| >Top <A>:
- Usage of All:
- All traffic must make way for an ambulance.
- She was all smiles.
- We were all ears when he started to tell us the secret.
- The child was all curiosity when the present was unwrapped.
- The room was dusty all over.
- The play ended all too soon.
- If you can bring your son with you, it will be all the better.
- All horses are animals, but not all animals are horses.
- I may not be all that I should be as a husband.
- All boys are not strong and rough. All girds are not weak and gentle.
- All the riches in the world could not have satisfied him.
- Idioms including All:
- He hasn't done badly, all in all.
- Do you know him al all?
- If you do it at all, do it well.
- I wouldn't like to be in his position, for all his wealth.
- She told him, once for all, that he should stop telephoning her late at night.
- With/For all his campaigning, he couldn't get enough votes to win.
- With all this noise, I couldn't sleep a wink.
- Usage of another:
- They jumped into the water one after another.
- I'll be staying here for another three days.
- The two girls looked at one another (=each other)
- Actors envy one another.
- Anybody, everybody, somebody, nobodyを含む合成語
- Usage of anybody, everybody, somebody, nobody:
- what's everybody's business is nobody's business.
- Anybody is better than nobody.
- Everybody who is anybody was present at the party.
- Is he anybody? No, a mere nobody.
- He fancies himself somebody.
- Don't marry a nobody like Ned.
- In a small village everyone knows everyone else.
- Usage of anything, everything, something, nothing:
- Anything, everthng, something, nothing
- Idiom including anything, everything, something, nothing:
- His driving is anything but safe.
- True greatness has little, if anything, to do with rank or power.
- I haven't seen anything of Jim lately.
- He is something of a celebrity.
- I'm nothing but a student.
- You never get something for nothing.
- Their efforts were not for nothing.
- I could make nothing of what he said.
- Her son meant everything to her.
- You've told me something.
- There is something in what she says.
- What a fuss about nothing!
- As 関係代名詞
- As is usual with old people, our grandparents get up very early in the morning.
- As is always the case with success, the last efforts were the greatest.
- As was to be expected, all the speeches were too long.
- The sunrise as (was) seen from the top of the mountain was a fine spectacle.
| >Top <D>:
- 代名詞 (Pronoun)
- 人称代名詞 (Personal pronoun)
- we, you, they
- Paternal we (親身のwe)
- so-called you:
- 所有代名詞 (Posseive pronoun)
- 再帰代名詞 (Reflexive pronoun)
Personal pronoun, Possessive pronoun, Reflexive pronoun; Demonstrative pronoun; Indefinite pronoun; Interrogative pronoun; Relative pronoun
- Personal Pronoun:
- On account of his ill health, Paul was obliged to give up his job.
To get out of its egg, an unborn chick must peck a hole in the shell.
When she got home, Alice set about preparing dinner.
Although it was past his bed time, the child was wide awake.
- we are getting older day by day.
You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs.
You often find that just when you want something you haven't got it by you. (Murphy's law)
- How are we this morning, child?
Now it's time for our medicine, boy.
- If this is your famous French cooking, I don't think much of it!
- Possessive pronoun:
- Who lives in the house opposite yours?
- If this is your knife, then I have lost mine.
- What's yours_ What do you want to eat?
- I'm sure that's no fault of yours.
- That are lovely, those flowers of yours.
- Reflexive pronoun:
- I hope you enjoy yourself this evening.
- I excused myself from the table.
- I don't know your preference, so please help yourself.
- She flattered herself that she had made a good impression on the judges.
- Your must avail yourself of every opportunity.
- He shouted himself hoarse.
- The wind blew itself out.
- This door locks by itself.
- Our existence is a miracle in itself.
- She was beside herself with grief.
- The frame itself is worth more than the picture.
- You can't do all the work yourself in a garden as large as this.
- The lemon has a flavor all its own.
- I prefer to work on my own.
- That stubborn child wants to have his own way
- Double gentitive:
- a friend of mine
- my friend
- by oneself = alone, without help
for oneself =for one's own sake.
- Don't you fell lonely living here all by yourself?
- You should think for youirself before asking my opinion.
- 指示代名詞 (Demonstrative pronoun)
- Demonstrative pronoun:
- He is positive that the voice was distinctly that of a woman.
- Steve means well - that's the best you can say for him.
- My seatmate on he plane was a girl and a pretty one at that.
- It's an idea, and a good one at that.
- Listen to this;: I don't mind a joke, but this is going too far.
- What he said comes to this; he's still in two minds about what to do.
- We've tried this doctor and that.
- This is the history of the rise of civilization, and not the history of this nation or that.
- Smoking is allowed only in those carriages which have the sign 'Smoking'.
- He is one of those people who believe in the supernatural power of man.
- If you add this much salt, the soup will be just right.
- Can you come at 7 in the morning? - No, I can't get that early.
- Mans's first landing on the moon was a great accomplishment.
- I'm proud of my father's being a self-made man.
- Do you mind my smoking?
- I once heard of a pilot having a heart attack in midair.
- I hate anyone listening while I'm telephoning.
- Do you mind me smoking?
- She complained of he room being too small.
- I can't stand things not being kept in their proper places.
- The child suffered from the cruel teasing of her classmates.
- He made a great contribution to the teaching of English in Japan.
- On hearing the crash, I rushed out of the house.
- He felt better on going ashore.
- In climbing over the rocks, he barked his shins.
- Am I right in thinking that a nuclear war will never happen?
- There is no denying that the sun is the ultimate source of energy.
- Once they start arguing, there's no stopping them.
- It's no us trying to persuade him - he won't listen.
- It wasn't much use my pretending sickness.
- No one can help liking a lark; it is such a brave, honest, cherry bird.
- He gave me a ticket for the game, so I couldn't help going.
- I don't feel like studying tonight.
- His new book is worth reading.
- It goes without saying that country life is healthier than town life.
- Besides being a good athlete, he is a brilliant student.
- I'm looking forward to seeing you again.
- 動名詞 (Gerund)と不定詞；不定詞だけを目的語とする動詞
- 要求・希望；ask, beg, care, claim, demand, desire, hope, long, want , wish
意図・決心；aim, decide, determine, mean, pretend, resolve, seek
- He asked to be given leave for a week.
- I don't care to live in Tokyo.
- He claimed to be the owner of the land.
- I want to have a date with Dorothy.
賛成・援助・約束；agree, consent, guarantee, help, offer, promise, swear, undertake, volunteer, decline, refuse
- We aim to please our customers.
- I didn't mean to offend you.
- George pretended to know the answer.
- We agreed to go skiing.
- We gurantee to deliver within a week.
- We helped (to) clear up the mess.
- He volunteered to adct as a messenger.
- He declined/refused to answer the question.
- I expect to be there this evening.
- I never thought to see you here!
敢行；dare, venture; hesitate
- We arranged to meet them at 11 o'clock.
- I'm preparing to take the examination on Monday.
その他；afford, fail, learn, manage
- Who would dare to stand up to him?
- He didn't venture to express his honest opinion.
- An indecisive man hesitates to take any kind of action.
- We cannot afford to hire a maid.
- The drive failed to see the oncoming car in time.
- You must learn to be more patient.
- He managed to get what he wanted.
- 動名詞 (Gerund)と不定詞；動名詞だけを目的語とする動詞
- 時間的に中立；appreciate, enjoy; consider, fancy, imagine, understand; practice, risk
- Most people who are sick in bed appreciate receiving flowers.
- She enjoys singing to herself.
- Just fancy/imagine being in a fairy land.
- I can't understand marrying without love.
- He practices flying a glider every weekend.
- I don't want to risk losing my money.
- The thief admitted entering the house.
- He denied having ever touched the safe.
- Can't you recall telling me that story last week?
延期・遅延；postpone, delay; put off
- You must avoid getting involved in such matters.
- Somehow or other he escaped being punished.
- I couldn't help/resist laughing.
- Dogs do not mind being disappointed, but they hate to be misunderstood.
- I missed seeing the film on TV.
終了・休止；finish, quit, stop; give up, leave off
- A lazy person delays starting a job.
- Don't put off studying until the last moment.
許可・禁止；他人に対する許可・禁止； allow, permit; prohibit
- I finished reading the book last night.
- Quit fooling around and get to work.
- Stop yawing and go to bed if you're sleepy.
- I'll have to give up singing when I get too old.
- Please leave off beating the drums.
助言・勧告・提案；advise, recommend, suggest
- My health doesn't permit (my) working yet.
- They prohibited picking flowers in the alpine zone.
- We advised (their) starting early.
- I recommend taking moderate exercise.
- He suggested visiting the exhibition.
Mind, Miss, Enjoy, Give up, Admit, Avoid, Finish, Escape, Practice, Put off, Stop
- 動名詞 (Gerund)と不定詞；両方を目的語とする動詞(1)
- 意図・計画；不定詞○；attempt, intend, propose, plan
好嫌；動名詞○；hate, like, love, prefer; choose, dislike
- You should not attempt to climb/climbing that mountain.
- What do you intend to do/doing after graduation?
- I propose to study/studying abroad.
起動・継続；begin, start; continue
- They hate working/to work overtime.
- I like getting/to get up early.
- Little children love listening/to listen to fairy tales.
- She prefers traveling/to travel alone.
- We chose going/to go by bus.
- I am a girl. I like being a girl. But I don't like to be treated as a girl. I like to be treated as a person.
忍耐；canを伴う；動名詞○；bear, endure, forebear, stand
- They began to talk/talking about something else.
- The bay started to cry/crying.
- She continued to run/running.
その他；neglect, omit; cease
- I can't bear watching/to watch a bullfight.
- She couldn't endure seeing/to see hungry children.
- Can you stand being/to be in a closed room for a whole day?
- He neglected to answer/answering the letter right away.
- I stupidly omitted to sign/signing the paper.
- Love ceases to be a pleasure when it ceases to be secret. (状態動詞は不定詞)
- 動名詞 (Gerund)と不定詞；両方を目的語とする動詞(2)；未来指向と過去指向の使い分け
- Don't forget to lick the door.
- In my haste I forgot to lock the door.
- I will never forget meeting you for the first time.
- Remember to lock the door.
- I remember seeing the man three years ago, but cannot visualize him.
- I regret to say that I cannot come.
- We regret to inform you that your application has been turned down.
- I regret saying I could not come.
- He regretted being/having been idle in his youth..
- He was ashamed to admit his mistake.
- He was ashamed of being beaten by a beginner.
- I tried to talk to her, but I couldn't.
- I tried talking to her, but she pretended not to hear me.
- He usually plays soccer after school, but today he is playing tennis.
- This rule doesn't apply to him.
I'm applying for a summer job.
- HIs answer will depend on his mood.
I'm depending on you.
- I expect he'll pass the exam.
I' expecting a present from Gradma.
- Do you mind if I smoke?
Who's minding the store?
| >Top <F>:
- 不定詞 (Infinitive)名詞用法
- To become an expert at anything takes time.
- To give a definition of a word is more difficult than to give an illustration of its uses.
- It takes time to become an expert at anything.
- The job of a politician to serve the whole community.
- For man in the Stone Age the principal problem was to survive.
- All I did was (to) give her a hint.
- All I wanted to do was (to) help him.
- We agreed to start early (=that we should start early).
- He pretended to be asleep (=that he was asleep).
- They promised to do their best (=that they would do their best.)
- What do you intend to do/doing after graduation?
- I intend that my son (should) go to college.
- I can't afford (to buy) a new car.
- Would you care to wait here?
- I hate to work/working at weekends.
- How did Emily manage to marry that rich young man?
- I' wondering what to do with these old clothes.
- Ask her when to serve tea and cake.
- I've forgotten whether to turn right or left.
- To = in the direction ofの意の前置詞：不定詞の表す動作は未来指向
- He decided to retire. 引退する方向に決めた。
- We are the contemporaries of the men to walk on the moon.
- That is not the kind of story to be told in the presence of ladies.
- There's a lot to see in Rome.
- Do you have anything to declare.
- We have enough fruit and to spare.
- We didn't expect his refusal to cooperate.
- We have the freedom to choose our own religion.
- I have no time to worry about such little things.
- I have no words with with to express my gratitude.
- His small capital formed a useful basis on which to build a fortune.
- 不定詞 (Infinitive)
- She was on a diet to lose weight.
- What are the raw materials used to make plastic?
- My grandfather lived to be ninety
- She grew up to be a lovely woman like her mother.
- It is discouraging to tell the truth only to find that we are not believed.
- One day Mr. Nelson disappeared from town, never to be seen again.
- We are delighted to learn of the arrival of you baby.
- She was hurt to find that on one admired her performance.
- What a fool I was to think that she really loved me!
- They must be crazy to let him drive their car. He hasn't got a driver's license.
- to look at her, you would never guess her age.
- Don't be so ready to promise.
- Be sure to turn off the gas.
- In the long run, prices are bound to rise.
- to do him justice, he is not as black as he is painted.
- Strange to say, a newborn baby kangaroo is only about an inch long.
- We're too busy to take a long vacation, not to mention the fact that we can't afford it.
- 不定詞 (Infinitive)
- The happy couple are to spend their honeymoon in New Zealand.
- My picture is to be exhibited in the art gallery.
- You're to do your homework before you watch TV.
- This exit is not to be used except in case of emergency.
- We can't tell what is to happen to us.
- In 1980 she met the man who was to be her husband.
- Not a soul was to be seen no the street.
- Don't have anything to do with that fellow; he is not be trusted.
- We must reduce labor cost if we are to make a profit.
- If women are to be truly equal to men, they should not be given legal protection denied to men.
- Be toは第三者の意志 (神・運命・世間・先生)
- 不定詞 (Infinitive)
- Seem/appear to 〜
- He seems to be shocked.
- He appears to be sleeping.
- she didn't seem to be particularly interested in pottery.
- I can't seem to get used to wearing contact lenses.
- Happen/chance to 〜
Get to 〜とCome to 〜
- We happened/chanced to be staying in the same hotel
Prove to be 〜とTurn out to be 〜：to beは省略
- As she got to know people better, her shyness wore off.
- I don't think I'll ever get to like city life.
- The Indians came to see that the colonists were not to be trusted.
- Cars are coming to be in the same category as furniture and appliances.
Fail to 〜
- The information proved (to be) accurate.
- The day turned out (to be) nice and sunny.
- The sprinkler failed to work at the time of the fire.
- We failed to reach the semifinals.
- 不定詞 (Infinitive)
so 〜 as to
- He listened attentively in order not to miss a single word.
- Something fresh and green was springing forth as oas to be reedy for the summer.
- He stood all night so as not to lose his place in the queue.
〜 enough to
- He was so kind as to see me home.
- She was so weak as to be unable to feed herself.
- He listened attentively so as not to miss a single word.
too 〜 to
- You are not old enough to travel by yourself.
- There're enough sandwiches to go around.
- You are too young to travel by yourself.
- He is too good an interpreter to make that kind of mistake.
- It is not ethical for a lawyer to reveal information about this clients.
- I is impossible for there to be any animal on the moon.
- In order for crops to grow, there must be adequate rainfall.
- I waited for the engine to cool down.
- We're eager for you to meet our guests.
・So as to：目的＋結果
- 完了不定詞 (Perfect infinitive)
- He is said to have made a fortune in mail-order business.
- The Vikings are believed to have anticipated Columbus in the discovery of America.
- I'm sorry that I haven't answered your letter sooner.
- He expected to have left on Monday, but was prevented from doing so.
- We were to have met at eight, but he canceled the appointment at the last minute.
- I meant to have telephoned, but I forgot.
- 代不定詞 (Pro-infinitive)と分割不定詞 (Split infinitive)
- You don't have to eat it if you don't want to (eat it)
- I'm sorry if I hurt your feelings - I didn't mean to.
- He persisted in interrupting me, though I asked him not to.
- Do you play tennis? - I used to, but I don't now.
- She wished to utterly forget her past.
- It is difficult for a son to always live up to the expectations of his parents.
- She told him to slow down.
She told him that he should slow down.
- the doctor advised her to take a few days' rest.
The doctor advised her that she should take a few days' rest.
- He promised (me) to be here at six. Oが不定詞の意味上の主語にならない
- I asked him to pay his rent in advance.
I asked that he should pay his rent in advance.
- The officer ordered his men not to retreat.
THe officer ordered that his men should not retreat.
- I expect him to com (=that he will come.)
- Please allow me to introduce myself.
- The fever caused her body to ache.
- She invited me to stay for lunch.
- They left me to do all the chores.
- May farther taught me (how) to swim.
- She didn't like him to kiss her.
- Would you like me to mince the meat for you?
- Jon loves me to tell adventure stories.
- I hate you to say such a thing.
- I would prefer you to play the guitar.
- My parents wanted me to go to a famous university.
- I wish you to come home with me.
- We thought him (o be) a nice man.
We thought (that) he was a nice man.
- I'd guess her to be about 30
- I know this to be a fact.
- The radio reported the airliner (to be) missing
- S+V+O+原形不定詞 (Bare infinitive); 知覚動詞 (Perception verb)
- We heard the explosion and saw the house burst into flames.
- Did I really hear someone come in or was it only a fancy?
- I felt myself turn pale; I felt my knees tremble under me.
- Just look at her pretend not to see us.
- tears rolled down her cheeks as she watched him go.
- I saw him walk across the road.
I saw him walking across the road.
- We heard something fall onto the floor with a thud.
Something was heard to fall onto the floor with a thud.
- Have+O+原形不定詞；使役動詞 (Causative verb)
- They made him sign the contract against his will.
He was made to sign the contract against his will.
- Nothing will make him work; the mere idea of it makes him shudder.
- Money makes the mare (to) go. 古文
- The policewoman let him go after warning him not to drive recklessly.
- Don't let yourself be beaten by an amateur.
- Let me taste just a little of your fried chicken.
- they didn't let their daughter use gaudy cosmetics.
Their daughter was not allowed/permitted to use gaudy cosmetics.
- Hold it tight and don't let go.
- Will you help me (to) translate this poem?
- I offered to help (to) mow the lawn.
- I'll have someone put these things away.
- One of the most difficult thins in the world is to have people realize their latest powers.
- Cf: We got him to buy us lunch.
- I'm sorry, but I can't have you stay here so long.
- I won't have him say such things about my sister.
- A few days after this, he had a most extraordinary thing happen to him.
- We had our daughter run away. She was gone for a few weeks and came back.
- I don't like to have somebody else tell me I ought to do this and that.
- had better 〜
- You had better make hotel reservations before you leave Japan.
- It would be better for you to make hotel reservations. (丁寧)
- would rather/sooner 〜than
cannot but 〜 (=cannot help 〜ing)
- I would rather/sooner starve than work for that company.
- I'd rather/sooner go by plane.
do anything but 〜
- I cannot but think that no creatures are more beautiful and useful than birds.
Why (not) ...?
- we couldn't do anything but/except pray for the weather to change.
- He does everything in the house but put the children to bed.
- She did nothing but/except complain about her noisy neighbors.
- Why argue with him? You can't get him to agree.
- Why not come over here? I want to talk to you.
- Do you think Carl could write a novel? - Carl write a novel? Hardly likely.