinguish right from wrong.
      3. You can't tell her from her twin sister.
    8. [change A into B]
      1. ☆ change; convert; divide; make; put; translate;
      2. A boiler converts water into steam.
      3. Divide the cake into six pieces.
    9. [bestow A on B]
      1. ☆ bestow; confer; impose; inflict;
      2. The government has bestowed may honors on that general.
      3. He inflicts his troubles on everyone.
    10. [その他]
      1. I congratulate you on your graduation.
      2. Mr. Smith accused Mr. Miller of stealing his car.
  4. [形容詞+前置詞] 叙述用法の形容詞が特定の前置詞を導く
    1. [from]
      1. ☆ absent; different; free; remote; safe; separate;
      2. The student was absent from school.
      3. He lived separate from others.
    2. [at]
      1. ☆ angry; present
      2. He is angry at my remark.
      3. Were you present at the club reunion last Monday?
    3. [for]
      1. ☆ anxious; bound; eager; famous; fit; impatient; responsible; sorry
      2. He is anxious for your success.
      3. Beer and wine are not fit for children.
    4. [in]
      1. ☆ lacking; proficient; rich; successful
      2. He is lacking in common sense.
      3. The museum is rich in fine specimens.
    5. [with]
      1. ☆ complete; content; consistent; familiar; patient; papular
      2. He is content with honest poverty.
      3. Are you familiar with the stories by Poe?
    6. [on/upon]
      1. ☆ dependent; intent
      2. She is intent on learning French.
      3. Children are dependent on their parents.
    7. [about]
      1. ☆ careful; careless; concerned; enthusiastic; happy
      2. He is careless about his dress.
    8. [of]
      1. ☆ afraid; aware; capable; conscious; envious; fond; ignorant; innocent; jealous; proud; sick; sure; tired; weary;
      2. I was not conscious of having offered him.
      3. I am tired of his complaints.
    9. [to]
      1. ☆ beneficial; essential; faithful; friendly; inferior; indifferent; kind; obedient; peculiar; similar; superior; true
      2. She is faithful to her duties.
      3. She never feels inferior to her classmates.
      4. The police seem indifferent to the case. (× from)
      5. He is always true to his principles.
      6. Knowing what the customer wants is essential to this kind of business.
      7. The novelist should possess qualities that are similar to those of a great statesman.
§327 at
  1. [場所の一点の感覚]
    1. They live at 140 Davis Street.
    2. School is over at 3:00 p.m.
    3. Look at this butterfly.
    4. They shot at the target.
    5. She was frightened at the sight of blood.
    6. The two sisters were angry at not being invited to the ball.
  2. [ある時点での状態]
    1. I always feel at ease in his company.
    2. The war ended, and the country was at peace.
    3. She loved to see the children at play
    4. They are at lunch, and will not be back until one o'clock.
    5. I'm a complete dunce at mathematics.
    6. He's an expert at organizing things.
    7. Water boils at 100ºC.
    8. The train was going at 100 miles an hour.
§328 by
  1. [傍・通過] ある間隔のある傍
    1. He sat by my side.
    2. They took the path which runs by the river.
    3. We walked by the church.
  2. [経路・手段・媒介]
    1. I came by the fields, not by the main road.
    2. Send the letter by airmail.
    3. She keeps healthy by jogging every day.
    4. You can cure a headache by taking an aspirin.
    5. May I wait here for Mr. Smith? - By all means.
    6. The law of gravity was discovered by Newton.
  3. [基準・単位・程度]
    1. Don't judge a person by his or her clothes.
    2. I can see by your face that something nice must have happened today.
    3. There's nobody here by that name.
    4. They sell eggs by the dozen.
    5. Apples are sold by the bushel, milk by the gallon.
    6. Our team defeated the other by four to two.
    7. The ball missed his head by a hair's breadth.
  4. [時間的限度]
    1. Be here by six o'clock.
    2. They were home by midnight.
§329 for
  1. [目的・利害・意図] 目的の方向を示す感覚
    1. What are you doing that for?
    2. He is saving money for a car.
    3. He is looking for a job.
    4. She cried for help.
    5. They gave their lives for their country.
    6. He is willing to fight for what he believes in.
    7. Could you help me? - Anything for you. (何なりと)
    8. Comfort stations are for public use. (公衆便所)
    9. This is a good location for a restaurant.
  2. [方向・支持・傾向]
    1. Columbus set sail for India in the late 15th century.
    2. The train for Victoria leaves in 20 minutes.
    3. Are you for the motion, or against it?
    4. I am for giving everyone an equal opportunity
    5. She has an ear for music.
    6. The director had a taste for modern jazz.
  3. [交換・代理・資格・対比]
    1. He bought the vase for fifty dollars.
    2. I'd like to change this coat for a larger size.
    3. Thank for the ride home. (送ってくれてありがとう)
    4. Please speak for me to the director.
    5. Don' t use a saucer for an ash-tray.
    6. The letters UN stand for the United Nations.
    7. We mistook her for a waitress.
    8. The fisherman was given up for dead. (推定死亡)
    9. He is tall for a boy of eight.
    10. It is warm for this time of year.
  4. [不定詞の主語]
    1. I have work for him to do.
  5. [原因・理由]
    1. The children shouted for joy.
    2. The young man was fined for careless driving.
  6. [距離・時間]
    1. The forest stretches for a long way.
    2. Nobody had visited the place for centuries.
§330 from
  1. [起点・順序・変化]
    1. He had to walk all the way from the station to the hotel.
    2. It is 40 feet from the bottom of the flagpole to the top.
    3. The football match is from 3:00 to 4:30.
    4. Hilda is only three years old but she can count from 1 to 20.
    5. His business is going from bad to worse.
    6. His hair changed from black to white in a single night.
  2. [起源・材料・原因・根拠]
    1. The is a quotation from Shakespeare.
    2. I received a gift from my mother.
    3. I'm from New York.
    4. Flour is made from wheat.
    5. We make steel from iron.
    6. He died from a wound.
    7. He's suffering from exhaustion.
    8. He acted from a sense of duty.
    9. You can tell from the way he looks that he is tired.
    10. From what I know of him I think he is a suitable person for the position.
  3. [分離・抑制・区別]
    1. He escaped from jail.
    2. You can clear the snow from the garden with this broom.
    3. you will not be free from toothache until your bad tooth is pulled out.
    4. the heavy rain kept him from starting.
    5. This ointment stops hair from falling out. (塗り薬)
    6. I can't tell crocodiles from alligators.
    7. It's different from the others. (different thanもある; 米)
§331 in
  1. [内部・範囲・性格・資格] 中に包含される感覚
    1. He fell in the river.
    2. There were no trees, but they were glad to sit in the sun.
    3. Otaru is in the west of Hokkaido.
    4. She looks most charming in her pink dress.
    5. One in ten children wears glasses.
    6. I have rheumatism in my left shoulder.
    7. He has something of the comedian in him.
  2. [状態・過程・配列・材料]
    1. She looks beautiful because she's in love.
    2. He has not been in good health for some years.
    3. He is now in business.
    4. He was engaged in gardening.
    5. He spends a lot of time in reading.
    6. The campers sat in a circle around the campfire.
    7. The dictionary is in alphabetical order.
    8. All his sketches are in pencil.
    9. She made a speech in English.
  3. [期間・経過]
    1. It was cold in the morning.
    2. He returned home in the evening.
    3. A fast train does the journey to London in three hours.
    4. This is the first time I've seen her in three years.
    5. Call back in an hour.
§332 of
  1. [距離・起源・材料・部分] fromに似た用法; 取り出す感覚
    1. Our house is within three miles of the city.
    2. Young animals soon become independent of their mothers.
    3. He was cured of this sickness.
    4. She came of a noble family.
    5. The winner of the cat show is of Persian parentage.
    6. The dressing consists of oil and vinegar.
    7. The fabric was composed of synthetic fibers.
    8. He died of fever and starvation.
    9. Mary offered her money to them of her own free will.
    10. Three of the boys were late this morning.
    11. Give me a glass of water.
  2. [所有・帰属・主格・目的格・同格]
    1. The handle of this pot is broken.
    2. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.
    3. Newspaper reporters were awaiting the arrival of the President.
    4. The construction of the bridge was started a week ago.
    5. He has always had a love of learning.
    6. There is actually no hope of us winning this match.
  3. [関連・主題・特徴]
    1. They told me of their miserable lives.
    2. It is true of France, of Germany and of the United States.
    3. He is a man of great strength
    4. He is a man of oyster.
    5. These presents are of no value.
    6. I think these flowers are of different kinds.
§333 on
  1. [接触・近接・日時・依存・根拠・関係・状態・目的] 張り付いている感覚
    1. The dog was sleeping on the mat.
    2. Look at the road map on the wall.
    3. Can you see that fly on the ceiling?
    4. They kept the dog on a leash.
    5. She had a new hat on her head and new glove on her hands.
    6. She lives in a village on the frontier.
    7. London stands on the Thames.
    8. I always go to town on Saturday.
    9. On my arrival [On arriving] in San Francisco, I called Miss Lyons.
    10. She lay on her back. (仰向け)
    11. I had to live on a small salary.
    12. Drinks are on me. (おごり)
    13. He took a month's holiday on his doctor's advice.
    14. the new is on good authority.
    15. On what grounds do you say that is true?
    16. It's a movie on the Crimean War, but more specifically about Florence Nightingale.
    17. He knew that someone had played a joke on him.
    18. My wife died on me. (米)
    19. they have been on strike for nearly two weeks.
    20. those pictures are now on display in the show windows.
    21. He went to Tokyo on business. We're going on a picnic.
    22. I am on duty from 8 a.m. to noon.
§334 to
  1. [方向・到達・終点・範囲・結果・目的] 到達点に届いている感覚
    1. He ran to the door.
    2. Can I have a one-way ticket to Washington?
    3. Roy threw a bone to his dog.
    4. The temperature rose to 70º Fahrenheit.
    5. The discussion has come to a deadlock.
    6. The exhibition is open from Monday to Saturday.
    7. Did you stay to the end of the the show?
    8. Fill the glasses to the brim. (なみなみ注ぐ)
    9. She did the work to the best of her ability.
    10. She tore the letter to pieces.
    11. The song moved me to tears.
    12. To their great joy, their son came back safe.
    13. Mother soon came to my rescue.
    14. Let us drink to the health of the bride.
  2. [関係・適合・比較]
    1. Is this the key to the box?
    2. She is secretary to the managing director.
    3. Fasten it to the wall.
    4. Having breakfast in bed is to my liking.
    5. We danced to the music.
    6. His income is equal to mine.
    7. I prefer old houses to new ones.
    8. The score was 9 to 15.
§335 with
  1. [同伴・所有・手段・原因・供給・様態・同時] 共に・一緒にの感覚
    1. I work with my father.
    2. Both of them still live with their parents.
    3. I prefer the dress with the collar.
    4. Look at the young lady with the parasol.
    5. Do you have a ball-point pen with you?
    6. Mary tied the package with a red ribbon.
    7. With your connections, you should be able to find the right sort of job.
    8. His hands froze with cold.
    9. The two dogs glared at each other and trembles with anger.
    10. Cows supply us with milk.
    11. He said goodbye with great sadness.
    12. Will you have dinner with us at my house?
    13. He conducted the orchestra with spirit and enthusiasm.
    14. Listen to me carefully with your books closed.
    15. The bear stood there with his tongue hanging out.
    16. With these words, he shut the door.
    17. Many wines improve with age.
  2. [結合・一致・関係・対比]
    1. Technology connects science with industry.
    2. First, mix flour with milk.
    3. It's a very good plan. I'm with you all the way.
    4. The brown curtains don't go with the blue carpet.
    5. The climate disagrees with me.
    6. The nurse is very gentle with her patients.
    7. We argued with them.
    8. I'm afraid to fight with John because he's much bigger than I.
§336 時を表す
  1. ☆ at; on; in
  2. ☆ in; after; within
  3. ☆ until [till]; by; before
  4. ☆ since; from
  5. ☆ for; during; through [throughout]
§337 場所
  1. ☆ at; in; on
  2. ☆ on; above; below; over; under; up; down
  3. ☆ by; beside
  4. ☆ on; off
  5. ☆ in; into; out of
  6. ☆ to ; for; toward(s)
  7. ☆ along; across; through
  8. ☆ between; among
  9. ☆ around; round; about
  10. ☆ before; in front of; behind; after
§338 原因・理由
  1. ☆ at; for; because of; on accout of; from; of; over; through; with; out of
§339 目的・結果
  1. ☆ for; after; on; to; into;
§340 手段・道具
  1. ☆ by; with; without; through
§341 材料・出所
  1. ☆ of; from; out of;
§342 その他の前置詞
  1. [様態・状態] in; with
  2. [分離・距離・区別] of; off; from; beside
  3. [除外] but; except; except for
  4. [代価] for; at;
  5. [単位・程度・度合] at; by
  6. [費用] in; with
  7. [関連・関係・関与] about; on; of; with
  8. [賛成・反対・一致] for; with; against
  • English grammar looks like the rulebook of golf; without this we cannot nether play well, nor compete in discussion.
  • 英文法はゴルフ規則集に似ている。それがなければ試合にも出られないし、論争にも勝てない。

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